Freeway and expressway revolts

Freeway and expressway revolts

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Many freeway revolts took place in developed countries
Developed country
A developed country is a country that has a high level of development according to some criteria. Which criteria, and which countries are classified as being developed, is a contentious issue...

 during the 1960s and 1970s, in response to plans for the construction of new freeways, a significant number of which were abandoned or significantly scaled back due to widespread public opposition; especially of those whose neighborhoods would be disrupted or displaced by the proposed freeways, and due to various other negative effects that freeways are considered to have.

In the United States the "revolts" occurred mainly in cities, including Atlanta, Baltimore
Baltimore
Baltimore is the largest independent city in the United States and the largest city and cultural center of the US state of Maryland. The city is located in central Maryland along the tidal portion of the Patapsco River, an arm of the Chesapeake Bay. Baltimore is sometimes referred to as Baltimore...

, Boston, Cleveland
Cleveland, Ohio
Cleveland is a city in the U.S. state of Ohio and is the county seat of Cuyahoga County, the most populous county in the state. The city is located in northeastern Ohio on the southern shore of Lake Erie, approximately west of the Pennsylvania border...

, Los Angeles
Los Angeles, California
Los Angeles , with a population at the 2010 United States Census of 3,792,621, is the most populous city in California, USA and the second most populous in the United States, after New York City. It has an area of , and is located in Southern California...

, Memphis
Memphis, Tennessee
Memphis is a city in the southwestern corner of the U.S. state of Tennessee, and the county seat of Shelby County. The city is located on the 4th Chickasaw Bluff, south of the confluence of the Wolf and Mississippi rivers....

, Milwaukee
Milwaukee, Wisconsin
Milwaukee is the largest city in the U.S. state of Wisconsin, the 28th most populous city in the United States and 39th most populous region in the United States. It is the county seat of Milwaukee County and is located on the southwestern shore of Lake Michigan. According to 2010 census data, the...

, Minneapolis, New Orleans
New Orleans, Louisiana
New Orleans is a major United States port and the largest city and metropolitan area in the state of Louisiana. The New Orleans metropolitan area has a population of 1,235,650 as of 2009, the 46th largest in the USA. The New Orleans – Metairie – Bogalusa combined statistical area has a population...

, New York
New York City
New York is the most populous city in the United States and the center of the New York Metropolitan Area, one of the most populous metropolitan areas in the world. New York exerts a significant impact upon global commerce, finance, media, art, fashion, research, technology, education, and...

, Philadelphia, Phoenix
Phoenix, Arizona
Phoenix is the capital, and largest city, of the U.S. state of Arizona, as well as the sixth most populated city in the United States. Phoenix is home to 1,445,632 people according to the official 2010 U.S. Census Bureau data...

, Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
Pittsburgh is the second-largest city in the US Commonwealth of Pennsylvania and the county seat of Allegheny County. Regionally, it anchors the largest urban area of Appalachia and the Ohio River Valley, and nationally, it is the 22nd-largest urban area in the United States...

, Portland
Portland, Oregon
Portland is a city located in the Pacific Northwest, near the confluence of the Willamette and Columbia rivers in the U.S. state of Oregon. As of the 2010 Census, it had a population of 583,776, making it the 29th most populous city in the United States...

, San Francisco
San Francisco, California
San Francisco , officially the City and County of San Francisco, is the financial, cultural, and transportation center of the San Francisco Bay Area, a region of 7.15 million people which includes San Jose and Oakland...

, Seattle, and Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, "the District", or simply D.C., is the capital of the United States. On July 16, 1790, the United States Congress approved the creation of a permanent national capital as permitted by the U.S. Constitution....

 In many cities, there remain unused highway
Unused highway
An unused highway is a highway or highway ramp that was partially or fully constructed, but was unused or later closed. An unused ramp can be referred to as a stub ramp, stub street, stub-out, or simply stub.-Examples:...

s, abruptly terminating freeway alignments, and short stretches of freeway in the middle of nowhere, all of which are evidence of larger projects which were never completed.

In Canada
Canada
Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, and northward into the Arctic Ocean...

, similar revolts occurred notably in Vancouver
Vancouver
Vancouver is a coastal seaport city on the mainland of British Columbia, Canada. It is the hub of Greater Vancouver, which, with over 2.3 million residents, is the third most populous metropolitan area in the country,...

, Toronto
Toronto
Toronto is the provincial capital of Ontario and the largest city in Canada. It is located in Southern Ontario on the northwestern shore of Lake Ontario. A relatively modern city, Toronto's history dates back to the late-18th century, when its land was first purchased by the British monarchy from...

, Halifax, Montreal
Montreal
Montreal is a city in Canada. It is the largest city in the province of Quebec, the second-largest city in Canada and the seventh largest in North America...

 and Quebec City
Quebec City
Quebec , also Québec, Quebec City or Québec City is the capital of the Canadian province of Quebec and is located within the Capitale-Nationale region. It is the second most populous city in Quebec after Montreal, which is about to the southwest...

. Road protests in the United Kingdom have taken place since the 1960s. Protests on a smaller scale occurred later in the 1970s in Australia
Australia
Australia , officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country in the Southern Hemisphere comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area...

.

Background


After World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

, there was a major drive to build a freeway network in the United States, including (but not limited to) the Interstate Highway System
Interstate Highway System
The Dwight D. Eisenhower National System of Interstate and Defense Highways, , is a network of limited-access roads including freeways, highways, and expressways forming part of the National Highway System of the United States of America...

. Design and construction began in earnest in the 1950s, and many cities (as well as rural areas) were subjected to the bulldozer. However, many of the proposed freeway routes were drawn up without considering local interests; in many cases, the construction of the freeway system was considered a regional (or national) issue that trumped local concerns.

Starting in 1956, in San Francisco, when many neighborhood activists became aware of the effect that freeway construction was having on local neighborhoods, effective city opposition to many freeway routes in many cities was raised; this led to the modification or cancellation of many proposed routes. The freeway revolts continued into the 1970s, further enhanced by concern over the energy crisis
1970s energy crisis
The 1970s energy crisis was a period in which the major industrial countries of the world, particularly the United States, faced substantial shortages, both perceived and real, of petroleum...

 and rising fuel costs, as well as a growing environmentalist
Environmentalism
Environmentalism is a broad philosophy, ideology and social movement regarding concerns for environmental conservation and improvement of the health of the environment, particularly as the measure for this health seeks to incorporate the concerns of non-human elements...

 movement. Responding to massive anti-highway protests in Boston in 1970, Governor Francis W. Sargent
Francis W. Sargent
Francis William Sargent was the 64th Governor of Massachusetts from 1969 to 1975. Born in 1915 in Hamilton, Massachusetts, he was known for his sharp wit and self-deprecating manner...

 of Massachusetts ordered a halt to planning and construction of all planned expressways inside the Route 128
Route 128 (Massachusetts)
Route 128, also known as the Yankee Division Highway , and originally the Circumferential Highway, is a partial beltway around Boston, Massachusetts, United States. The majority of the highway is built to freeway standards, and about 3/5 of it is part of the Interstate Highway System...

 loop highway, with the exception of the remaining segments of the Central Artery
Central Artery
The John F. Fitzgerald Expressway, known locally as the Central Artery, is a section of freeway in downtown Boston, Massachusetts, designated as Interstate 93, U.S. Route 1 and Route 3. It was initially constructed in the 1950s as a partly elevated and partly tunneled divided highway...

. However, some proposals for controlled-access freeways
Limited-access road
A limited-access road known by various terms worldwide, including limited-access highway, dual-carriageway and expressway, is a highway or arterial road for high-speed traffic which has many or most characteristics of a controlled-access highway , including limited or no access to adjacent...

 have been debated and finalized as a compromise to build them as at-grade
At-grade intersection
An at-grade intersection is a junction at which two or more transport axes cross at the same level .-Traffic management:With areas of high or fast traffic, an at-grade intersection normally requires a traffic control device such as a stop sign, traffic light or railway signal to manage conflicting...

 expressways.

Australia


While anti-freeway activism in Australia has not been as vocal as in North America, small-scale revolts against freeway construction have occurred in Sydney and Melbourne, with many protesting toll collection.

Melbourne


Melbourne
Melbourne
Melbourne is the capital and most populous city in the state of Victoria, and the second most populous city in Australia. The Melbourne City Centre is the hub of the greater metropolitan area and the Census statistical division—of which "Melbourne" is the common name. As of June 2009, the greater...

 saw protests against the 1969 Melbourne Transportation Plan
1969 Melbourne Transportation Plan
The 1969 Melbourne Transportation Plan was a road and rail transport plan for Melbourne, the state capital of Victoria, Australia instituted by Henry Bolte's state government...

, mostly by those in the impacted inner-city areas.

In 1974, 150 residents protesting plans for the F-19 freeway through Collingwood
Collingwood, Victoria
Collingwood is an inner city suburb of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, 3 km north-east from Melbourne's central business district. Its Local Government Area is the City of Yarra...

 put themselves in front of construction equipment in an attempt to halt construction. In 1978, protesters rallied to defend Gardiners Creek
Gardiners Creek
Gardiners Creek, originally known as Kooyongkoot Creek, is a waterway in the eastern suburbs of Melbourne, and part of the Yarra River catchment....

 in Koorong
Kooyong, Victoria
Kooyong is a suburb in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, south-east from Melbourne's central business district. Its Local Government Area is the City of Stonnington. At the 2006 Census, Kooyong had a population of 781....

, which was in the path of a planned freeway. In 1984, over 100 protesters rallied against the widening of Punt Road to become the Hoddle Highway
Hoddle Highway
Hoddle Highway is an urban highway in Melbourne linking CityLink and the Eastern Freeway, allotted metropolitan route . The name "Hoddle Highway" is almost completely unknown to most drivers - who refer instead to its constituent parts: Hoddle Street and Punt Road.It starts at the Eastern Freeway...

.

Many of the unbuilt freeways were eventually cancelled by change of government, but some projects were later resurrected. An umbrella organisation known as the Coalition Against Freeway Expansion (CAFE) was formed in 1994, and in the following year, 14 of its activists were arrested whilst protesting an Eastern Freeway extension and the partial demolition of Alexandra Parade. The aggressive police response was criticised, and led to the eventual disbandment of the group. One of the largest protests occurred in 2008 in Kensington
Kensington, Victoria
Kensington is a suburb in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, 4 km north-west from Melbourne's central business district. Its Local Government Area is the City of Melbourne...

, one of the areas most impacted by the proposed East-West road connection
East-West road connection
The East-West road connection is a proposed 18 kilometres long freeway standard road link in Melbourne, Australia, to run from the western suburbs to the Eastern Freeway. It was proposed in the 2008 East-West Link Needs Assessment report by Sir Rod Eddington, but similar ideas have been proposed...

; it drew wider support due to opposition to the Eddington Transport Report
Eddington Transport Report, Victoria
The "" or Eddington Transport Report or Sir Rod Eddington Plan was a major transport study undertaken in Victoria, Australia, by Sir Rod Eddington in 2007 concentrating on solutions for transportation in Melbourne with a primary focus on reducing congestion of road transport in Victoria.The report...

.

Sydney


Sydney
Sydney
Sydney is the most populous city in Australia and the state capital of New South Wales. Sydney is located on Australia's south-east coast of the Tasman Sea. As of June 2010, the greater metropolitan area had an approximate population of 4.6 million people...

 freeway protests have included large-scale green ban
Green ban
A green ban is a form of strike action, usually taken by a trade union or other organised labour group, which is conducted for environmentalist or conservationist purposes.-Background:...

s in the 1970s, which prevented freeway proposals that would have required the demolition of The Rocks
The Rocks, New South Wales
The Rocks is an urban locality, tourist precinct and historic area of Sydney's city centre, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. It is located on the southern shore of Sydney Harbour, immediately north-west of the Sydney central business district...

 historic precinct and The Domain gardens for freeway developments.

In 1989, 200 protesters rallied against a proposed north-west tollway. In 1991, 150 anti-freeway protesters rallied outside Parliament House. In 1995, over 400 people protested the M2 Hills Motorway
M2 Hills Motorway
The M2 Hills Motorway is a motorway in north-western Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. It forms part of Sydney Metroad 2 and the 110 km Sydney Orbital Network. West of Pennant Hills Road, the M2 is also part of the National Highway.-History:Previously, Sydney's western suburbs were poorly served...

.

Hobart


Tasmanian Aboriginals
Tasmanian Aborigines
The Tasmanian Aborigines were the indigenous people of the island state of Tasmania, Australia. Before British colonisation in 1803, there were an estimated 3,000–15,000 Parlevar. A number of historians point to introduced disease as the major cause of the destruction of the full-blooded...

 have conducted protests against the construction of the Brighton Bypass
Brighton Bypass
The Brighton Bypass is a A$164 million bypass currently under construction on the Midland Highway between Bridgewater and Pontville, just north of Hobart in southern Tasmania. Construction of the 9.5 km federally funded Dual carriageway started in April 2009, and is expected to be completed in...

. They have stated construction of the bypass will suffer the loss of their Heritage.

Halifax


In Halifax, Nova Scotia, the construction of an elevated waterfront freeway, Harbour Drive, was halted in the 1970s after local opposition to the proposed destruction of many historic buildings. All that remains of the project today is the Cogswell Interchange, a massive concrete structure that some consider a barrier between sections of the city. Its demolition or replacement is currently being considered.

Montreal


Montreal
Montreal
Montreal is a city in Canada. It is the largest city in the province of Quebec, the second-largest city in Canada and the seventh largest in North America...

 is the scene of a current revolt. A protest is mounting towards the proposed Ville-Marie Expressway
Quebec Autoroute 720
Autoroute 720 , known as the Ville-Marie Expressway or Autoroute Ville-Marie is an Autoroute highway in the Canadian province of Quebec that is a spur route of Autoroute 20 in Montreal...

, an 8-lane entrenched highway that would separate the residential neighborhood of Hochelaga-Maisonneuve from the St. Lawrence River.

Toronto


A proposal in Toronto
Toronto
Toronto is the provincial capital of Ontario and the largest city in Canada. It is located in Southern Ontario on the northwestern shore of Lake Ontario. A relatively modern city, Toronto's history dates back to the late-18th century, when its land was first purchased by the British monarchy from...

 led to the 1971 halt to completion of the Spadina Expressway
Spadina Expressway
The Spadina Expressway was a proposed north-south freeway in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. It was only partially built before being cancelled in 1971 due to public opposition. It was proposed in the mid-1960s as part of a network of freeways for Metropolitan Toronto. Its cancellation prompted the...

, which was under development. Other cancelled expressways in Toronto include the Scarborough, Richview, Crosstown and East Metro, all of which were subject to protests of varying degrees.

Windsor


Windsor, Ontario
Windsor, Ontario
Windsor is the southernmost city in Canada and is located in Southwestern Ontario at the western end of the heavily populated Quebec City – Windsor Corridor. It is within Essex County, Ontario, although administratively separated from the county government. Separated by the Detroit River, Windsor...

 is an interesting case of freeway revolt that was later reversed. In 1965, the MTO
Ministry of Transportation (Ontario)
The Ministry of Transportation of Ontario is the provincial ministry of the government of Ontario which is responsible for transport infrastructure and related law in Ontario. The ministry traces its roots back over a century to the 1890s, when the province began training Provincial Road Building...

 had completed construction of Highway 401
Highway 401 (Ontario)
King's Highway 401, also known by its official name as the Macdonald–Cartier Freeway and colloquially as the four-oh-one, is a 400-Series Highway in the Canadian province of Ontario stretching from Windsor to the Quebec border...

 from the south end of Windsor, to the Quebec
Quebec
Quebec or is a province in east-central Canada. It is the only Canadian province with a predominantly French-speaking population and the only one whose sole official language is French at the provincial level....

 border. Plans were announced to extend the freeway along Huron Church Road to the Ambassador Bridge
Ambassador Bridge
The Ambassador Bridge is a suspension bridge that connects Detroit, Michigan, in the United States, with Windsor, Ontario, in Canada. It is the busiest international border crossing in North America in terms of trade volume: more than 25 percent of all merchandise trade between the United States...

, but residents and business owners along the route protested
NIMBY
NIMBY or Nimby is an acronym for the phrase "not in my back yard". The term is used pejoratively to describe opposition by residents to a proposal for a new development close to them. Opposing residents themselves are sometimes called Nimbies...

 and killed the plan, leaving the freeway's terminus at Highway 3
Highway 3 (Ontario)
King's Highway 3, commonly referred to as Highway 3 and historically as the Talbot Trail, is a provincially maintained highway in the Canadian province of Ontario which travels parallel to the shore of Lake Erie. It has three segments, the first of which runs from the Ambassador Bridge in Windsor...

. In recent years, however, traffic had increased, and residents agreed that a new bridge and freeway was needed, and expropriation
Expropriation
Expropriation is the politically motivated and forceful confiscation and redistribution of private property outside the common law. Unlike eminent domain or laws regulating the foreign investment, expropriation takes place outside the common law and may be used to denote an armed robbery by...

 of nearby properties began in the late 2000s for Highway 401's extension to the proposed border crossing
Detroit River International Crossing
The Detroit River International Crossing , alternatively New International Trade Crossing , is a multi-national construction project and committee between Canada and the United States to create a new border crossing over the Detroit River...

