Fricative consonant

Fricative consonant

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{{Manner of articulation}} '''Fricatives''' are [[consonant]]s produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two [[Place of articulation|articulators]] close together. These may be the lower lip against the upper teeth, in the case of {{IPA|[f]}}; the back of the tongue against the [[soft palate]], in the case of [[German language|German]] {{IPA|[x]}}, the final consonant of ''[[Bach]]''; or the side of the tongue against the [[molar (tooth)|molar]]s, in the case of [[Welsh language|Welsh]] {{IPA|[ɬ]}}, appearing twice in the name ''[[Llanelli]].'' This turbulent airflow is called '''frication'''. A particular subset of fricatives are the '''[[sibilant]]s'''. When forming a sibilant, one still is forcing air through a narrow channel, but in addition the tongue is curled lengthwise to direct the air over the edge of the teeth. English {{IPA|[s]}}, {{IPA|[z]}}, {{IPA|[ʃ]}}, and {{IPA|[ʒ]}} are examples of this. Two other terms are '''spirant''' and '''strident''', but their usage is less standardized. The former can be used synonymously with "fricative", or (as in e.g. [[Uralic languages|Uralic]] linguistics) to refer to non-sibilant fricatives only. The latter can be used synonymously with "sibilant", but some authors include also [[Labiodental consonant|labiodental]] and/or [[Uvular consonant|uvular]] fricatives in the class. ==Sibilant fricatives== [[voiceless alveolar fricative|voiceless coronal sibilant]], as in English ''sip'' [[voiced alveolar fricative|voiced coronal sibilant]], as in English ''zip'' [[alveolar ejective fricative|ejective coronal sibilant]] [[voiceless dental sibilant]] [[voiced dental sibilant]] [[voiceless apicoalveolar fricative|voiceless apical sibilant]] [[voiced apicoalveolar fricative|voiced apical sibilant]] [[voiceless postalveolar fricative|voiceless postalveolar sibilant]] ([[laminal consonant|laminal]]) [[voiced postalveolar fricative|voiced postalveolar sibilant]] (laminal) [[voiceless postalveolar fricative|voiceless palato-alveolar sibilant]] ([[domed consonant|domed]], partially palatalized), as in English ''ship'' [[voiced postalveolar fricative|voiced palato-alveolar sibilant]] (domed, partially palatalized), as the ''s'' in English ''vision'' [[voiceless alveolo-palatal fricative|voiceless alveolo-palatal sibilant]] (laminal, palatalized) [[voiced alveolo-palatal fricative|voiced alveolo-palatal sibilant]] (laminal, palatalized) [[voiceless retroflex fricative|voiceless retroflex sibilant]] ([[apical consonant|apical]] or [[subapical consonant|subapical]]) [[voiced retroflex fricative|voiced retroflex sibilant]] (apical or subapical) All [[sibilants]] are [[coronal consonant|coronal]], but may be [[dental consonant|dental]], [[alveolar consonant|alveolar]], [[postalveolar consonant|postalveolar]], or [[palatal consonant|palatal]] ([[retroflex consonant|retroflex]]) within that range. However, at the postalveolar place of articulation, the tongue may take several shapes: domed, [[laminal consonant|laminal]], or [[apical consonant|apical]], and each of these is given a separate symbol and a separate name. Prototypical retroflexes are [[subapical consonant|subapical]] and palatal, but they are usually written with the same symbol as the apical postalveolars. The alveolars and dentals may also be either apical or laminal, but this difference is indicated with diacritics rather than with separate symbols. ==Central non-sibilant fricatives== [[voiceless bilabial fricative]] [[voiced bilabial fricative]] [[voiceless labiodental fricative]], as in English ''fine'' [[voiced labiodental fricative]], as in English ''vine'' [[voiceless linguolabial fricative]] [[voiced linguolabial fricative]] [[voiceless dental fricative]], as in English ''thing'' [[voiced dental fricative]], as in English ''that'' [[Template:Voiceless alveolar non-sibilant fricative|Voiceless alveolar non-sibilant fricative]] [[Template:Voiced alveolar non-sibilant fricative|Voiced alveolar non-sibilant fricative]] [[fricative trill|voiceless trilled fricative]] [[fricative trill|voiceless trilled fricative]] [[voiceless palatal fricative]] [[voiced palatal fricative]] [[voiceless velar fricative]] [[voiced velar fricative]] [[voiceless palatal-velar fricative]] (articulation disputed) [[voiceless uvular fricative]] [[voiceless pharyngeal fricative]] [[voiceless epiglottal fricative]] ==Lateral fricatives== [[voiceless alveolar lateral fricative|voiceless coronal lateral fricative]] [[voiced alveolar lateral fricative|voiced coronal lateral fricative]] or {{IPA|[ɬ̢]}} [[voiceless retroflex lateral fricative]] (also written []) or {{IPA|[ʎ̝̊]}} [[voiceless palatal lateral fricative]] (also []) [[voiceless