, with construction set to begin in June 2011.

Vancouver


In Vancouver
Vancouver
Vancouver is a coastal seaport city on the mainland of British Columbia, Canada. It is the hub of Greater Vancouver, which, with over 2.3 million residents, is the third most populous metropolitan area in the country,...

, a freeway project that began with the construction of the Georgia and Dunsmuir Viaducts
Georgia Viaduct
The Georgia Viaduct is a twinned bridge that acts as a flyover-like overpass in Vancouver, British Columbia. It passes between Rogers Arena and BC Place Stadium and connects Downtown Vancouver with Strathcona.-History:...

 in the Strathcona neighborhood was stopped by activists and residents; the plan was intended to link an eight-lane freeway from the Trans-Canada Highway through the East End, destroying much of Chinatown. Before it was stopped, Vancouver's Hogan's Alley
Hogan's Alley (Vancouver)
Hogan's Alley was the local, unofficial name for Park Lane, an alley that ran through the southwestern corner of Strathcona in Vancouver, British Columbia during the first six decades of the twentieth century...

 neighbourhood was largely demolished.

Successive city councils in the 1970s and 1980s prohibited the construction of freeways as part of a long-term plan. As a result, the only major freeway within city limits is the Trans-Canada Highway, which passes through the north-eastern corner of the city.

San Francisco



In San Francisco, California
San Francisco, California
San Francisco , officially the City and County of San Francisco, is the financial, cultural, and transportation center of the San Francisco Bay Area, a region of 7.15 million people which includes San Jose and Oakland...

, public opposition to freeways dates to 1955, when the San Francisco Chronicle
San Francisco Chronicle
thumb|right|upright|The Chronicle Building following the [[1906 San Francisco earthquake|1906 earthquake]] and fireThe San Francisco Chronicle is a newspaper serving primarily the San Francisco Bay Area of the U.S. state of California, but distributed throughout Northern and Central California,...

published a map of proposed routes. Construction of the elevated Embarcadero Freeway along the downtown waterfront also helped to organize the opposition, articulated by architecture critic Allan Temko
Allan Temko
Allan Bernard Temko was a Pulitzer Prize-winning architectural critic and writer based in San Francisco.Born in New York City and raised in Weehawken, New Jersey, Temko served as a U.S...

, who began writing for the Chronicle in 1961. The 1955 San Francisco Trafficways Plan included the following routes that were never completed:
  • A portion of the Mission Freeway was built and still exists as the near-freeway portion of San Jose Avenue from Interstate 280
    Interstate 280 (California)
    Interstate 280 is a 57-mile long north–south Interstate Highway in the San Francisco Bay Area of Northern California. It connects San Jose and San Francisco, running along just to the west of the cities of San Francisco Peninsula for most of its route.I-280 from its northern end at King...

     to Randall Street. Northeast of that section, it would have run parallel to Mission Street to meet the Central Freeway
    Central Freeway
    The Central Freeway is a roughly one-mile elevated freeway in San Francisco, California, United States, connecting the Bayshore/James Lick Freeway with the Hayes Valley neighborhood. Most of the freeway is part of US 101, which exits at Mission Street on the way to the Golden Gate Bridge...

     above Duboce Avenue.
  • The Crosstown Freeway would have run parallel to Bosworth Street and O'Shaughnessy Boulevard (and through Glen Canyon Park
    Glen Canyon Park
    Glen Canyon Park is a city park in San Francisco, California. It occupies about along a deep canyon adjacent to the Glen Park, Diamond Heights, and neighborhoods...

    ) from Interstate 280
    Interstate 280 (California)
    Interstate 280 is a 57-mile long north–south Interstate Highway in the San Francisco Bay Area of Northern California. It connects San Jose and San Francisco, running along just to the west of the cities of San Francisco Peninsula for most of its route.I-280 from its northern end at King...

     to the Western Freeway
    Western Freeway
    Western Freeway or Western Expressway may mean:In roads:*Western Freeway , Virginia, United States*Western Freeway , Australia*Western Freeway, Brisbane, Australia*Western Freeway , India...

     near 7th Avenue. Most of the right of way for this freeway was cleared but it was never built.
  • The Western Freeway
    Western Freeway
    Western Freeway or Western Expressway may mean:In roads:*Western Freeway , Virginia, United States*Western Freeway , Australia*Western Freeway, Brisbane, Australia*Western Freeway , India...

     would have run north from Interstate 280
    Interstate 280 (California)
    Interstate 280 is a 57-mile long north–south Interstate Highway in the San Francisco Bay Area of Northern California. It connects San Jose and San Francisco, running along just to the west of the cities of San Francisco Peninsula for most of its route.I-280 from its northern end at King...

     along the line of Junipero Serra Boulevard, then tunnelling to 7th Avenue to meet the Crosstown Freeway. It would have then continued north to the southern edge of Golden Gate Park
    Golden Gate Park
    Golden Gate Park, located in San Francisco, California, is a large urban park consisting of of public grounds. Configured as a rectangle, it is similar in shape but 20% larger than Central Park in New York, to which it is often compared. It is over three miles long east to west, and about half a...

     and followed an unspecified route (in the 1951 version, a tunnel under the park and then a depressed routing through the Panhandle) northeast to the eastern end of the Panhandle, continuing east from there between Fell and Oak Streets to meet the Central Freeway
    Central Freeway
    The Central Freeway is a roughly one-mile elevated freeway in San Francisco, California, United States, connecting the Bayshore/James Lick Freeway with the Hayes Valley neighborhood. Most of the freeway is part of US 101, which exits at Mission Street on the way to the Golden Gate Bridge...

    .
  • A portion of the Park Presidio Freeway was built as and still exists as SR 1 (CA) through the Presidio from the Golden Gate Bridge
    Golden Gate Bridge
    The Golden Gate Bridge is a suspension bridge spanning the Golden Gate, the opening of the San Francisco Bay into the Pacific Ocean. As part of both U.S. Route 101 and California State Route 1, the structure links the city of San Francisco, on the northern tip of the San Francisco Peninsula, to...

    . South of that section the freeway would have continued, replacing what is now Park Presidio Boulevard, and then tunneled under Golden Gate Park
    Golden Gate Park
    Golden Gate Park, located in San Francisco, California, is a large urban park consisting of of public grounds. Configured as a rectangle, it is similar in shape but 20% larger than Central Park in New York, to which it is often compared. It is over three miles long east to west, and about half a...

     to meet the Western Freeway.
  • A portion of the Central Freeway
    Central Freeway
    The Central Freeway is a roughly one-mile elevated freeway in San Francisco, California, United States, connecting the Bayshore/James Lick Freeway with the Hayes Valley neighborhood. Most of the freeway is part of US 101, which exits at Mission Street on the way to the Golden Gate Bridge...

     was built and the original section west from the Bayshore Freeway
    Bayshore Freeway
    The Bayshore Freeway is a part of U.S. Route 101 in the San Francisco Bay Area of the U.S. state of California. It runs along the west shore of the San Francisco Bay, connecting San Jose with San Francisco. Within the city of San Francisco, the freeway is also known as James Lick Freeway...

     to Mission Street still exists as US 101. The section northwest from Mission to Market Street was reconstructed in 2004. The section north of Market Street to Golden Gate Avenue was demolished and not rebuilt. The remaining distance to the Golden Gate Freeway was never built.
  • A portion of the Embarcadero Freeway was built from the Bay Bridge approach to Broadway as Interstate 480
    California State Route 480
    State Route 480 was a state highway in San Francisco, California, United States, consisting of the elevated double-decker Embarcadero Freeway , the partly elevated Doyle Drive approach to the Golden Gate Bridge and the proposed and unbuilt section in between. The unbuilt section from Doyle Drive to...

    . The section north of Broadway to the Golden Gate Freeway was never built. The entire freeway was removed after the Loma Prieta Earthquake
    Loma Prieta earthquake
    The Loma Prieta earthquake, also known as the Quake of '89 and the World Series Earthquake, was a major earthquake that struck the San Francisco Bay Area of California on October 17, 1989, at 5:04 p.m. local time...

    .
  • Most of the Southern Embarcadero Freeway was built and still exists as part of Interstate 280
    Interstate 280 (California)
    Interstate 280 is a 57-mile long north–south Interstate Highway in the San Francisco Bay Area of Northern California. It connects San Jose and San Francisco, running along just to the west of the cities of San Francisco Peninsula for most of its route.I-280 from its northern end at King...

    , but the section from Third Street to the Bay Bridge approach was never built. The section between Sixth and Third Streets was removed after the Loma Prieta Earthquake
    Loma Prieta earthquake
    The Loma Prieta earthquake, also known as the Quake of '89 and the World Series Earthquake, was a major earthquake that struck the San Francisco Bay Area of California on October 17, 1989, at 5:04 p.m. local time...

    .
  • The Golden Gate Freeway along the northern edge of the city from the Embarcadero Freeway to the Golden Gate Bridge
    Golden Gate Bridge
    The Golden Gate Bridge is a suspension bridge spanning the Golden Gate, the opening of the San Francisco Bay into the Pacific Ocean. As part of both U.S. Route 101 and California State Route 1, the structure links the city of San Francisco, on the northern tip of the San Francisco Peninsula, to...

     approach was never built.
  • The freeway approach from US 101 and Interstate 280
    Interstate 280 (California)
    Interstate 280 is a 57-mile long north–south Interstate Highway in the San Francisco Bay Area of Northern California. It connects San Jose and San Francisco, running along just to the west of the cities of San Francisco Peninsula for most of its route.I-280 from its northern end at King...

     to the Southern Crossing bridge was never built because the bridge was not built.


The 1960 Trafficways Plan deleted several of these routes but added another:
  • The Hunters Point Freeway would have run from US 101 south of the city limits on landfill around Candlestick Point and across Hunters Point
    Hunters Point, San Francisco, California
    Bayview-Hunters Point or The Bayview, is a neighborhood in the southeastern corner of San Francisco, California, United States. The decommissioned Hunters Point Naval Shipyard is located within its boundaries and Candlestick Park is on the southern edge....

     to meet Interstate 280
    Interstate 280 (California)
    Interstate 280 is a 57-mile long north–south Interstate Highway in the San Francisco Bay Area of Northern California. It connects San Jose and San Francisco, running along just to the west of the cities of San Francisco Peninsula for most of its route.I-280 from its northern end at King...

     near what is now Cesar Chavez Street.


In 1959, the San Francisco Board of Supervisors
San Francisco Board of Supervisors
The San Francisco Board of Supervisors is the legislative body within the government of the City and County of San Francisco, California, United States.-Government and politics:...

 voted to cancel seven of ten planned freeways, including an extension of the Central Freeway
Central Freeway
The Central Freeway is a roughly one-mile elevated freeway in San Francisco, California, United States, connecting the Bayshore/James Lick Freeway with the Hayes Valley neighborhood. Most of the freeway is part of US 101, which exits at Mission Street on the way to the Golden Gate Bridge...

. In 1964, protests against a freeway through the Panhandle
Panhandle (San Francisco)
The Panhandle is a park in San Francisco, California that forms a panhandle with Golden Gate Park. It is long and narrow, being three-quarters of a mile long and one block wide. Fell Street borders it to the north, Oak Street to the south, and Baker Street to the east. The Haight-Ashbury District...

 and Golden Gate Park
Golden Gate Park
Golden Gate Park, located in San Francisco, California, is a large urban park consisting of of public grounds. Configured as a rectangle, it is similar in shape but 20% larger than Central Park in New York, to which it is often compared. It is over three miles long east to west, and about half a...

 led to its cancellation, and in 1966 the Board of Supervisors rejected an extension of the Embarcadero Freeway to the Golden Gate Bridge
Golden Gate Bridge
The Golden Gate Bridge is a suspension bridge spanning the Golden Gate, the opening of the San Francisco Bay into the Pacific Ocean. As part of both U.S. Route 101 and California State Route 1, the structure links the city of San Francisco, on the northern tip of the San Francisco Peninsula, to...

.

Opposition to the Embarcadero Freeway continued, and in 1985, the Board of Supervisors voted to demolish it. It was closed after 1989's Loma Prieta earthquake
Loma Prieta earthquake
The Loma Prieta earthquake, also known as the Quake of '89 and the World Series Earthquake, was a major earthquake that struck the San Francisco Bay Area of California on October 17, 1989, at 5:04 p.m. local time...

 and torn down shortly thereafter. The entire portion of the Central Freeway
Central Freeway
The Central Freeway is a roughly one-mile elevated freeway in San Francisco, California, United States, connecting the Bayshore/James Lick Freeway with the Hayes Valley neighborhood. Most of the freeway is part of US 101, which exits at Mission Street on the way to the Golden Gate Bridge...

 north of Market Street was demolished over the next decade: the top deck in 1996, and the lower deck in 2003. Two other short freeway segments were demolished in the same time period: the Terminal Separator Structure near Rincon Hill
Rincon Hill
Rincon Hill is a neighborhood in San Francisco, California. It is one of San Francisco's 44 hills, and one of its original "Seven Hills."-Location:...

 and the Embarcadero Freeway, and the stub end of Interstate 280
Interstate 280 (California)
Interstate 280 is a 57-mile long north–south Interstate Highway in the San Francisco Bay Area of Northern California. It connects San Jose and San Francisco, running along just to the west of the cities of San Francisco Peninsula for most of its route.I-280 from its northern end at King...

 near Mission Bay
Mission Bay, San Francisco, California
Mission Bay is a neighborhood in San Francisco, California.-Location:Mission Bay is roughly bounded by Townsend Street on the north, Third Street and San Francisco Bay on the east, Mariposa Street on the south, and 7th Street and Interstate 280 on the west.-History:It was created in 1998 by the...

.

Oakland


In Oakland, California
Oakland, California
Oakland is a major West Coast port city on San Francisco Bay in the U.S. state of California. It is the eighth-largest city in the state with a 2010 population of 390,724...

, the Richmond Boulevard Freeway would have run along Valdez Street, Richmond Boulevard, Glen Echo Creek, and Moraga Avenue from 20th Street to SR 13. It was approved by Oakland voters in a 1945 bond issue, but was canceled August 16, 1956 when the city of Piedmont
Piedmont, California
Piedmont is a small, affluent city in Alameda County, California, United States. It is surrounded by the city of Oakland. The population was 10,667 at the 2010 census. Piedmont was incorporated in 1907 and was developed significantly in the 1920s and 1930s...

 was unable to pay for its portion of the route. In 1949, the Richmond Boulevard Protective Association had protested the route and its planned destruction of their homes.

Berkeley


In Berkeley, California
Berkeley, California
Berkeley is a city on the east shore of the San Francisco Bay in Northern California, United States. Its neighbors to the south are the cities of Oakland and Emeryville. To the north is the city of Albany and the unincorporated community of Kensington...

, the Ashby Freeway would have run approximately along the line of Ashby Avenue from Interstate 80
Interstate 80
Interstate 80 is the second-longest Interstate Highway in the United States, following Interstate 90. It is a transcontinental artery running from downtown San Francisco, California to Teaneck, New Jersey in the New York City Metropolitan Area...

 to California State Route 24
California State Route 24
State Route 24 in the U.S. state of California is a heavily-traveled east–west freeway in the eastern side of the San Francisco Bay Area of northern California that runs from the Interstate 580/Interstate 980 interchange in Oakland to the Interstate 680 junction in Walnut Creek...

. The Berkeley Department of Public Works and Planning Commission proposed possible routings for it in 1952, and were met with 5,000 signatures on a petition in opposition. Nevertheless, the commission included the route in the 1955 Berkeley Master Plan. A 1957 public hearing drew 100 protesters. The 1959 Alameda County transportation plan attempted to relocate the proposed freeway to the Oakland-Berkeley border, but Oakland was no more receptive to the freeway, and the Berkeley City Council voted to stop planning it in 1961.

Los Angeles

  • The Laurel Canyon Freeway (SR 170) would have been aligned through western Hollywood, the Mid-City West
    Mid-City West
    Mid-City West is a subregion located in the Wilshire area of the City of Los Angeles, California. While it may be confused with the Mid-Wilshire area, the city designates it as a separate area, encompassing the area south of Santa Monica Boulevard, west of Fairfax Avenue, and north of Pico or...

     area, and western Inglewood
    Inglewood, California
    Inglewood is a city in southwestern Los Angeles County, California, southwest of downtown Los Angeles. It was incorporated on February 14, 1908. Its population stood at 109,673 as of the 2010 Census...

     en route to its terminus at the San Diego Freeway
    Interstate 405 (California)
    Interstate 405 is a major north–south Interstate Highway in Southern California. It is a bypass of Interstate 5, running along the western areas of the Greater Los Angeles Area from Irvine in the south to near San Fernando in the north...

     (I-405
    Interstate 405 (California)
    Interstate 405 is a major north–south Interstate Highway in Southern California. It is a bypass of Interstate 5, running along the western areas of the Greater Los Angeles Area from Irvine in the south to near San Fernando in the north...

    ) near Los Angeles International Airport
    Los Angeles International Airport
    Los Angeles International Airport is the primary airport serving the Greater Los Angeles Area, the second-most populated metropolitan area in the United States. It is most often referred to by its IATA airport code LAX, with the letters pronounced individually...

    . It was scrapped in the face of community opposition from these districts and its namesake Laurel Canyon
    Laurel Canyon, Los Angeles, California
    Laurel Canyon is a canyon neighborhood of Los Angeles, California. It was first developed in the 1910s, and became a part of the city of Los Angeles in 1923 ....

    . Only the portion traversing the Baldwin Hills was finished, later being designated as La Cienega Boulevard
    La Cienega Boulevard
    La Cienega Boulevard is a major, well-known north–south arterial road that runs between El Segundo Boulevard in El Segundo, California on the south and the Sunset Strip/Sunset Boulevard in West Hollywood....

    .
  • The Beverly Hills Freeway (SR 2) would have run from the Hollywood Freeway
    Hollywood Freeway
    The Hollywood Freeway is one of the principal freeways of Los Angeles, California and one of the busiest in the United States. It is the principal route over the Cahuenga Pass, the primary shortcut between the Los Angeles Basin and the San Fernando Valley...

     (US 101) in southern Hollywood to the San Diego Freeway (I-405) in Westwood
    Westwood, Los Angeles, California
    Westwood is a neighborhood on the Westside of Los Angeles, California, United States. It is the home of the University of California, Los Angeles .-History:...

     along the alignment of Melrose Avenue and Santa Monica Boulevard. It went through several proposed iterations—including a cut-and-cover tunnel—before its mid-1970s abandonment in the face of opposition from residents of Beverly Hills
    Beverly Hills, California
    Beverly Hills is an affluent city located in Los Angeles County, California, United States. With a population of 34,109 at the 2010 census, up from 33,784 as of the 2000 census, it is home to numerous Hollywood celebrities. Beverly Hills and the neighboring city of West Hollywood are together...

    , the Fairfax District
    Fairfax District, Los Angeles, California
    The Fairfax District is an area of neighborhoods in the Mid-City West area of Los Angeles, California.- Geography :It is roughly bordered by West Hollywood on the north, Highland Avenue on the east, West Hollywood and Beverly Hills on the west and Wilshire Boulevard on the south...

    , and Hancock Park
    Hancock Park, Los Angeles, California
    Hancock Park is a historic and affluent urban neighborhood in Los Angeles, California roughly bounded by Van Ness Avenue to the East, Melrose Avenue to the North, La Brea Avenue to the West, and Wilshire Boulevard to the South.-History:...

    . Caltrans acquired and cleared the land needed for the freeway in the city of Beverly Hills; the right-of-way later became a long greenway
    Greenway (landscape)
    A greenway is a long, narrow piece of land, often used for recreation and pedestrian and bicycle user traffic, and sometimes for streetcar, light rail or retail uses.- Terminology :...

    .
  • The Slauson Freeway (SR 90
    California State Route 90
    State Route 90 is a state highway in Southern California, United States. It consists of two unconnected pieces in Greater Los Angeles....

    ), originally known as the Richard M. Nixon Freeway and intended to run across southern Los Angeles
    Los Angeles County, California
    Los Angeles County is a county in the U.S. state of California. As of 2010 U.S. Census, the county had a population of 9,818,605, making it the most populous county in the United States. Los Angeles County alone is more populous than 42 individual U.S. states...

     and northern Orange
    Orange County, California
    Orange County is a county in the U.S. state of California. Its county seat is Santa Ana. As of the 2010 census, its population was 3,010,232, up from 2,846,293 at the 2000 census, making it the third most populous county in California, behind Los Angeles County and San Diego County...

     counties between the Pacific Coast Highway (SR 1
    California State Route 1
    State Route 1 , more often called Highway 1, is a state highway that runs along much of the Pacific coast of the U.S. state of California. It is famous for running along some of the most beautiful coastlines in the world, leading to its designation as an All-American Road.Highway 1 does not run...

    ) and Riverside
    Riverside Freeway
    The Riverside Freeway is a named freeway in Orange, Riverside, and San Bernardino Counties in the U.S. state of California. It refers to the following two segments:...

     (SR 91
    California State Route 91
    State Route 91 is a major east–west freeway located entirely within Southern California and serving several regions of the Greater Los Angeles metropolitan area...

    ), was truncated as a result of opposition to its construction through South Central Los Angeles. The only portions completed to freeway level are the short Marina Freeway that runs between Marina del Rey
    Marina del Rey, California
    -Demographics:-2010:The 2010 United States Census reported that Marina del Rey had a population of 8,866. The population density was 6,094.6 people per square mile...

     and southern Culver City
    Culver City, California
    Culver City is a city in western Los Angeles County, California. As of the 2010 census, the city had a population of 38,883, up from 38,816 at the 2000 census. It is mostly surrounded by the city of Los Angeles, but also shares a border with unincorporated areas of Los Angeles County. Culver...

     and the Richard M. Nixon Parkway in Yorba Linda
    Yorba Linda, California
    Yorba Linda is a suburban city in northeastern Orange County, California, approximately northeast of Downtown Santa Ana, and southeast of Downtown Los Angeles....

    .
  • The Glendale Freeway (SR 2) terminates roughly 1.5 miles (2.4 km) northeast of its intended terminus at the Hollywood Freeway (US 101), due to opposition from residents of Silver Lake
    Silver Lake, Los Angeles, California
    Silver Lake is a hilly neighborhood in the city of Los Angeles, California east of Hollywood and northwest of Downtown Los Angeles. Silver Lake is inhabited by a wide variety of ethnic and socioeconomic groups, but it is best known as an eclectic gathering of hipsters and the creative class.The...

    .
  • The Pacific Coast Freeway (SR 1
    California State Route 1
    State Route 1 , more often called Highway 1, is a state highway that runs along much of the Pacific coast of the U.S. state of California. It is famous for running along some of the most beautiful coastlines in the world, leading to its designation as an All-American Road.Highway 1 does not run...

    ) would have upgraded the existing Pacific Coast Highway to freeway standards. Opposition by residents of Malibu, Santa Monica
    Santa Monica, California
    Santa Monica is a beachfront city in western Los Angeles County, California, US. Situated on Santa Monica Bay, it is surrounded on three sides by the city of Los Angeles — Pacific Palisades on the northwest, Brentwood on the north, West Los Angeles on the northeast, Mar Vista on the east, and...

    , and the coastal cities of the South Bay
    South Bay, Los Angeles
    The South Bay is a region of the southwest peninsula of Los Angeles County, California, United States. The name stems from its geographic features stretching along the southern shores of Santa Monica Bay which forms its western border.The picture at right uses the broadest definition of the...

     region led to the project's abandonment. One segment, between Oxnard and the Point Mugu Naval Air Station, was built in the 1960s before the project was abandoned.
  • The Redondo Beach Freeway (SR 91
    California State Route 91
    State Route 91 is a major east–west freeway located entirely within Southern California and serving several regions of the Greater Los Angeles metropolitan area...

    ) would have linked the Pacific Coast Freeway in Redondo Beach
    Redondo Beach, California
    Redondo Beach is one of the three Beach Cities located in Los Angeles County, California, United States. The population was 66,748 at the 2010 census, up from 63,261 at the 2000 census. The city is located in the South Bay region of the greater Los Angeles area.Redondo Beach was originally part of...

     or the San Diego Freeway (I-405) in Torrance
    Torrance, California
    Torrance is a city incorporated in 1921 and located in the South Bay region of Los Angeles County, California, United States. Torrance has of shore-front beaches on the Pacific Ocean, quieter and less well-known by tourists than others on the Santa Monica Bay, such as those of neighboring...

     to the Long Beach Freeway (I-710). Opposition by Redondo Beach and Torrance led to its truncation to its current terminus at the Harbor Freeway (I-110) in Gardena
    Gardena, California
    Gardena is a city in Los Angeles County, California, United States. The population was 58,829 at the 2010 census, up from 57,746 at the 2000 census.-Geography:Gardena is located at ....

    ; the California legislature subsequently renamed it the Gardena Freeway.
  • The Century Freeway (I-105), itself the subject of an unsuccessful freeway revolt in Hawthorne
    Hawthorne, California
    Hawthorne is a city in southwestern Los Angeles County, California. The city at the 2010 census had a population of 84,293, up from 84,112 at the 2000 census.-Geography:...

    , South Central Los Angeles, Lynwood
    Lynwood, California
    Lynwood is a city in Los Angeles County, California, United States of America. As of the 2010 census, the city had a total population of 69,772, down from 69,845 at the 2000 census. Lynwood is located near South Gate and Compton in the southern portion of the Los Angeles Basin. Incorporated in...

    , and Downey
    Downey, California
    Downey is a city located in southeast Los Angeles County, California, United States, southeast of downtown Los Angeles. The city is best known as the birthplace of the Apollo space program, and is the city where folk singer Karen Carpenter lived and died...

     that lasted nearly two decades, was truncated at the San Gabriel River Freeway (I-605) instead of its intended terminus at the Santa Ana Freeway
    Santa Ana Freeway
    The Santa Ana Freeway is one of the principal freeways in Southern California, connecting Los Angeles and its southeastern suburbs including the freeway's namesake, the city of Santa Ana. The freeway begins at the Four Level Interchange in downtown Los Angeles, signed as U.S. Route 101...

     (I-5) due to opposition from the city of Norwalk
    Norwalk, California
    Norwalk is a suburban city in Los Angeles County, California, United States. The population was 105,549 at the 2010 census, up from 103,298 at the 2000 census, making it the 58th most populous city in California and the 255th nationally....

    . One of the compromises allowing the freeway to be built caused the inclusion of a mass transit line in the freeway median. This is the LACMTA Green Line
    LACMTA Green Line
    The Green Line is a light rail line running between Redondo Beach and Norwalk within Los Angeles County; it is one of five forming the Los Angeles County Metro Rail system. In addition to Redondo Beach and Norwalk, the route also serves El Segundo, Hawthorne, Lynwood, South Gate, and Willowbrook...

    , which opened with the freeway in 1993.
  • The Long Beach Freeway (I-710) was originally intended to go from the port complex all the way north to Pasadena, linking up with the Ventura and Foothill Freeways (SR 134 & I-210), completing a bypass of Downtown Los Angeles to the east. The freeway was completed to just past I-10 in Alhambra, and a half-mile stub was built in Pasadena (still unsigned, but officially SR 710). Opposition came from the small city of South Pasadena which would have been cut in half, impacting its small but lively downtown. A six mile (10 km) gap currently exists and Caltrans is still attempting to build some sort of link, the latest idea of which has been a pair of tunnels.
    • Opposition to the building of the 710 extension through South Pasadena has, for some 30 years, resulted in the suspension of plans to build an extension from the 210 freeway
      Interstate 210 (California)
      Interstate 210 and State Route 210 together form a contiguous highway, called the Foothill Freeway, in the Greater Los Angeles area of the U.S. state of California. The western portion of the route is an auxiliary Interstate Highway, while the eastern portion is a state highway...

       through West Pasadena and South Pasadena. The ramps exist and a stub is in place at California Avenue, but much of the land taken for the freeway has been resold by Caltrans to private parties. In 2006, the idea of completing the freeway by means of an underground tunnel
      Tunnel
      A tunnel is an underground passageway, completely enclosed except for openings for egress, commonly at each end.A tunnel may be for foot or vehicular road traffic, for rail traffic, or for a canal. Some tunnels are aqueducts to supply water for consumption or for hydroelectric stations or are sewers...

       was first proposed. This idea is currently under a funded study by the LACMTA.
    • A proposed rehabilitation and widening of the aged Long Beach Freeway (I-710) between the Pomona (SR 60
      California State Route 60
      State Route 60 is a state highway in the U.S. state of California. It runs from Interstate 10 near the Los Angeles River in Los Angeles east to I-10 in Riverside County, with overlaps at State Route 57 and Interstate 215.-Route description:...

      ) and San Diego (I-405) freeways, which would have removed over 2000 residences in five cities and one unincorporated area, generated such opposition that Caltrans and the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority
      Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority
      The Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority is the California state-chartered regional transportation planning agency and public transportation operating agency for the County of Los Angeles formed in 1993 out of a merger of the Southern California Rapid Transit District and the...

       (MTA) abandoned it within days of its unveiling in 2004. Caltrans and MTA have issued a new plan that would use MTA-owned utility right-of-way along the Los Angeles River
      Los Angeles River
      The Los Angeles River is a river that starts in the San Fernando Valley, in the Simi Hills and Santa Susana Mountains, and flows through Los Angeles County, California, from Canoga Park in the western end of the San Fernando Valley, nearly southeast to its mouth in Long Beach...

       and require the taking of fewer than ten residences.
  • During the 1980s, Caltrans proposed extending the Orange Freeway (SR 57
    California State Route 57
    State Route 57 , also known as the Orange Freeway, is a north–south state highway in the Greater Los Angeles Area of the U.S. state of California. It connects the interchange of Interstate 5 and State Route 22 near downtown Orange, locally known as the Orange Crush, with the Glendora Curve...

    ) from its terminus at the "Orange Crush" interchange
    Orange Crush interchange
    The Orange Crush Interchange is a freeway interchange in the city of Orange, California, near the confluence of the cities of Orange, Santa Ana, Anaheim, and Garden Grove. The Disneyland Resort, The Block at Orange, St...

     to the San Diego Freeway (I-405) by means of an elevated alignment along the bed of the Santa Ana River
    Santa Ana River
    The Santa Ana River is the largest river of Southern California in the United States. Its drainage basin spans four counties. It rises in the San Bernardino Mountains and flows past the cities of San Bernardino and Riverside, before cutting through the northern tip of the Santa Ana Mountains and...

    . Pressure from environmental groups led Caltrans and the Orange County Transportation Authority
    Orange County Transportation Authority
    The Orange County Transportation Authority is the public sector transportation planning body and mass transit service provider for Orange County, California. Its ancestor agencies include not only the prior Orange County Transit District but also such diverse entities as the Pacific Electric...

     to abandon the plan.
  • The portion of the Foothill Freeway (I-210
    Interstate 210 (California)
    Interstate 210 and State Route 210 together form a contiguous highway, called the Foothill Freeway, in the Greater Los Angeles area of the U.S. state of California. The western portion of the route is an auxiliary Interstate Highway, while the eastern portion is a state highway...

    ) running through the Crescenta Valley
    Crescenta Valley
    The Crescenta Valley is a small inland valley in Los Angeles County, California lying between the San Gabriel Mountains on the northeast and the Verdugo Mountains and San Rafael Hills on the southwest. It opens into the San Fernando Valley at the northwest and the San Gabriel Valley at the southeast...

     was not completed until the early 1980s, largely due to opposition by the wealthy city of La Cañada Flintridge
    La Cañada Flintridge, California
    La Cañada Flintridge is a small and affluent city in Los Angeles County, California, United States whose population at the 2010 census was 20,246, down from 20,318 at the 2000 census. According to Forbes, as of 2010, La Cañada Flintridge ranks as the 143rd most expensive U.S...

    . As part of the legal settlement allowing for the freeway's construction, it was built so far below grade that two creeks crossing its alignment traverse the freeway by means of aqueducts.

Orange County


In Southern California, a number of environmental organizations including the Natural Resources Defense Council
Natural Resources Defense Council
The Natural Resources Defense Council is a New York City-based, non-profit, non-partisan international environmental advocacy group, with offices in Washington DC, San Francisco, Los Angeles, Chicago, and Beijing...

, the Sierra Club
Sierra Club
The Sierra Club is the oldest, largest, and most influential grassroots environmental organization in the United States. It was founded on May 28, 1892, in San Francisco, California, by the conservationist and preservationist John Muir, who became its first president...

, the Surfrider Foundation and others, along with the California State Parks Foundation, banded together to stop a planned extension to the SR 241 Foothill South Toll Road
California State Route 241
State Route 241 is a state highway in the U.S. state of California. For its entire run, Route 241 is a toll road. Its northern half is part of the Eastern Toll Road while its southern half is part of the Foothill Toll Road....

. The groups contend that the project threatens the fragile San Mateo Creek Watershed and would result in the loss of a significant portion of the popular San Onofre State Beach Park. In 2006, the coalition filed a lawsuit against the Transportation Corridor Agency
Transportation Corridor Agencies
Transportation Corridor Agencies are two joint powers authorities formed by the California legislature in 1986 to plan, finance, construct, and operate Orange County's toll roads...

 - the agency responsible for the project - stating that deficiencies in the project's environmental impact report violated the California Environmental Quality Act
California Environmental Quality Act
The California Environmental Quality Act is a California statute passed in 1970, shortly after the United States federal government passed the National Environmental Policy Act , to institute a statewide policy of environmental protection...

. The groups were joined in the lawsuit by the California State Attorney General's Office.

San Diego


State Route 252 was intended to connect Interstate 5 to Interstate 805. Ramps were constructed on I-805 at 43rd Street before the project was canceled in 1994 due to neighborhood opposition. The new freeway would have occupied a swath of land dividing Barrio Logan. Much of the land intended for freeway construction is still unoccupied. The interchange ramps from I-805 now end in a shopping mall parking lot.

San Luis Obispo


Cuesta Freeway was intended to connect SR 101 in San Luis Obispo with an interchange at Marsh Street exit to Cuesta College
Cuesta College
Cuesta College is a public community college located in San Luis Obispo County near the Central Coast of California. It currently offers 76 Associate's degree programs and 96 certificate programs...