velar lateral fricative]] (also []) [[voiced velar lateral fricative]] The lateral fricative occurs as the ''ll'' of [[Welsh phonology|Welsh]], as in [[Lloyd]], [[Llewelyn]], and the town of [[Machynlleth]] ({{IPA|[maˈxənɬɛθ]}}), as the unvoiced 'hl' and voiced 'dl' or 'dhl' in the several languages of Southern Africa (such as [[Xhosa language|Xhosa]] and [[Zulu language|Zulu]]), and in Mongolian. ==Symbols used for both fricatives and approximants== [[voiced uvular fricative]] [[voiced pharyngeal fricative]] [[voiced epiglottal fricative]] No language distinguishes voiced fricatives from [[approximants]] at these places, so the same symbol is used for both. For the pharyngeals and epiglottals, approximants are more numerous than fricatives. A fricative realization may be specified by adding the [[raised (phonetics)|uptack]] to the letters, {{IPA|[ʁ̝, ʕ̝, ʢ̝]}}. Likewise, the [[lowered (phonetics)|downtack]] may be added to specify an approximant realization, {{IPA|[ʁ̞, ʕ̞, ʢ̞]}}. (The [[bilabial approximant]] and [[dental approximant]] do not have dedicated symbols either and are transcribed in a similar fashion: {{IPA|[β̞, ð̞]}}. However, the base letters are understood to specifically refer to the fricatives.) ==Pseudo-fricatives== [[voiceless glottal fricative|voiceless glottal transition]], as in English ''hat'' [[voiced glottal fricative|breathy-voiced glottal transition]] In many languages, such as English, the glottal "fricatives" are unaccompanied [[phonation]] states of the glottis, without any accompanying manner, fricative or otherwise. However, in languages such as Arabic, they are true fricatives. In addition, {{IPA|[ʍ]}} is usually called a "[[voiceless labial-velar fricative]]", but it is actually an approximant. True doubly-articulated fricatives may not occur in any language; but see [[voiceless palatal-velar fricative]] for a putative (and rather controversial) example. ==Languages== ''H'' is not a fricative in English (see {{IPAslink|h}}). The other fricatives come in voiceless-voiced pairs: {{IPA|/f v, θ ð, s z, ʃ ʒ/}}. [[Ubykh language|Ubykh]] may be the language with the most fricatives (29 not including {{IPA|/h/}}), some of which do not have good symbols or diacritics in the [[IPA]]. This number actually outstrips the number of all consonants in English (which has 24 consonants). By contrast, approximately 8.7% of the world's languages display no phonemic fricatives at all. This is a typical feature of [[Australian Aboriginal languages]], where the few fricatives that exist result from changes to [[plosive]]s or [[approximant]]s, but also occurs in some indigenous languages of [[Papuan languages|New Guinea]] and South America that have especially small numbers of consonants. However, whereas {{IPA|[h]}} is ''entirely'' unknown in indigenous Australian languages, most of the other languages without true fricatives do have {{IPA|[h]}} in their consonant inventory. Voicing contrasts in fricatives are largely confined to Europe, Africa, and Western Asia. Languages of South and East Asia, such as the [[Dravidian languages|Dravidian]] and [[Austronesian languages]], typically do not have such voiced fricatives as {{IPA|[z]}} and {{IPA|[v]}}, which are very familiar to European speakers. These voiced fricatives are also relatively rare in indigenous languages of the Americas. Overall, voicing contrasts in fricatives are much rarer than in plosives, being found only in about a third of the world's languages as compared to 60 percent for plosive voicing contrasts. About 15 percent of the world's languages, however, have ''unpaired voiced fricatives'', i.e., a voiced fricative without a voiceless counterpart. Two-thirds of these, or 10 percent of all languages, have unpaired voiced fricatives but no voicing contrast between any fricative pair. This phenomenon occurs because voiced fricatives have developed from [[lenition]] of plosives or [[fortition]] of approximants. This phenomenon of unpaired voiced fricatives is scattered throughout the world, but is confined to nonsibilant fricatives with the exception of a couple of languages that have {{IPA|[ʒ]}} but lack {{IPA|[ʃ]}}. (Relatedly, several languages have the [[voiced postalveolar affricate|voiced affricate {{IPA|[dʒ]}}]] but lack {{IPA|[tʃ]}}.) The fricatives that occur most often without a voiceless counterpart are, in order of ratio of unpaired occurrences to total occurrences, {{IPA|[ʝ]}}, {{IPA|[β]}}, {{IPA|[ð]}}, {{IPA|[ʁ]}} and {{IPA|[ɣ]}}. ==See also== * [[Apical consonant]] * [[Hush consonant]] * [[Laminal consonant]] * [[List of phonetics topics]] == External links == * [http://calleteach.wordpress.com/2010/01/10/sounds-of-english-fricatives/ Fricatives in English] {{IPA navigation}} {{DEFAULTSORT:Fricative Consonant}}