. This proposed section was post to be the new route for SR 1
California State Route 1
State Route 1 , more often called Highway 1, is a state highway that runs along much of the Pacific coast of the U.S. state of California. It is famous for running along some of the most beautiful coastlines in the world, leading to its designation as an All-American Road.Highway 1 does not run...

. The new route was adopted in 1965 by Caltrans and would cost more than $2 million a mile for the 7.1 mile expansion. The plan for the new route was rejected by major opposition from the community at the October 11, 1971 San Luis Obispo city council meeting.

Colorado


There was opposition to a planned beltway around Denver, which was to be signed as Interstate 470. Eventually, a compromise was reached, and the beltway was built, using three different designations: Colorado State Highway 470
Colorado State Highway 470
State Highway 470 is the southwestern portion of the Denver Metro area's beltway. Originally planned as Interstate 470 in the 1960s, the beltway project was attacked on environmental impact grounds and the interstate beltway was never built...

, E-470
E-470
E-470 is a 46-mile limited-access tollway traversing the eastern portion of the Denver-Aurora Metropolitan Area in Colorado. The toll road is not a state highway, but is instead maintained by the E-470 Public Highway Authority.-Route description:...

 and the Northwest Parkway
Northwest Parkway
The Northwest Parkway is an toll road running from the intersection of I-25 and E-470 to US 36 at 96th Street. Both termini are in Broomfield, Colorado, northwest of Denver. In combination with E-470 and SH 470 , the Northwest Parkway forms a partial beltway of approximately around the...

. Currently, a gap remains in the beltway, as it stops short of reaching the Denver suburbs of Broomfield and Golden, where fierce opposition to the road continues. Golden is opposed to completion of the beltway; Broomfield supports it, and has been exploring alternate routes.

Hartford


In 1973 environmentalists filed lawsuits that effectively killed construction of the planned Interstate 291
Interstate 291 (Connecticut)
Interstate 291 is a short Interstate Highway in the state of Connecticut that starts at I-91 at its junction with Route 218 in Windsor and ends at I-84 in Manchester. It serves as a northeastern bypass of Hartford...

 beltway west of Interstate 91
Interstate 91
Interstate 91 is an Interstate Highway in the New England region of the United States. It provides the primary north–south thoroughfare in the western part of New England...

, the proposed Interstate 484 expressway through the downtown, and the proposed Interstate 284
Interstate 284
Interstate 284 was a planned Interstate Highway in the eastern suburbs of Hartford, Connecticut I-284 was canceled for monetary and environmental concerns.-History:...

 expressway between East Hartford and South Windsor
South Windsor, Connecticut
-History:In 1659, Thomas Burnham purchased the tract of land now covered by the towns of South Windsor and East Hartford from Tantinomo, chief sachem of the Podunk Indians. Burnham lived on the land and later willed it to his nine children...

, and Interstate 491 from Wethersfield
Wethersfield, Connecticut
Wethersfield is a town in Hartford County, Connecticut, United States. Many records from colonial times spell the name Weathersfield, while Native Americans called it Pyquag...

 to Manchester
Manchester, Connecticut
Manchester is a township and city in Hartford County, Connecticut, United States. As of the 2010 census, the town had a total population of 58,241.- History :...

. After these freeways were cancelled, the State of Connecticut used the funds allocated for their construction to rebuild and expand existing freeways in the Greater Hartford area. In 1992 the Route 9
Route 9 (Connecticut)
Route 9 is a , 4-lane freeway beginning in Old Saybrook and ending at the Farmington-West Hartford town line.-Route description:Route 9 begins at an interchange with I-95/U.S. 1, on the west banks of the Connecticut River...

 Expressway was extended north from I-91 in New Britain to Interstate 84
Interstate 84 (east)
Interstate 84 is an Interstate Highway extending from Dunmore, Pennsylvania at an interchange with Interstate 81 to Sturbridge, Massachusetts, at an interchange with the Massachusetts Turnpike . I-84 has mile-log junction numbering in Pennsylvania; otherwise, exit numbers are roughly sequential...

 in Farmington, completing what would have been the southwest quadrant of the I-291 beltway; the northwest quadrant of the canceled beltway is partially served by the 4-lane arterial Route 218 west of I-91 (Route 218 does not connect to I-84 or Route 9, leaving an approximately 7 mile gap in the northwest quadrant between I-84/Route 9 and Route 218).

Eastern Connecticut


Interstate 84 was originally planned to continue on an easterly course to Providence, Rhode Island
Providence, Rhode Island
Providence is the capital and most populous city of Rhode Island and was one of the first cities established in the United States. Located in Providence County, it is the third largest city in the New England region...

, closely following US 6
U.S. Route 6
U.S. Route 6 , also called the Grand Army of the Republic Highway, a name that honors an American Civil War veterans association, is a main route of the U.S. Highway system, running east-northeast from Bishop, California to Provincetown, Massachusetts. Until 1964, it continued south from Bishop to...

 through Tolland and Windham Counties. Environmental concerns in Connecticut and Rhode Island led to the cancellation of this extension, and I-84 was shifted to the existing Wilbur Cross Highway
Wilbur Cross Highway
The Wilbur Cross Highway is the designation for the portion of old Route 15 from Wethersfield in Connecticut, through Hartford and Manchester, to the Massachusetts Turnpike in Sturbridge, Massachusetts. The highway was built in the 1940s before the Interstate Highway era...

 (which had been designated I-86; this number has since reappeared on a partially completed expressway
Interstate 86 (east)
Interstate 86 is an Interstate Highway that extends for through northwestern Pennsylvania and southern New York in the United States...

 in northern Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania is a U.S. state that is located in the Northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The state borders Delaware and Maryland to the south, West Virginia to the southwest, Ohio to the west, New York and Ontario, Canada, to the north, and New Jersey to...

 and Upstate New York
Upstate New York
Upstate New York is the region of the U.S. state of New York that is located north of the core of the New York metropolitan area.-Definition:There is no clear or official boundary between Upstate New York and Downstate New York...

) between Hartford and Sturbridge, Massachusetts
Sturbridge, Massachusetts
Sturbridge is a town in Worcester County, Massachusetts, United States. It is home to Old Sturbridge Village living history museum and other sites of historical interest such as Tantiusques.The population was 9,268 at the 2010 census...

 in 1983. The already-completed portions of this extension was redesignated as Interstate 384
Interstate 384
Interstate 384 is an Interstate Highway located entirely within the state of Connecticut. It runs east to west, going from Interstate 84 in East Hartford to U.S. Route 6/U.S...

 and US-6 Windham Bypass. CONNDOT and the FHWA intended to construct the US-6 Freeway through Andover, Bolton, and Coventry to link I-384 and the Windham Bypass. After 40 years since it was first planned, CONNDOT, the FHWA, and local officials remained deadlocked with the EPA and the Army Corps of Engineers over the routing of the US-6 Freeway. Since the agencies involved could not come to an agreement, CONNDOT abandoned plans the US-6 Freeway in 2005. The department instead rebuilt the section of US-6 the freeway was intended to bypass in 2000. The section of US-6 between I-384 and Willimantic remains a two-lane road, but rebuilding that segment straightened curves, added shoulders and turning pockets, and reduced the number of roadways and driveways intersecting the road to improve safety.

Fairfield County


Local opposition, particularly in the town of Wilton
Wilton, Connecticut
Wilton is a town nestled in the Norwalk River Valley in southwestern Connecticut in the United States. It is located in Fairfield County. As of the 2010 census, the town population was 18,062. In 2007, it was voted as one of CNN Money's "Best Places to Live" in the United States.Located along...

, convinced a federal judge to halt construction of the U.S. Route 7
U.S. Route 7
U.S. Route 7 is a north–south United States highway in western New England that runs for from Norwalk, Connecticut, to Highgate, Vermont. The highway's southern terminus is at Interstate 95 in Norwalk, Connecticut...

 Expressway between Norwalk
Norwalk, Connecticut
Norwalk is a city in Fairfield County, Connecticut, United States. According to the 2010 U.S. Census, the population of the city is 85,603, making Norwalk sixth in population in Connecticut, and third in Fairfield County...

 and Danbury
Danbury, Connecticut
Danbury is a city in northern Fairfield County, Connecticut, United States. It had population at the 2010 census of 80,893. Danbury is the fourth largest city in Fairfield County and is the seventh largest city in Connecticut....

 in 1972. State and federal highway officials subsequently prepared an environmental impact statement
Environmental impact statement
An environmental impact statement , under United States environmental law, is a document required by the National Environmental Policy Act for certain actions "significantly affecting the quality of the human environment". An EIS is a tool for decision making...

 for the expressway, and a Federal judge allowed construction to resume in 1983. By then however, the cost of construction had skyrocketed and there were no longer any funds available to complete the expressway, as all highway funds were diverted into a massive statewide highway repair program in the wake of the Mianus River Bridge
Mianus River Bridge
The Mianus River Bridge carries Interstate 95 over the Mianus River in the Cos Cob section of Greenwich, Connecticut. The bridge suffered a 1983 collapse, killing several motorists. The replacement span is officially named the Michael L...

 collapse months earlier. The proposal remained on the books until the CONNDOT
Connecticut Department of Transportation
The Connecticut Department of Transportation is responsible for the development and operation of highways, railroads, mass transit systems, ports, waterways and aviation facilities in the U.S. state of Connecticut. The current Commissioner of ConnDOT is Jeffrey Parker...

 canceled expressway plans in 1999 in lieu of widening the existing Route 7 to 4 lanes, citing a lack of funding and no feasible route that would avoid the environmentally sensitive Norwalk River
Norwalk River
The Norwalk River is a river in southwestern Connecticut, approximately long. The word "Norwalk" comes from the Algonquian word "noyank" meaning "point of land".-Description:...

 basin. Some in Connecticut have been seeking to revive the expressway proposal, including those who originally opposed it, citing the rapidly increasing volume of traffic and the number of fatal accidents on the existing Route 7 over the past 20 years. Further north on US-7 however, officials in Brookfield
Brookfield, Connecticut
Brookfield is a town located in northern Fairfield County, Connecticut, United States. The population was 16,452 at the 2010 census. First settled in 1710 by John Muirwood and several other colonial founders who bartered for the land From the Wyantenuck Nation Under the Sachem Waramaugs who lived...

 have long pushed CONNDOT to construct a new US-7 freeway to the west of Brookfield. After decades of environmental studies and intense debate, construction on the Brookfield Bypass began in 2007 and opened in 2009.

South Florida


In the 1970s, most of South Florida's expressways were canceled due to voters choosing to direct funding away from roads toward mass transit projects and the planned Miami Metrorail
Metrorail (Miami)
The Miami Metrorail, officially Metrorail and commonly called the Metro, is the heavy rail rapid transit system of Miami, Florida, United States, serving the Miami metropolitan area. The Metro is operated by Miami-Dade Transit, a departmental agency of Miami-Dade County...

. Hialeah
Hialeah, Florida
Hialeah is a city in Miami-Dade County, Florida, United States. As of the 2000 census, the city population was 226,419. As of 2009, the population estimate by the U. S...

 in particular is anti-expressway, as many proposals for expressways in the city have been canceled due to community opposition.
  • Cypress Creek Expressway: The Cypress Creek Expressway would have been an east–west expressway run along the present day Cypress Creek Road, serving Pompano Beach, Fort Lauderdale, North Lauderdale, and Tamarac
    Tamarac, Florida
    Tamarac is a city in Broward County, Florida, United States. As of the 2010 census, the city had a population of 60,427. It is part of the Miami–Fort Lauderdale–Pompano Beach Metropolitan Statistical Area, which was home to 5,564,635 people at the 2010 census....

    . The Cypress Creek Expressway would have begun at A1A at the Fort Lauderdale-Pompano Beach border, and run along what is presently the eastern disjointed section of McNab Road. West of Old Dixie Highway, the road would have dipped south and run along present-day Cypress Creek Road (west of Florida's Turnpike
    Florida's Turnpike
    Florida's Turnpike , designated as the Ronald Reagan Turnpike, and originally known as the Sunshine State Parkway is a north–south toll road that runs through 11 counties in the Florida peninsula, from U.S...

     it connects with the western disjointed section of McNab Road), until terminating at the proposed University-Deerfield Expressway (now University Drive). There was no projected interchange with the Florida's Turnpike. It was to be four lanes for its entire length, and its total cost was slated at $22.6 million. It was never built due to funding and opposition.

  • Dolphin Expressway Airport Spur: The Dolphin Expressway was originally supposed to be built on Northwest 20th Street, instead of its current 14th Street alignment. A 1964 plan called for two options to solving the traffic problems near Miami International Airport. The first option was to convert LeJeune Road into an 8-lane expressway between the Dolphin Expressway and the Airport Expressway. The second option was to build a spur route from the Dolphin Expressway that would connect to the entrance of Miami International Airport
    Miami International Airport
    Miami International Airport , also known as MIA and historically Wilcox Field, is the primary airport serving the South Florida area...

    , thus relieving LeJeune Road. The spur would branch off the Tollway just east of NW 37th Avenue and run north–south on the west side of NW 37th Avenue. North of the golf course, it would cross the Tamiami Canal and head west to the MIA terminal entrance on Northwest 21st Street. A stack interchange
    Stack interchange
    A stack interchange is a free-flowing grade separated junction between two roads.In countries where one drives on the right, left turns are handled by semi-directional flyover/under ramps...

     was built at LeJeune Rd and 21st Street and is used today between the two streets and the airport, as opposed as the originally planned expressway interchange.

  • Gratigny Parkway: The Gratigny Parkway of today is much shorter than the original planned length. The original western end was supposed to be the Homestead Extension of Florida's Turnpike
    Homestead Extension of Florida's Turnpike
    Homestead Extension of Florida's Turnpike , designated as the Ronald Reagan Turnpike, and originally known as the West Dade Expressway is a north–south free-flow toll road southern extension of the tolled Florida's Turnpike...

    . The eastern terminus was supposed to be SR 922, or it would have merged with the SR 922 and taking over its causeway. The portion east of 32nd Avenue was never completed due to community opposition. The original western terminus at the Turnpike was moved back to the Palmetto Expressway because of new plans to extend I-75 south to Miami from Fort Lauderdale and keep I-595 as an independent expressway. The Gratigny continues to the west as I-75 and curves northbound at 138th Street/Hialeah Gardens Drive. An extension to the Turnpike in the west is in MDX's 2025 master plan, that would reduce the length of I-75.

  • Hialeah Expressway: The Hialeah Expressway would have been a third east–west route across Dade County, cutting through Hialeah, the second most populated city in Dade County. Its eastern terminus would have been Alton Road and 47th Street in Miami Beach, crossing Biscayne Bay over the planned Beach Causeway. It would then cross the proposed Interama Expressway and I-95, and run along a path between NW 79th and 62nd Street. Upon crossing Okeechobee Road (US Route 27), it would parallel NW 74th Street until reaching the West Dade Expressway, now the Homestead Extension of Florida's Turnpike, for a distance of 16 miles (25.7 km). Despite its cancellation, Northwest 74th Street was partially converted into a expressway.

  • Interama Expressway: The Interama Expressway, also known as the Midbay Causeway was supposed to be a north–south expressway in eastern Dade County as an alternative route and reliever to Biscayne Boulevard (US Route 1). It would have run from an intersection at I-95 and the proposed Snake Creek Expressway (originally proposed to run across Florida State Road 858), paralleled US 1 from there to an intersection with proposed South Dixie Expressway (see below) and I-95, slicing through downtown Miami along the way.

  • LeJeune-Douglas Expressway: The expressway was to run from US 1 in Coral Gables to the Palmetto Expressway in Carol City/Miami Gardens as a reliever to traffic between the Palmetto Expressway and I-95
    Interstate 95 in Florida
    Interstate 95 is the main Interstate Highway on the east coast of the United States; it serves the Atlantic coast of Florida. It begins at a partial interchange with U.S. Highway 1 just south of downtown Miami, and heads north past Daytona Beach and Jacksonville to the Georgia state line at the St...

     on a LeJeune Road-Douglas Road corridor, passing directly by Miami International Airport
    Miami International Airport
    Miami International Airport , also known as MIA and historically Wilcox Field, is the primary airport serving the South Florida area...

    .

  • Rock Island Expressway: This would have been a north-south expressway built on Rock Island Road having its southern terminus at the Turnpike near Northwest 44th Street in Tamarac
    Tamarac, Florida
    Tamarac is a city in Broward County, Florida, United States. As of the 2010 census, the city had a population of 60,427. It is part of the Miami–Fort Lauderdale–Pompano Beach Metropolitan Statistical Area, which was home to 5,564,635 people at the 2010 census....

    . The north terminus was most likely either Wiles Road or the University-Deerfield Expressway (now the Sawgrass Expressway) in Coral Springs
    Coral Springs, Florida
    Coral Springs, officially chartered July 10, 1963, is a city in Broward County, Florida, United States, approximately northwest of Fort Lauderdale. As of the 2010 United States Census, the city had a population of 121,096...

    .

  • Sheridan Expressway: The Sheridan Expressway was planned to upgrade State Road 822, locally known as Sheridan Street into an expressway. It would run from Old Dixie Highway in downtown Hollywood to the also canceled University-Deerfield Expressway in Cooper City (now University Drive).

  • South Dixie Expressway/I-95 Extension: This would have extended I-95 south of its terminus at US 1 near downtown Miami to Florida City
    Florida City, Florida
    Florida City is a city in Miami-Dade County, Florida, United States and is the southernmost municipality in the South Florida metropolitan area, which had an estimated population of 5,413,212 in 2007. The population was 7,843 at the 2000 census. As of 2004, the population estimated by the U.S....

    , using an upgraded US 1 route. The southernmost ten miles of the Homestead Extension of Florida's Turnpike
    Homestead Extension of Florida's Turnpike
    Homestead Extension of Florida's Turnpike , designated as the Ronald Reagan Turnpike, and originally known as the West Dade Expressway is a north–south free-flow toll road southern extension of the tolled Florida's Turnpike...

     was part of the proposed I-95 extension.

  • University-Deerfield Expressway
    Sawgrass Expressway
    State Road 869 is a long state road located in Broward County, Florida. The road acts as a de-facto bypass of Fort Lauderdale and northern coastal Broward County, Florida, extending north from a junction of Interstate 75 , Interstate 595 , and SR 84 in Sunrise, to Coral Springs before heading...

    : When it was first proposed in 1969, it was supposed to be the northernmost part of a chain of expressways along the present University Drive (State Road 817) from Deerfield Beach to Coral Gables, but the proposed Snake Creek Expressway (in Broward County) became part of the Florida's Turnpike Extension and the LeJeune-Douglas Expressway (in Dade County) failed in the 1970s as construction budgets narrowed roadbuilding capabilities. On the other hand, the rerouting of Interstate 75 from the Tamiami Trail to Alligator Alley increased the necessity of a northern/western bypass of coastal Broward County and invigorated the project which had acquired a new route and a new name, the Sawgrass-Deerfield Expressway, later shortened to the Sawgrass Expressway.

  • There were two expressways proposed in Palm Beach County: A northern extension of the Sawgrass Expressway
    Sawgrass Expressway
    State Road 869 is a long state road located in Broward County, Florida. The road acts as a de-facto bypass of Fort Lauderdale and northern coastal Broward County, Florida, extending north from a junction of Interstate 75 , Interstate 595 , and SR 84 in Sunrise, to Coral Springs before heading...

     to be called University Parkway would have snaked around western suburbs of Boca Raton, Delray Beach, and Boynton Beach. Its path would have bordered the Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge
    Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge
    The 147,392 acre Arthur R. Marshall Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge includes the most northern remnant of the historic Everglades wetland ecosystem...

    , turning east and terminating at Flavor Pict Road west of Boynton Beach. The other expressway was to run east-west, connecting downtown West Palm Beach with the western communities of Wellington
    Wellington, Florida
    Wellington is a village in Palm Beach County, Florida, United States. As of 2006, the village had a population of 55,584 according to the U.S. Census Bureau. Wellington is part of the South Florida Metropolitan Statistical Area.-History:...

    , Royal Palm Beach, and The Acreage
    The Acreage, Florida
    The Acreage is an unincorporated community located in Palm Beach County, Florida, United States, with a 2010 US Census Bureau population count of 38,704. It is located in the areas north of Royal Palm Beach and Loxahatchee Groves, and is approximately northwest of West Palm Beach. Most of the...

    . There were two proposed corridors: the first (and most desired by county commissioners) ran between Belvedere Road and Okeechobee Boulevard, displacing several homes and churches along its path. The second proposed corridor ran north of Okeechobee Boulevard and aligned with Palm Beach Lakes Boulevard. When community opposition to the aforementioned routes escalated, county officials offered to transform Southern Boulevard
    Florida State Road 80
    Florida State Road 80 is a route linking US 41 in Fort Myers and Florida State Road A1A in Palm Beach. The road is the northernmost of three linking Southwest Florida to South Florida via the Everglades...

     into a full expressway to avoid displacing any residences. All proposed expressways were eventually scrapped. More than a decade after shelving those expressway plans, Southern Boulevard was converted into a partial east–west expressway from I-95 to SR 7.

Tampa Bay area


In the 1970s, there were plans for several freeways in the Tampa Bay area
Tampa Bay Area
The Tampa Bay Area is the region of west central Florida adjacent to Tampa Bay. Definitions of the region vary. It is often considered equivalent to the Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater Metropolitan Statistical Area defined by the United States Census Bureau. The Census Bureau currently...

, but most were canceled by 1982. The high cost of acquiring right of way in this densely populated area, as well as community opposition, were the key factors in canceling most of these freeways. Instead, planners decided to widen existing roads.
  • Belcher Freeway: 10.6 miles (17.1 km). This freeway is a casualty of the high cost of acquiring the wide girth of land needed to build it. U.S. Route 19 had traffic backups as far back as 1965, and the Belcher Freeway was considered in a Greiner Inc., study that year. While public reception was positive, the freeway was canceled in May 1978 as traffic projections without that link would have not made it cost effective or useful to construct. To compensate, U.S. Route 19 was upgraded to a freeway in the area.

  • Brandon Bypass: This expressway would have served as an alternative bypass route to Florida State Road 60 in Brandon
    Brandon, Florida
    Brandon is a census-designated place in Hillsborough County, Florida, in the United States. As of the 2010 census, the CDP had a total population of 103,483.-Founding:...

    . It would have connected at the eastern end of the Southern Crosstown Expressway, passing to the south of Brandon, ending at an interchange with State Road 60 east of Brandon. By 1984 when city planners were ready to build the expressway, the area's population exploded, with high land prices and community opposition leading to its cancellation and instead widening of State Road 60 in Brandon.

  • Clearwater North Freeway: 4 miles (6.4 km). This proposed freeway would have connected downtown Clearwater
    Clearwater, Florida
    Clearwater is a city located in Pinellas County, Florida, US, nearly due west of Tampa and northwest of St. Petersburg. In the west of Clearwater lies the Gulf of Mexico and in the east lies Tampa Bay. As of the 2000 census, the city had a total population of 108,787. It is the county seat of...

     with US 19 and points north, and it never made it to design or planning.

  • Dale Mabry Highway
    Dale Mabry Highway
    Dale Mabry Highway is a north–south road in Tampa, Florida. The majority of its length consists of three lanes each direction plus a central turn-lane and often includes a right-turn lane. It begins at the MacDill Air Force Base entrance in South Tampa and ends by merging with US 41 just...

     upgrade: Dale Mabry Highway was planned to be upgraded to an expressway north of the canceled Northtown Expressway to near Lutz. The upgrades were only applied to a couple of intersections due to community oppositions on most of the road.

  • Florida State Road 694A: 3.6 miles (5.8 km). This freeway would have run from 137th St to SR 595 and connected the proposed east-west Gandy Freeway directly with the beaches. It was canceled by 1972, and never brought to public attention.

  • Gandy Freeway: 12.6 miles (20.3 km). The Gandy Freeway would have connected with the proposed connection to the Lee Roy Selmon Expressway in Tampa, and provided a route due west to the beaches in Pinellas County
    Pinellas County, Florida
    Pinellas County is a county located in the state of Florida. Its county seat is Clearwater, Florida, and its largest city is St. Petersburg. This county is contained entirely within the telephone area code 727, except for some sections of Oldsmar, which have the area code 813...

     on an upgraded Gandy Boulevard. The low likelihood of the Hillsborough County portion being constructed, and of increasing urbanization of Pinellas Park
    Pinellas Park, Florida
    Pinellas Park is a city located in central Pinellas County, Florida. The population was 45,658 at the 2000 census. As of 2004, the population estimated by the U.S. Census Bureau is 47,166 . The city was founded by Philadelphia publisher, F. A...

     led to this freeway's cancellation in 1979. Remains of this freeway can be seen in the Gandy Boulevard interchange at I-275, the separated grade diamond interchange at US 19 with Gandy Blvd as limited access, and of the very wide right-of-way preserved along Gandy Boulevard east of I-275.

  • Hillsborough Bay Causeway: The freeway would have started near MacDill Air Force Base
    MacDill Air Force Base
    MacDill Air Force Base is an active United States Air Force base located approximately south-southwest of downtown Tampa, Florida...

    , heading southeast, crossing Tampa Bay to the U.S. 41 corridor in southern Hillsborough County, also doubling as a barrier against hurricanes for Tampa. It was canceled due to lack of growth in southern Hillsborough County and the fact that shipping would have been blocked by the bridge.

  • Northwest Hillsborough Expressway
    Northwest Hillsborough Expressway
    The Northwest Hillsborough Expressway and its present-day counterpart, the East-West Road, in Tampa, Florida, have been the subject of heavy controversy since their beginnings in the 1980s...

    : In the 1970s, an expressway crossing through northern Hillsborough County
    Hillsborough County, Florida
    As of the census of 2000, there were 998,948 people, 391,357 households, and 255,164 families residing in the county. The population density was 951 people per square mile . There were 425,962 housing units at an average density of 405 per square mile...

     was proposed, but by the 1980s many of these communities (especially Lutz
    Lutz, Florida
    Lutz is an unincorporated census-designated place in Hillsborough County, Florida, United States. The population was 19,344 at the 2010 census.-Geography:Lutz is located at ....

    ) opposed the road going through their towns. Eventually, the project was broken into two sections, Veterans Expressway which has since been built and the Lutz Freeway, now known as the East-West Road, which continues to create controversy in local politics.

  • Pinellas Belt Expressway: 7.4 miles (11.9 km). The Pinellas Belt Expressway, or beltway, was budgeted in 1974 for construction in the 1979 fiscal year but intense community opposition stopped the freeway from progressing. Construction would have disrupted retail outlets along Tyrone Blvd and US 19 Alt
    U.S. Route 19 Alternate (St. Petersburg, Florida)
    Alternate U.S. Route 19 is the former section of U.S. Route 19 from St. Petersburg, Florida to Holiday.Beginning at the intersection of 4th Street N Alternate U.S. Route 19 is the former section of U.S. Route 19 from St. Petersburg, Florida to Holiday.Beginning at the intersection of 4th Street N...

    , and right-of-way acquisition would have been too expensive because of the neighborhoods it would have traversed. The full freeway interchange at US 19 Alt and SR 666
    Florida State Road 666
    State Road 666 is a short Florida State Road in Pinellas County. Locally known as Tom Stuart Causeway, it crosses a lagoon from Seminole to Madeira Beach. The bridge has 11 spans, the longest span is in the middle, where the boats go across. It is called a bascule bridge, carrying 4 lanes of SR 666...

     in Seminole
    Seminole, Florida
    Seminole is a city in Pinellas County, Florida, United States. The population was 10,890 at the 2000 census. As of 2007, the population estimated by the U.S. Census Bureau is 19,195. St. Petersburg College has a campus in the city.-Geography:...

     is all that remains of this Belt Expressway.

  • St. Petersburg
    St. Petersburg, Florida
    St. Petersburg is a city in Pinellas County, Florida, United States. It is known as a vacation destination for both American and foreign tourists. As of 2008, the population estimate by the U.S. Census Bureau is 245,314, making St...

    -Clearwater
    Clearwater, Florida
    Clearwater is a city located in Pinellas County, Florida, US, nearly due west of Tampa and northwest of St. Petersburg. In the west of Clearwater lies the Gulf of Mexico and in the east lies Tampa Bay. As of the 2000 census, the city had a total population of 108,787. It is the county seat of...

     Expressway: 20.2 miles (32.5 km). This freeway was the highest profile of all planned in the county, and would have been built as an interstate with mostly federal funds. It would have provided a route directly from downtown St. Petersburg to downtown Clearwater and would have replaced much of US 19 through the Pinellas County
    Pinellas County, Florida
    Pinellas County is a county located in the state of Florida. Its county seat is Clearwater, Florida, and its largest city is St. Petersburg. This county is contained entirely within the telephone area code 727, except for some sections of Oldsmar, which have the area code 813...

    . Land acquisition would have been easy as most of the route was railroad right-of-way. The freeway was officially canceled on May 12, 1978, because new federal guidelines for interstates indicated that any approved route going forward would have to be 10 miles (16.1 km) or less in length, and be a 'final link' in the interstate system as a whole, instead of a new road. Attention after that cancellation began to turn towards upgrading US 19 instead. The former railroad line is used as a bike–pedestrian trail, known as the Pinellas Trail
    Pinellas Trail
    The Fred Marquis Pinellas Trail is a pathway in Pinellas County in the U.S. state of Florida. It stretches from Tarpon Springs in the north to St. Petersburg in the south, passing through the towns of Crystal Beach, Palm Harbor, Dunedin, Clearwater, Largo, Seminole, Bay Pines, South Pasadena and...

    .

  • South Hillsborough Parkway: Planned as early as 1972 to anticipate growth along the U.S. Route 41 corridor, the road was to relieve traffic from somewhere in southern Hillsborough County north to the current Interstate 4
    Interstate 4
    Interstate 4 is a intrastate Highway located entirely within the state of Florida, United States. It goes from Interstate 275 in Tampa, Florida to Interstate 95 at Daytona Beach, Florida . It also has the Florida Department of Transportation designation of State Road 400, but only a small...

    . However, the local swampy landscape didn't allow for much growth and I-75
    Interstate 75 in Florida
    Interstate 75 is a part of the Interstate Highway System and runs from Hialeah, Florida, a few miles northwest of Miami to Sault Ste. Marie in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan...

    's presence served as a reliever in U.S. Route 41's place, canceling the parkway by 1987.

  • State Road 60 Freeway Upgrade: 6 miles (9.7 km). SR 60 is a busy, retail-loaded east/west route in Clearwater. Legions of tourists from the north and east use it as their primary route to Clearwater Beach and due to its high traffic, it was proposed to be upgraded to a freeway. Local merchants and residents were against this upgrade, and instead SR 60 instead was widened, and an arterial bypass of downtown Clearwater was constructed. The freeway was dropped from records in May 1975.

  • Sunset Point Freeway: 7.2 miles (11.6 km). The Sunset Point Freeway was never seriously considered, with the upgrading of SR 60 to a freeway being favored at the time, although traffic studies in the early 1970s indicated that Drew Street, a major east-west road in downtown Clearwater, would need a reliever freeway route by 1990. The Sunset Point freeway never made it to the design or planning stage.

  • Tampa Bay Crosstown Expressway System
    Tampa Bay Crosstown Expressway System
    The Lee Roy Selmon Expressway originated from an expressway system called the Tampa Bay Crosstown Expressway System. The expressways were planned during the 1950s, '60s and '70s...

    : This was a system of expressways proposed to span the entire Tampa Bay area, but most of it was eventually canceled. The Lee Roy Selmon Expressway is the successor of the South Crosstown Expressway.

  • Ulmerton Expressway: 8 miles (12.9 km). The Ulmerton Expressway would have upgraded Ulmerton Road from I-275 westward to an expressway, and was to have provided an important link for east-west traffic through Largo
    Largo, Florida
    Largo is the third largest city in Pinellas County, Florida, USA and is part of the Tampa Bay Area. Centrally located, it is the crossroads of the county. As of the 2000 census, the City had a total population of 69,371. As of 2004, the population estimated by the U.S. Census Bureau was...

    . Land acquisition would have been extremely expensive, erasing the practicality of building the freeway, and it was canceled by 1976. All that remains of this freeway plan is Ulmerton Road's very wide right-of-way, preserved by the state for the freeway when Ulmerton Road was expanded in the early 1970s. Long-term widening of Ulmerton Road using the extended right-of-way to expand from four lanes to six lanes was completed in 2009.

Georgia



Local opposition was responsible for the death knell of a number of freeway projects in Metro Atlanta, including the intown portion of the Stone Mountain Freeway
Stone Mountain Freeway
The Stone Mountain Freeway is a limited-access highway that connects Interstate 285 on the east side of Atlanta, Georgia, with the suburbs of Stone Mountain and Snellville before transitioning into an arterial road that continues to Athens. The freeway is signed as U.S...

 from the existing U.S. 78 freeway to what is now Freedom Parkway in downtown Atlanta, and the intown portion of what would have been Interstate 485
Interstate 485 (Georgia)
Interstate 485 was a proposed U.S. Interstate Highway in Atlanta, Georgia, heading eastwards and then northwards from downtown. The 5.9 mile-long route would have begun at the Downtown Connector and used the proposed State Route 410 east to the junction with the also-proposed State Route 400...

. The northern part of that freeway was built as Georgia 400, while the southern portion of the highway exists as Interstate 675
Interstate 675 (Georgia)
Interstate 675 was built in southeast metro Atlanta during the mid-1980s to alleviate Interstate 75 to the west, for traffic bound to Interstate 285 east. It is 11.04 miles in length, running from I-75 in the south from the city of Stockbridge to I-285 at its north end...

. The highways would have intersected in a large stack interchange complex roughly where the Carter Center
Carter Center
The Carter Center is a nongovernmental, not-for-profit organization founded in 1982 by former U.S. President Jimmy Carter and his wife Rosalynn Carter. In partnership with Emory University, The Carter Center works to advance human rights and alleviate human suffering...

 exists today, east of downtown Atlanta. Interstate 420 would have skirted the city limits of Atlanta to the south, running from Interstate 20
Interstate 20
Interstate 20 is a major east–west Interstate Highway in the Southern United States. I‑20 runs 1,535 miles from near Kent, Texas, at Interstate 10 to Florence, South Carolina, at Interstate 95...

 in Decatur
Decatur, Georgia
Decatur is a city in, and county seat of, DeKalb County, Georgia, United States. With a population of 19,335 in the 2010 census, the city is sometimes assumed to be larger since multiple zip codes in unincorporated DeKalb County bear the Decatur name...

 to Douglasville. The center portion of what would have become I-420 was constructed, and exists as Langford Parkway
Langford Parkway
Arthur E. Langford Jr. Parkway , formerly known as the Lakewood Freeway, is a six-mile freeway through the northern portion of East Point and southwestern Atlanta, Georgia, USA...

.

Additional local protests and legislative action ended planning and construction of the Outer Perimeter
Outer Perimeter
The Outer Perimeter was an expressway originally planned to encircle Atlanta about 20 to 25 miles farther away from the city than the existing Perimeter Highway .-Planning:...

 and the Northern Arc, which would have surrounded Atlanta about 20 miles (32 km) outside of the present Perimeter Highway
Interstate 285
Interstate 285 is an Interstate Highway loop encircling Atlanta, Georgia, for . I-285 is also known as unsigned State Route 407 and is colloquially referred to as the Perimeter. Suburban sprawl has made it one of the most heavily traveled roadways in the United States, and portions of the highway...

.

Illinois

  • Since the 1970s, the Illinois Department of Transportation
    Illinois Department of Transportation
    The Illinois Department of Transportation is a state agency in charge of state-maintained public roadways of the U.S. state of Illinois. In addition, IDOT provides funding for rail, public transit and airport projects and administers fuel tax and federal funding to local juridictions in the...

     has sought to extend the freeway ("expressway") portion of Illinois Route 53
    Illinois Route 53
    Illinois Route 53 is an arterial north–south state highway in northeast Illinois. Route 53 runs south from Long Grove at Illinois Route 83 to Gardner at Interstate 55 west of old U.S. Highway 66, a distance of...

     in the western and northern suburbs of Chicago
    Chicago
    Chicago is the largest city in the US state of Illinois. With nearly 2.7 million residents, it is the most populous city in the Midwestern United States and the third most populous in the US, after New York City and Los Angeles...

     from its northern terminus at Lake-Cook Road, perhaps meeting the Tri-State Tollway
    Tri-State Tollway
    The Tri-State Tollway is a U.S. toll road maintained by the Illinois State Toll Highway Authority in northeastern Illinois which is considered one of the most heavily traveled highways in the country...

     (I-94
    Interstate 94
    Interstate 94 is the northernmost east–west Interstate Highway, connecting the Great Lakes and Intermountain regions of the United States. I-94's western terminus is in Billings, Montana at a junction with Interstate 90; its eastern terminus is the U.S...

    ) somewhere in northern Lake County
    Lake County, Illinois
    Lake County is a county in the northeastern corner of the state of Illinois, on the shore of Lake Michigan. According to the 2010 census, it has a population of 703,462, which is an increase of 9.2% from 644,356 in 2000. Its county seat is Waukegan. The county is part of the Chicago metropolitan area...

    . The most likely alignment for the route would take it through the village of Long Grove
    Long Grove, Illinois
    Long Grove is an affluent village located in Lake County, Illinois, approximately northwest of Chicago. As of the 2005 census, the village had a total population of 6,735...

    , the residents of which have fought a thus-far successful legal and political battle against the extension. Many residents of cities such as Mundelein
    Mundelein, Illinois
    Mundelein is a village in Lake County, Illinois, in the United States. As of the 2010 census, the village population was 31,064.-History:The community now known as Mundelein has been inhabited since at least 1650, when the Potowatami Indians were known to have been trading with French fur traders....

     and Lake Zurich
    Lake Zurich, Illinois
    Lake Zurich is a village in Lake County, Illinois, United States, a suburb of Chicago. The population was 18,104 at the 2000 census. A 2003 special census put the village's population at 19,005....

    , however, still display "BUILD 53" signs and bumper stickers.

  • The Crosstown Expressway
    Crosstown Expressway (Interstate 494)
    The Crosstown Expressway , was a proposed highway route in Chicago, Illinois in the 1960s through the 1970s.-Route description:...

     was a proposed highway in the 1970s that would have run westward from near the present confluence of the Chicago Skyway
    Chicago Skyway
    The Chicago Skyway, also known as Chicago Skyway Toll Bridge System, is a toll road in Chicago, Illinois, United States, carrying Interstate 90 from the Indiana Toll Road to the Dan Ryan Expressway on Chicago's South Side leading into the Chicago Loop....

     and the Dan Ryan Expressway
    Dan Ryan Expressway
    The Dan Ryan is an expressway in the city of Chicago that runs from the Circle Interchange with I-290 near downtown Chicago through the South Side of the city. It is designated as both Interstate 94 and Interstate 90 south to 66th Street, a distance of...

     on Chicago's south side toward Cicero Avenue near Chicago Midway International Airport. From there, the freeway would have run northward along and parallel to Cicero to the Edens
    Edens Expressway
    The Edens Expressway is the main major expressway north from the city of Chicago. For most of its length, the Edens carries Interstate 94; it also carries U.S. Route 41 from Wilmette to its northern terminus. Only the short portion from the Spur Ramp to the expressway's end in Highland Park does...

     - Kennedy
    Kennedy Expressway
    The John F. Kennedy Expressway is a long highway that travels northwest from the Chicago Loop to O'Hare International Airport. The expressway is named for the 35th U.S. President, John F. Kennedy. The Interstate 90 portion of the Kennedy is a part of the much longer I-90...

     junction on the north side of Chicago. The highway, which would have been designated Interstate 494, was canceled in 1979 by then-Mayor Jane Byrne
    Jane Byrne
    Jane Margaret Byrne was the first and to date only female Mayor of Chicago. She served from April 16, 1979 to April 29, 1983. Chicago is the largest city in the United States to have had a female mayor as of 2011.-Early political career:...

     and then-Illinois Governor Jim Thompson
    James R. Thompson
    James Robert Thompson, Jr. , also known as Big Jim Thompson, was the 37th and longest serving Governor of the US state of Illinois...

    , both of whom cited the $1.2 billion price tag as reason enough to terminate the project. Monies from the aborted highway ultimately went to the construction of the Chicago Transit Authority
    Chicago Transit Authority
    Chicago Transit Authority, also known as CTA, is the operator of mass transit within the City of Chicago, Illinois and some of its surrounding suburbs....

    's Orange Line
    Orange Line (Chicago Transit Authority)
    The Orange Line, is a rapid transit line in Chicago, Illinois run by the Chicago Transit Authority as part of the 'L' system. It is approximately long, and runs below grade and elevated on existing railroad embankments and new concrete and steel structures from Chicago Midway International...

    , connecting the Loop with Midway Airport, and an extension to the CTA's Blue Line
    Blue Line (Chicago Transit Authority)
    The Blue Line consists of a long trunk line in the Chicago Transit Authority's rapid transit system which extends through Chicago's Loop from O'Hare International Airport at the far northwest end of the city, through downtown via the Milwaukee-Dearborn subway, and across the West Side to its...

    , connecting downtown with O'Hare Airport. Since 2007, a similar project has seriously been discussed once again, although if approved, it hasn't been decided if it will be a large-scale road project, a new subway/elevated rail line (most desired option from both cost and public opinion standpoints), or a combination of both. Public sentiment leans decisively toward a subway/elevated line. In its new incarnation, the corridor has been dubbed the "Mid-City Transitway
    Mid-City Transitway
    The Mid-City Transitway is a concept for the use of the right-of-way formerly proposed for the Crosstown Expressway in Chicago, Illinois. The uses being studied include a bus-only rapid-transit road , a truck-only bypass around the city center, or a rail rapid transit system The Mid-City...

    ". Recent economic developements since 2008 have now made this project far less likely to be completed within the next 15 years according to media reports as of 2009.

  • The Elgin-O'Hare Expressway
    Elgin-O'Hare Expressway
    The Elgin-O'Hare Expressway is an Interstate-standard freeway in northeast Illinois, United States. Contrary to its given name, the expressway does not enter either Elgin or O'Hare International Airport, giving it a somewhat infamous reputation as a "road to nowhere"...

     was intended to connect Elgin, Illinois
    Elgin, Illinois
    Elgin is a city in northern Illinois located roughly northwest of Chicago on the Fox River. Most of Elgin lies within Kane County, Illinois, with a portion in Cook County, Illinois...

     and O'Hare International Airport
    O'Hare International Airport
    Chicago O'Hare International Airport , also known as O'Hare Airport, O'Hare Field, Chicago Airport, Chicago International Airport, or simply O'Hare, is a major airport located in the northwestern-most corner of Chicago, Illinois, United States, northwest of the Chicago Loop...

     through the west side of the airport. However, the expressway remains incomplete on both sides. The current western terminus is at Lake Street (U.S. Route 20
    U.S. Route 20
    U.S. Route 20 is an east–west United States highway. As the "0" in its route number implies, US 20 is a coast-to-coast route. Spanning , it is the longest road in the United States, and the route sparsely parallels Interstate 90...

    ) in Hanover Park, Illinois
    Hanover Park, Illinois
    Hanover Park is a village in Cook and DuPage counties in the U.S. state of Illinois, a suburb of Chicago. The population was 38,278 at the 2000 census...

    , and the current eastern terminus is at Rohlwing Road (near I-290
    Interstate 290 (Illinois)
    Interstate 290 is a main Interstate freeway that runs westwards from the Chicago Loop. A portion of I-290 is officially called the Dwight D. Eisenhower Expressway. In short form, it is known as "the Ike" or the Eisenhower...

    ). A western connection to the nearby Elgin Bypass
    Elgin Bypass
    The Elgin Bypass is the common name for a four-lane freeway that carries U.S. Highway 20 around the city of Elgin in northeast Illinois. The highway forms a southern border to the Elgin street grid. The state-ownership of the land on the south edge of town for hospital and highway maintenance...

     (U.S. Route 20
    U.S. Route 20
    U.S. Route 20 is an east–west United States highway. As the "0" in its route number implies, US 20 is a coast-to-coast route. Spanning , it is the longest road in the United States, and the route sparsely parallels Interstate 90...

    ) may be possible in the future, but Elk Grove Village, Illinois
    Elk Grove Village, Illinois
    Elk Grove Village is a municipality located in northeastern Illinois adjacent to O'Hare International Airport and the City of Chicago. Elk Grove Village encompasses in land area with located in Cook County and located in DuPage County, Illinois. The population was 32,745 at the 2010 census...

     has fought a successful fight against extending the eastern terminus. Although the expressway today effectively links Hanover Park with I-290, the road is still called the Elgin-O'Hare Expressway, to much ridicule by the locals.

  • The Amstutz Expressway was meant to be a lakeshore expressway in North Chicago, Illinois
    North Chicago, Illinois
    North Chicago is an outer suburb/exurb of the Chicago metropolitan area and is an incorporated city in Lake County, Illinois, United States. The population was 35,918 at the 2000 census....

     and Waukegan, Illinois
    Waukegan, Illinois
    Waukegan is a city and county seat of Lake County, Illinois. As of the 2000 census, the city had a total population of 87,901. The 2010 population was 89,078. It is the ninth-largest city in Illinois by population...

    . However, a large portion in northern North Chicago was never completed, so the road exists in two small portions. The Waukegan portion is frequently referred to as "The Highway to Nowhere" because of its uselessness. Sheridan Road
    Sheridan Road
    Sheridan Road is a major north-south thoroughfare that leads from Diversey Parkway in Chicago, Illinois, north to the Illinois-Wisconsin border and beyond to Racine. Throughout most of its run, it is the easternmost north-south through street, closest to Lake Michigan...

     runs along the expressway the entire length.

  • There were plans to upgrade Lake Shore Drive
    Lake Shore Drive
    Lake Shore Drive is a mostly freeway-standard expressway running parallel with and alongside the shoreline of Lake Michigan through Chicago, Illinois, USA. Except for the portion north of Foster Avenue , Lake Shore Drive is designated as part of U.S...

     to full Interstate standards, and two separate designations were proposed for this upgrade. First designated as Interstate 494 (before that designation was moved to the Crosstown Expressway
    Crosstown Expressway (Interstate 494)
    The Crosstown Expressway , was a proposed highway route in Chicago, Illinois in the 1960s through the 1970s.-Route description:...

    ), and later, Interstate 694, the project was canceled after opposition from North Side residents who didn't want an interstate in their communities, fearing that land along the shores of Lake Michigan would be lost. As of 2010, Lake Shore Drive remains a US route, rather than an interstate highway, with a mix of interchanges and at-grade intersections.

  • The Fox Valley Freeway
    Fox Valley Freeway
    The Fox Valley Freeway was a limited-access highway that was proposed in the 1960s as a bypass to Chicago. The highway would have joined with Interstate 55 near Plainfield, Illinois, continuing northwest and north along and west of the Fox River Valley .Like many proposed highways, this one brought...

     was intended to run from I-55
    Interstate 55 in Illinois
    In the U.S. state of Illinois, Interstate 55 is a major north–south Interstate Highway that connects the St. Louis, Missouri and Chicago metropolitan areas. It runs from the Poplar Street Bridge in East St. Louis to U.S. Route 41 near downtown Chicago...

     in Plainfield
    Plainfield, Illinois
    Plainfield is a village in Will County, Illinois, United States. As of the 2007 special census, the population is 37,334.The Village includes land in Plainfield and Wheatland townships. Part of Plainfield is located in Kendall County...

     to US 14
    U.S. Route 14 in Illinois
    In the U.S. state of Illinois, U.S. Route 14 is a major arterial that runs southeast from the Wisconsin state line north of Harvard, Illinois to the north side of Chicago at U.S. Route 41....

     in Crystal Lake
    Crystal Lake, Illinois
    Crystal Lake is a city located in southeastern McHenry County in northeastern Illinois, in the Chicago suburbs. It is named after Crystal Lake, a lake located west-southwest of downtown. Crystal Lake is also a suburb of the city of Chicago. The population was 38,000 at the 2000 census, but as of...

    .

Indiana


Environmental groups have long protested the completion of Interstate 69 through southwest Indiana. Their opposition has pitted them against residents in the southwest corner of the state and the cities of Evansville and Bloomington
Bloomington, Indiana
Bloomington is a city in and the county seat of Monroe County in the southern region of the U.S. state of Indiana. The population was 80,405 at the 2010 census....

, which have long supported construction of the highway. Opponents had held up construction of I-69 through southwest Indiana for 40 years through lawsuits, legislative maneuvering, and acts of vandalism, while supporters of the highway have accused opponents of attempting to isolate the southwest corner of Indiana from the remainder of the state with their attempts to block I-69 construction. Ultimately, construction on I-69 resumed in 2008, with completion between Evansville and Bloomington scheduled for 2014.

Louisiana


When I-10
Interstate 10
Interstate 10 is the fourth-longest Interstate Highway in the United States, after I-90, I-80, and I-40. It is the southernmost east–west, coast-to-coast Interstate Highway, although I-4 and I-8 are further south. It stretches from the Pacific Ocean at State Route 1 in Santa Monica,...

 was built through New Orleans, Louisiana
New Orleans, Louisiana
New Orleans is a major United States port and the largest city and metropolitan area in the state of Louisiana. The New Orleans metropolitan area has a population of 1,235,650 as of 2009, the 46th largest in the USA. The New Orleans – Metairie – Bogalusa combined statistical area has a population...

, a segment of formerly tree-lined ground along Claiborne Avenue was destroyed to build the elevated highway; because Claiborne Avenue was the main thoroughfare in a poorer, African-American neighborhood, many in the community considered this to be racist. While local efforts to stop this route of I-10 were unsuccessful, the disruption motivated residents to oppose further planned freeways through historic neighborhoods.

The proposed Vieux Carré Riverfront Expressway
Vieux Carré Riverfront Expressway
The Vieux Carré Riverfront Expressway was a controversial mostly-elevated never-built freeway that would have cut through the French Quarter of New Orleans, Louisiana, United States...

 would have run along the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
The Mississippi River is the largest river system in North America. Flowing entirely in the United States, this river rises in western Minnesota and meanders slowly southwards for to the Mississippi River Delta at the Gulf of Mexico. With its many tributaries, the Mississippi's watershed drains...

 in the French Quarter
French Quarter
The French Quarter, also known as Vieux Carré, is the oldest neighborhood in the city of New Orleans. When New Orleans was founded in 1718 by Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville, the city was originally centered on the French Quarter, or the Vieux Carré as it was known then...

 of New Orleans. Local preservationists worked to build popular support to stop the proposed elevated expressway in the 1960s.

Maryland


Freeways Interstate 95
Interstate 95 in Maryland
Interstate 95 in Maryland is a major highway that runs diagonally from northeast to southwest, from Maryland's border with Delaware, to the Woodrow Wilson Bridge, briefly entering the District of Columbia before reaching Virginia...

, Interstate 83
Interstate 83
Interstate 83 is an Interstate Highway in the eastern United States. Its southern terminus is in Baltimore, Maryland at the Fayette Street exit; its northern terminus is in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania at Interstate 81....

, and Interstate 70
Interstate 70
Interstate 70 is an Interstate Highway in the United States that runs from Interstate 15 near Cove Fort, Utah, to a Park and Ride near Baltimore, Maryland. It was the first Interstate Highway project in the United States. I-70 approximately traces the path of U.S. Route 40 east of the Rocky...

 are not directly connected to each other inside Baltimore
Baltimore
Baltimore is the largest independent city in the United States and the largest city and cultural center of the US state of Maryland. The city is located in central Maryland along the tidal portion of the Patapsco River, an arm of the Chesapeake Bay. Baltimore is sometimes referred to as Baltimore...

 city limits because of freeway revolts led by activist and later politician Barbara Mikulski
Barbara Mikulski
Barbara Ann Mikulski is the senior United States Senator from Maryland and a member of the Democratic Party. Mikulski, a former U.S. Representative, is the longest-serving female senator in U.S...

. Mikulski became a U.S. Representative
United States House of Representatives
The United States House of Representatives is one of the two Houses of the United States Congress, the bicameral legislature which also includes the Senate.The composition and powers of the House are established in Article One of the Constitution...

 and later a Senator
United States Senate
The United States Senate is the upper house of the bicameral legislature of the United States, and together with the United States House of Representatives comprises the United States Congress. The composition and powers of the Senate are established in Article One of the U.S. Constitution. Each...

 after rising to prominence with freeway revolts. In particular, I-70 was stopped through Leakin Park, and terminates at the Baltimore City line at a Park and Ride, just inside the I-695 Beltway
Interstate 695 (Maryland)
Interstate 695 is a -long full beltway Interstate Highway extending around Baltimore, Maryland, USA. I-695 is officially designated the McKeldin Beltway, but is colloquially referred to as either the Baltimore Beltway or 695...

, rather than its planned terminus at I-95 exit 50 (currently US 1 Alternate: Caton Avenue), while I-83 terminates in downtown Baltimore at Fayette Street instead of connecting to I-95 at exit 57. Additionally, Moravia Road was never built beyond I-95 exit 60. Additional roads that would have formed a more complete freeway network in the city were abandoned or redesigned, leaving some short sections (the former I-170
Interstate 170 (Maryland)
Interstate 170 is the former designation for a freeway in Baltimore, Maryland that is now designated as part of US 40...

, left unconnected to any other Interstate highway, so US 40
U.S. Route 40 in Maryland
U.S. Route 40 in the U.S. state of Maryland runs from western Maryland to Cecil County in the state's northeastern corner. With a total length of over , it is the longest numbered highway in Maryland. Almost half of the road overlaps with Interstate 68 or Interstate 70, while the old alignment...

 was re-routed onto it), or rights of way that were built as city streets rather than freeways (Martin Luther King Boulevard). The Windlass Freeway was canceled as well, although a small portion of it was constructed, and it is now signed as I-695
Interstate 695 (Maryland)
Interstate 695 is a -long full beltway Interstate Highway extending around Baltimore, Maryland, USA. I-695 is officially designated the McKeldin Beltway, but is colloquially referred to as either the Baltimore Beltway or 695...

.

The Washington Outer Beltway was also met with opposition near the national capital. Ultimately, plans for it were shelved, but the northern section remained in planning. Though met with fierce opposition for fifty years, this section, known as the Intercounty Connector and signed as Maryland Route 200, ultimately began construction in 2009.

Massachusetts


The 1948 plan for Boston's inner suburbs included eight limited-access highways: the Central Artery and the East Boston, Western, Northern, Northeast, Northwest, Southeast, and Southwest Expressways.

Over time, several of the planned highways were constructed:
  • East Boston Expressway (MA 1A), 1948–1951
  • Central Artery
    Central Artery
    The John F. Fitzgerald Expressway, known locally as the Central Artery, is a section of freeway in downtown Boston, Massachusetts, designated as Interstate 93, U.S. Route 1 and Route 3. It was initially constructed in the 1950s as a partly elevated and partly tunneled divided highway...

    , 1951–59
  • Southeast Expressway (I-93), 1954–59
  • Western Expressway (Massachusetts Turnpike
    Massachusetts Turnpike
    The Massachusetts Turnpike is the easternmost stretch of Interstate 90. The Turnpike begins at the western border of Massachusetts in West Stockbridge connecting with the Berkshire Connector portion of the New York State Thruway...

    ) 1955-59, Boston Extension 1962-65
  • Northern Expressway
    Interstate 93
    Interstate 93 is an Interstate Highway in the New England section of the United States. Its southern terminus is in Canton, Massachusetts, in the Boston metropolitan area, at Interstate 95; its northern terminus is near St. Johnsbury, Vermont, at Interstate 91...

     (I-93), 1956–73


In 1970, Governor Francis W. Sargent
Francis W. Sargent
Francis William Sargent was the 64th Governor of Massachusetts from 1969 to 1975. Born in 1915 in Hamilton, Massachusetts, he was known for his sharp wit and self-deprecating manner...

 ordered the Boston Transportation Planning Review
Boston Transportation Planning Review
Boston Transportation Planning Review is a transportation planning program for metropolitan Boston, United States which was responsible for analyzing and re-designing the entire area-wide transit and highway system in the 1970s. The major contractors involved were Alan M...

, a review of all freeway plans within the Route 128
Route 128 (Massachusetts)
Route 128, also known as the Yankee Division Highway , and originally the Circumferential Highway, is a partial beltway around Boston, Massachusetts, United States. The majority of the highway is built to freeway standards, and about 3/5 of it is part of the Interstate Highway System...

 beltway around Boston
Boston
Boston is the capital of and largest city in Massachusetts, and is one of the oldest cities in the United States. The largest city in New England, Boston is regarded as the unofficial "Capital of New England" for its economic and cultural impact on the entire New England region. The city proper had...

. As a result, several freeways were canceled in 1971 and 1972:
  • The Southwest Expressway (Interstate 95
    Interstate 95 in Massachusetts
    Interstate 95 is the main highway on the East Coast of the United States, paralleling the Atlantic Ocean from Florida to Maine. The Massachusetts portion of the highway enters from the state of Rhode Island in Attleboro and travels in a northeasterly direction to the junction with Route 128 in...

    ) to Canton
    Canton, Massachusetts
    Canton is a town in Norfolk County, Massachusetts, United States. The population was 21,561 at the 2010 census. Canton is part of Greater Boston, about 15 miles southwest of downtown Boston.- History :...

     was replaced by the MBTA
    Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority
    The Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority, often referred to as the MBTA or simply The T, is the public operator of most bus, subway, commuter rail and ferry systems in the greater Boston, Massachusetts, area. Officially a "body politic and corporate, and a political subdivision" of the...

     Orange Line. I-95 was rerouted to follow Route 128 around Boston.
  • The Northeast Expressway
    Northeast Expressway (Boston)
    The Northeast Expressway consists of the elevated expressway from the junction of Interstate 93 and U.S. Route 1 in Charlestown, through Charlestown, crossing the Mystic River, through Chelsea, Revere. The highway becomes a surface expressway in northern Chelsea. It terminates at the Revere-Saugus...

     (also I-95) to Peabody
    Peabody, Massachusetts
    Peabody is a city in Essex County, Massachusetts, United States. The population is about 53,000. Peabody is located in Boston's North Shore suburban area.- History :...

     was largely eliminated. The southernmost part, which was already built, is U.S. Route 1
    U.S. Route 1
    U.S. Route 1 is a major north–south U.S. Highway that serves the East Coast of the United States. It runs 2,377 miles from Fort Kent, Maine at the Canadian border south to Key West, Florida. U.S. 1 generally parallels Interstate 95, though it is significantly farther west between...

    .
  • The Inner Belt (Interstate 695
    Interstate 695 (Massachusetts)
    The Inner Belt in Boston was a planned six-lane, limited-access highway that would have run through parts of Boston, Brookline, Cambridge, and Somerville.-History:...

     and 95) around Boston was eliminated. A short section (which would have been the I-95 part of the Inner Belt) was built as a city street in Somerville
    Somerville, Massachusetts
    Somerville is a city in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, United States, located just north of Boston. As of the 2010 census, the city had a total population of 75,754 and was the most densely populated municipality in New England. It is also the 17th most densely populated incorporated place in...

    .
  • The 1965 plan for the Northwest Expressway
    Northwest Expressway (Boston)
    The Northwest Expressway is a 19.3-mile expressway that carries U.S. Route 3 from its junction with Interstate 95 in Burlington north to the New Hampshire state line in Tyngsborough, where it connects to the Frederick E...

     would have connected the Inner Belt in Cambridge with the current U.S. Route 3
    U.S. Route 3
    U.S. Route 3 is a north–south United States highway that runs from its southern terminus in Cambridge, Massachusetts through New Hampshire to its terminus near Third Connecticut Lake at the Canadian border, where the road continues north as Quebec Route 257.In New Hampshire parts of US 3 are...

     interchange at Route 128 in Burlington
    Burlington, Massachusetts
    Burlington is a town in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, United States. The population was 24,498 at the 2010 census.- History :It is believed that Burlington takes its name from the English town of Bridlington, however this has never been confirmed....

    . The new highway from Route 128 would have connected with the existing Concord Turnpike near the Lexington-Arlington border, which would carry both Route 2
    Route 2 (Massachusetts)
    Route 2 is a major east–west state highway in Massachusetts, parts of which are sometimes known as the Cambridge and Concord Turnpike. Along with Route 9 and U.S. Route 20 to the south, these highways are the main alternatives to the Massachusetts Turnpike/I-90 toll highway...

     through Arlington to Alewife. A second stretch of new highway would run from Alewife through Porter Square
    Porter Square
    Porter Square is a neighborhood in Cambridge and Somerville, Massachusetts in the USA, located around the intersection of Massachusetts Avenue and Somerville Avenue, between Harvard and Davis Squares...

     to a connection with the Inner Belt in Union Square, Somerville. After the moritorium, Routes 2 and 3 were left on their previous routings, with Route 2 becoming a surface road inbound of Alewife and Route 3 a surface road inside Route 128 (both roughly following the Charles River
    Charles River
    The Charles River is an long river that flows in an overall northeasterly direction in eastern Massachusetts, USA. From its source in Hopkinton, the river travels through 22 cities and towns until reaching the Atlantic Ocean at Boston...

     into downtown Boston). In place of the highway project, the MBTA Red Line
    Red Line (MBTA)
    The Red Line is a rapid transit line operated by the MBTA running roughly north-south through Boston, Massachusetts into neighboring communities. The line begins west of Boston, in Cambridge, Massachusetts at Alewife station, near the intersection of Alewife Brook Parkway and Route 2...

     was extended from Harvard
    Harvard (MBTA station)
    Harvard is a station on the Red Line of the MBTA subway system in Cambridge, Massachusetts. The third-busiest MBTA subway station, Harvard saw 21,868 entries each weekday in 2010, with only Downtown Crossing and South Station being busier...

     to Alewife
    Alewife (MBTA station)
    Alewife, located at the intersection of Alewife Brook Parkway and Cambridgepark West in Cambridge, Massachusetts, is a local intermodal transportation hub. It is the northern terminus of the MBTA's Red Line, and a bus terminal for several local routes and one intercity route. It opened in 1985.The...

    . (A 1948 plan used a different path for Route 3.)


The Northern Expressway was granted an exemption because it was nearly complete.

The Central Artery
Central Artery
The John F. Fitzgerald Expressway, known locally as the Central Artery, is a section of freeway in downtown Boston, Massachusetts, designated as Interstate 93, U.S. Route 1 and Route 3. It was initially constructed in the 1950s as a partly elevated and partly tunneled divided highway...

 had cut a swath through Downtown Boston
Boston
Boston is the capital of and largest city in Massachusetts, and is one of the oldest cities in the United States. The largest city in New England, Boston is regarded as the unofficial "Capital of New England" for its economic and cultural impact on the entire New England region. The city proper had...

 neighborhoods, creating one of the greatest eyesores in urban America during the 1950s. Because of this, it would earn its nickname "The Green Monster", both a play on its greenish color and on the name of the tall left field wall
Green Monster
The Green Monster is a popular nickname for the thirty-seven foot , two-inch high left field wall at Fenway Park, home to the Boston Red Sox baseball team...

 in Fenway Park
Fenway Park
Fenway Park is a baseball park near Kenmore Square in Boston, Massachusetts. Located at 4 Yawkey Way, it has served as the home ballpark of the Boston Red Sox baseball club since it opened in 1912, and is the oldest Major League Baseball stadium currently in use. It is one of two "classic"...

. Starting in 1991, the Central Artery was rerouted into underground tunnels and the elevated highway was demolished and replaced by parks and new buildings, in a massive project known as the Big Dig
Big Dig
The Central Artery/Tunnel Project , known unofficially as the Big Dig and as the Big Dug since completion, was a megaproject in Boston that rerouted the Central Artery , the chief highway through the heart of the city, into a 3.5-mile tunnel...

.

Detroit



In the 1970s, an extension of the Davison Freeway
M-8 (Michigan highway)
M-8 is a state trunkline highway in the U.S. state of Michigan lying within the cities of Detroit and Highland Park. Much of it is the Davison Freeway, the nation's first urban depressed freeway, which became a connector between the Lodge and the Chrysler Freeways.Named for an English immigrant...

 in Detroit
Detroit, Michigan
Detroit is the major city among the primary cultural, financial, and transportation centers in the Metro Detroit area, a region of 5.2 million people. As the seat of Wayne County, the city of Detroit is the largest city in the U.S. state of Michigan and serves as a major port on the Detroit River...

 was planned on both ends, to connect Interstate 96
Interstate 96
Interstate 96 is an intrastate Interstate Highway that is entirely within the US state of Michigan. Its western terminus is at an interchange with US Highway 31 and Business US Highway 31 , on the western boundary of Norton Shores southeast of Muskegon. Its eastern terminus is at I-75 near the...

, the Jeffries Freeway, to Interstate 696
Interstate 696
Interstate 696 is an intrastate Interstate Highway entirely within the US state of Michigan. I-696 is also known as the Walter P. Reuther Freeway, named for a prominent figure in early automobile factory labor union activity. I-696 is a spur route, partially circling the city of Detroit, but...

, the Reuther Freeway, by way of a freeway aligned along Mound Road. A freeway-to-freeway interchange was constructed at Exit 186 of the Jeffries, and a massive stacked freeway-to-freeway interchange was also constructed on I-696 at Mound Road. However, while the Jeffries was still being constructed, the City of Detroit passed a decree that no further freeways would be constructed. There was a strong desire to preserve the existing neighborhoods, which was a factor in rerouting the planned Jeffries Freeway, even though the neighborhoods themselves were suffering from urban blight. The massive Davison Avenue exit of the Jeffries, as a result, sees much less traffic than it was designed for, as does the Mound Road exit on I-696.

The cancellation also scrubbed plans to connect the Mound Road interchange to the existing M-53
M-53 (Michigan highway)
M-53 is a gateway route to The Thumb region of the US state of Michigan, carrying vacationers to the many cottages and resorts located on Saginaw Bay and Lake Huron in the vicinity of Caseville and Port Austin. This highway is also used to transport agricultural and manufactured products from the...

, Van Dyke Expressway, although further development of Macomb County
Macomb County, Michigan
-Demographics:As of the census of 2000, there were 788,149 people, 309,203 households, and 210,876 families residing in the county. The population density was 1,640 people per square mile . There were 320,276 housing units at an average density of 667 per square mile...

 has revived speculation on at least this portion of highway. The land impact would be minimalized along the Mound Road corridor, as Mound was constructed as a multilane divided highway with a particularly wide median, suggesting that MDOT planned for this stretch to be upgraded to a full freeway at some point in the future.

While the revolts indeed had stopped the freeways from being built through the local Detroit neighborhoods, many homes, neighborhoods, and even historical buildings had already been destroyed to make way for interstate freeway construction, by the controversial means of Eminent Domain.

Oakland County


In the 1970s, Interstate 275
Interstate 275 (Michigan)
Interstate 275 in the US state of Michigan is an Interstate Highway that functions as a western bypass of the Detroit metropolitan area. The Michigan Department of Transportation maintains it as a component of the larger state trunkline highway system. The freeway runs through the western suburbs...

 was planned to bypass Detroit and Pontiac
Pontiac, Michigan
Pontiac is a city in the U.S. state of Michigan named after the Ottawa Chief Pontiac, located within the Detroit metropolitan area. As of the 2010 census, the city had a total population of 59,515. It is the county seat of Oakland County...

, connecting with its parent route, Interstate 75
Interstate 75
Interstate 75 is a major north–south Interstate Highway in the Great Lakes and Southeastern regions of the United States. It travels from State Road 826 and State Road 924 in Hialeah, Florida to Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan, at the Ontario, Canada, border...

, near the city of Monroe
Monroe, Michigan
Monroe is a city in the U.S. state of Michigan. The population was 20,733 at the 2010 census. It is the largest city and county seat of Monroe County. The city is bordered on the south by Monroe Charter Township, but both are politically independent. The city is located approximately 14 miles ...

 at the southern end, and Clarkston
Clarkston, Michigan
Clarkston, known officially by the name City of the Village of Clarkston, is a small city located within Independence Charter Township in Oakland County in the U.S. state of Michigan. The population was 882 at the 2010 census.-Overview:...

 at the northern end. I-275 was slightly realigned when it was determined that it would be more feasible to align Interstate 96
Interstate 96
Interstate 96 is an intrastate Interstate Highway that is entirely within the US state of Michigan. Its western terminus is at an interchange with US Highway 31 and Business US Highway 31 , on the western boundary of Norton Shores southeast of Muskegon. Its eastern terminus is at I-75 near the...

 along Schoolcraft Avenue instead of the more heavily developed Grand River Avenue
M-5 (Michigan highway)
M-5 is a highway in the metro Detroit area of the US state of Michigan.-Route description:M-5's eastern terminus is at the junction of Grand River Avenue and Interstate 96 in western Detroit...

 as originally planned, and part of I-275 would now carry I-96.

As construction progressed on the massive ramps that would connect I-275 to the existing interchange of I-96 and the western terminus of I-696, fierce opposition rose up from residents within several Oakland County communities, including Commerce Township
Commerce Township, Michigan
Commerce Charter Township is a charter township of Oakland County, in the U.S. state of Michigan. The population was 40,186 at the 2010 census. The terrain is rolling hills, but there are large expanses of flat land on which farms and, more recently, subdivisions are built. The Huron River runs...

, through where much of I-275 would have run. Environmental concerns were cited, as well as fears of dropping property values. As a result, the construction of I-275 north of I-96/I-696 was canceled. A stub from the former eastern leg of I-96, redesignated part of M-102
M-102 (Michigan highway)
M-102 is a state trunkline in the US state of Michigan, running along the northern boundary of Detroit. It is known as 8 Mile Road for most of its length. As part of the land surveying of the state, the road follows the Michigan Baseline, and it is called Base Line Road in places. M-102 is the...

, to what would have been northbound I-275, was left behind, as was a ramp that ran parallel to the westbound I-96 ramp that would've carried northbound I-275 and connected with the ramp from M-102.

The stubs, as well as previously unbuilt bridges and ramps, were opened in 1994 as a freeway extension was built up to 12 Mile Road. This extension was designated as M-5
M-5 (Michigan highway)
M-5 is a highway in the metro Detroit area of the US state of Michigan.-Route description:M-5's eastern terminus is at the junction of Grand River Avenue and Interstate 96 in western Detroit...

. Between 1994 and 2002, M-5 was extended further northward along the right-of-way that had been reserved for I-275, but as a grade-level expressway with traffic lights at 13 Mile, 14 Mile, and Maple Roads, and a grade-level railroad crossing between Maple Road and M-5's northern terminus at Pontiac Trail. Local residents continue to resist further expansion, even as Commerce Township slowly succumbs to urban sprawl
Urban sprawl
Urban sprawl, also known as suburban sprawl, is a multifaceted concept, which includes the spreading outwards of a city and its suburbs to its outskirts to low-density and auto-dependent development on rural land, high segregation of uses Urban sprawl, also known as suburban sprawl, is a...

.

In addition to the resistance against I-275, a planned extension from Northwestern Highway
M-10 (Michigan highway)
M-10, is a state trunkline route in the US state of Michigan. The southernmost portion follows Jefferson Avenue in downtown Detroit, and the southern terminus is at the intersection of Jefferson and Randolph Street leading to the entrance to the Detroit–Windsor Tunnel...

 to I-275 was shelved in the 1970s as part of the same revolt. Although talks of reviving the Northwestern Extension continued for decades, development of the land along the proposed extension's right-of-way, including a strip mall
Strip mall
A strip mall is an open-area shopping center where the stores are arranged in a row, with a sidewalk in front. Strip malls are typically developed as a unit and have large parking lots in front...

 right at Northwestern's current terminus, has effectively ended any chance of such a freeway being constructed.

Minnesota


There were once plans for a northern bypass route of downtown Minneapolis
Minneapolis, Minnesota
Minneapolis , nicknamed "City of Lakes" and the "Mill City," is the county seat of Hennepin County, the largest city in the U.S. state of Minnesota, and the 48th largest in the United States...

; this bypass was to be signed as Interstate 335
Interstate 335 (Minnesota)
Interstate 335 is a cancelled auxiliary Interstate route in Minneapolis, Minnesota. It was planned to cross Northeast Minneapolis from I-35W south of Broadway to I-94 in North Minneapolis. Land was acquired and some demolition had proceeded when the road was defeated by local opposition.Interstate...

. Grading for I-335's connections to I-35W
Interstate 35W (Minnesota)
Interstate 35W , is an Interstate Highway in the U.S. state of Minnesota, passing through downtown Minneapolis. It is one of two through routes for Interstate 35 through the Twin Cities of Minneapolis and Saint Paul, the other being Interstate 35E through downtown Saint Paul...

 and I-94
Interstate 94
Interstate 94 is the northernmost east–west Interstate Highway, connecting the Great Lakes and Intermountain regions of the United States. I-94's western terminus is in Billings, Montana at a junction with Interstate 90; its eastern terminus is the U.S...

, as well as land acquisition and demolition for the road's right-of-way, had already begun when local residents protested I-335's proposed path through their communities. Stub ramps on I-35W, some of which are now part of the Johnson Street interchange, remain as clues to where I-335 would have begun; more stub ramps can also be found on I-94 at the North 3rd Street interchange.

New Jersey


Although planned in the 1960s, the Somerset Freeway, which would have connected Interstate 95
Interstate 95 in New Jersey
Interstate 95 is a major Interstate Highway that traverses the full extent of the East Coast of the United States, from Florida to Maine...

 from Trenton
Trenton, New Jersey
Trenton is the capital of the U.S. state of New Jersey and the county seat of Mercer County. As of the 2010 United States Census, Trenton had a population of 84,913...

 to Interstate 287
Interstate 287
Interstate 287 is an auxiliary Interstate Highway in the U.S. states of New Jersey and New York. It is a partial beltway around New York City, serving the northern half of New Jersey and the counties of Rockland and Westchester in New York...

 near Metuchen
Metuchen, New Jersey
Metuchen is a Borough in Middlesex County, New Jersey, United States, which is 8 miles northeast of New Brunswick, 18 miles southwest of Newark, 24 miles southwest of Jersey City, and 29 miles southwest of Manhattan, all part of the New York metropolitan area...

, would have cut through some of the wealthy established properties around Princeton
Princeton, New Jersey
Princeton is a community located in Mercer County, New Jersey, United States. It is best known as the location of Princeton University, which has been sited in the community since 1756...

. In addition, the New Jersey Turnpike Authority
New Jersey Turnpike Authority
The New Jersey Turnpike Authority is a state agency responsible for maintaining the New Jersey Turnpike and the Garden State Parkway...

, whose roadway went from the Delaware Memorial Bridge
Delaware Memorial Bridge
The Delaware Memorial Bridge is a set of twin suspension bridges crossing the Delaware River. The toll bridges carry Interstate 295 and U.S. Route 40 between Delaware and New Jersey...

 to New York City
New York City
New York is the most populous city in the United States and the center of the New York Metropolitan Area, one of the most populous metropolitan areas in the world. New York exerts a significant impact upon global commerce, finance, media, art, fashion, research, technology, education, and...

, feared that the paralleling Somerset Freeway, which had no toll, would have caused the NJTPA to lose revenue south of the I-287 interchange.

In 1982, an act of Congress allowed the Somerset Freeway to be dropped, but stipulated that I-95 would be rerouted, via the Pennsylvania Turnpike
Pennsylvania Turnpike
The Pennsylvania Turnpike is a toll highway system operated by the Pennsylvania Turnpike Commission in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, United States. The three sections of the turnpike system total . The main section extends from Ohio to New Jersey and is long...

 into New Jersey. This I-95/PA Turnpike interchange
Pennsylvania Turnpike/Interstate 95 Interchange Project
The Pennsylvania Turnpike/Interstate 95 Interchange Project is a project to build an interchange where Interstate 95 crosses the Pennsylvania Turnpike in Bristol Township, Pennsylvania. This will fill the gap that exists on I-95 through New Jersey due to the cancellation of the Somerset Freeway....

, which was never built in the beginning, will be constructed starting in 2013, with completion by 2017. When completed, the new interchange will make I-95 a continuous route between Philadelphia
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Philadelphia is the largest city in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania and the county seat of Philadelphia County, with which it is coterminous. The city is located in the Northeastern United States along the Delaware and Schuylkill rivers. It is the fifth-most-populous city in the United States,...

 and New York City
New York City
New York is the most populous city in the United States and the center of the New York Metropolitan Area, one of the most populous metropolitan areas in the world. New York exerts a significant impact upon global commerce, finance, media, art, fashion, research, technology, education, and...

.

Another, but similar plan involving Interstate 78
Interstate 78
Interstate 78 is an Interstate Highway in the Northeast United States, running 144 miles from Interstate 81 northeast of Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, through Allentown, Pennsylvania, and western and northern New Jersey to the Holland Tunnel and Lower Manhattan in New York City.I-78 is a major road...

 would have bisected the town of Phillipsburg
Phillipsburg, New Jersey
Phillipsburg, known locally as P'burg, is a town in Warren County, New Jersey, in the United States. As of 2010 United States Census, the town's population was 14,950....

, but NJDOT
New Jersey Department of Transportation
The New Jersey Department of Transportation is the agency responsible for transportation issues and policy in New Jersey. It is headed by the Commissioner of Transportation...

 and PennDOT, under opposition from local residents, decided to reroute I-78 south of the Lehigh Valley
Lehigh Valley
The Lehigh Valley, known officially by the United States Census Bureau as the Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton, PA-NJ metropolitan area and referred to locally as The Valley and A-B-E, is a metropolitan region consisting of Lehigh, Northampton, Berks, and Carbon counties in eastern Pennsylvania and...

 area, on what would have been the planned I-278 bypass. This led to the downgrade of I-378
Pennsylvania Route 378
Pennsylvania Route 378 is a north-to-south road in Lehigh and Northampton counties. Its northern terminus is at U.S. Route 22 in Bethlehem and the portion north of the Lehigh River is a freeway. The highway was once Interstate 378 but when Interstate 78 was rerouted from U.S...

 in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania
Bethlehem, Pennsylvania
Bethlehem is a city in Lehigh and Northampton Counties in the Lehigh Valley region of eastern Pennsylvania, in the United States. As of the 2010 census, the city had a total population of 74,982, making it the seventh largest city in Pennsylvania, after Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Allentown, Erie,...

 from an Interstate highway to a PA State highway route. The completion of I-78 through the Watchung Reservation
Watchung Reservation
Watchung Reservation is the largest park in Union County, New Jersey, United States. It is bounded by the city of Summit, the borough of Mountainside, the townships of Berkeley Heights, Scotch Plains, and Springfield. The reservation consists mainly of the upper valley of Blue Brook, between the...

 in Union County
Union County, New Jersey
Union County is a county located in the U.S. state of New Jersey. As of the 2010 Census, the population was 536,499. It is part of the New York Metropolitan Area. Its county seat is Elizabeth. Union County ranks 93rd among the highest-income counties in the United States. It also ranks 74th in...

 was also delayed until the late 1980s due to litigation opposing its route through the park.

New York City


Several expressways in New York City
New York City
New York is the most populous city in the United States and the center of the New York Metropolitan Area, one of the most populous metropolitan areas in the world. New York exerts a significant impact upon global commerce, finance, media, art, fashion, research, technology, education, and...

, mostly planned by Robert Moses
Robert Moses
Robert Moses was the "master builder" of mid-20th century New York City, Long Island, Rockland County, and Westchester County, New York. As the shaper of a modern city, he is sometimes compared to Baron Haussmann of Second Empire Paris, and is one of the most polarizing figures in the history of...

, were canceled because of public oppositions, including two that would have been built through Midtown and Lower Manhattan.

The Lower Manhattan Expressway
Lower Manhattan Expressway
The Lower Manhattan Expressway was a controversial plan for an expressway through lower Manhattan originally conceived by Robert Moses in 1941, but delayed until the early 1960s...

 was planned to carry Interstate 78
Interstate 78
Interstate 78 is an Interstate Highway in the Northeast United States, running 144 miles from Interstate 81 northeast of Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, through Allentown, Pennsylvania, and western and northern New Jersey to the Holland Tunnel and Lower Manhattan in New York City.I-78 is a major road...

 from its current terminus at the end of the Holland Tunnel
Holland Tunnel
The Holland Tunnel is a highway tunnel under the Hudson River connecting the island of Manhattan in New York City with Jersey City, New Jersey at Interstate 78 on the mainland. Unusual for an American public works project, it is not named for a government official, politician, or local hero or...

 through Lower Manhattan to the Williamsburg Bridge
Williamsburg Bridge
The Williamsburg Bridge is a suspension bridge in New York City across the East River connecting the Lower East Side of Manhattan at Delancey Street with the Williamsburg neighborhood of Brooklyn at Broadway near the Brooklyn-Queens Expressway...

 with a connection to the Manhattan Bridge
Manhattan Bridge
The Manhattan Bridge is a suspension bridge that crosses the East River in New York City, connecting Lower Manhattan with Brooklyn . It was the last of the three suspension bridges built across the lower East River, following the Brooklyn and the Williamsburg bridges...

 at Canal Street. The Expressway would have been built directly through such neighborhoods as Greenwich Village
Greenwich Village
Greenwich Village, , , , .in New York often simply called "the Village", is a largely residential neighborhood on the west side of Lower Manhattan in New York City. A large majority of the district is home to upper middle class families...

, SoHo
SoHo
SoHo is a neighborhood in Lower Manhattan, New York City, notable for being the location of many artists' lofts and art galleries, and also, more recently, for the wide variety of stores and shops ranging from trendy boutiques to outlets of upscale national and international chain stores...

, and the Lower East Side
Lower East Side, Manhattan
The Lower East Side, LES, is a neighborhood in the southeastern part of the New York City borough of Manhattan. It is roughly bounded by Allen Street, East Houston Street, Essex Street, Canal Street, Eldridge Street, East Broadway, and Grand Street....

, much of which was characterized as old and "run down" by the mid 20th century. After a long battle, the expressway was canceled in the 1970s by New York Governor Nelson Rockefeller
Nelson Rockefeller
Nelson Aldrich Rockefeller was the 41st Vice President of the United States , serving under President Gerald Ford, and the 49th Governor of New York , as well as serving the Roosevelt, Truman and Eisenhower administrations in a variety of positions...

 due to fears of increased pollution and negative effects on such cultural neighborhoods as Little Italy
Little Italy, Manhattan
Little Italy is a neighborhood in lower Manhattan, New York City, once known for its large population of Italians. Today the neighborhood of Little Italy consists of Italian stores and restaurants.-Historical area:...

 and Chinatown
Chinatown, Manhattan
Manhattan's Chinatown , home to one of the highest concentrations of Chinese people in the Western hemisphere, is located in the borough of Manhattan in New York City...

.

The Mid-Manhattan Expressway
Mid-Manhattan Expressway
The Mid-Manhattan Expressway was a planned but never built expressway that would have crossed Midtown Manhattan in the vicinity of 30th Street, connecting the Lincoln Tunnel between Manhattan and New Jersey to the Queens Midtown Tunnel between Manhattan and Long Island.- Initial proposals :Plans...

 was another freeway planned to be built directly through the busy Midtown Manhattan
Midtown Manhattan
Midtown Manhattan, or simply Midtown, is an area of Manhattan, New York City home to world-famous commercial zones such as Rockefeller Center, Broadway, and Times Square...

 business district just south of 34th Street and would pass very close to the Empire State Building
Empire State Building
The Empire State Building is a 102-story landmark skyscraper and American cultural icon in New York City at the intersection of Fifth Avenue and West 34th Street. It has a roof height of 1,250 feet , and with its antenna spire included, it stands a total of 1,454 ft high. Its name is derived...

. The Expressway was to carry Interstate 495
Interstate 495 (New York)
Interstate 495 is an auxiliary Interstate Highway on Long Island in New York in the United States. The route extends for from the western portal of the Queens-Midtown Tunnel in the New York City borough of Manhattan to County Route 58 in Riverhead, Suffolk County...

 from the Lincoln Tunnel
Lincoln Tunnel
The Lincoln Tunnel is a long tunnel under the Hudson River, connecting Weehawken, New Jersey and the borough of Manhattan in New York City.-History:...

 (where I-495 was to continue to the New Jersey Turnpike
New Jersey Turnpike
The New Jersey Turnpike is a toll road in New Jersey, maintained by the New Jersey Turnpike Authority. According to the International Bridge, Tunnel and Turnpike Association, the Turnpike is the nation's sixth-busiest toll road and is among one of the most heavily traveled highways in the United...

) to the Queens Midtown Tunnel
Queens Midtown Tunnel
The Queens–Midtown Tunnel is a highway tunnel and toll road in New York City. It crosses under the East River and connects the Borough of Queens on Long Island with the Borough of Manhattan The Queens–Midtown Tunnel (sometimes simply known as the Midtown Tunnel) is a highway tunnel and toll road...

 where it would connect to the Long Island Expressway. The expressway was originally very popular among local leaders, and Moses had gone so far as to run the Expressway right through Manhattan skyscrapers. However, fears of increased vehicular traffic in the already congested city brought the expressway down and it was canceled in 1971.

Expressways in the boroughs outside Manhattan had been planned but later canceled, including the Bushwick Expressway, an extension of Interstate 78
Interstate 78
Interstate 78 is an Interstate Highway in the Northeast United States, running 144 miles from Interstate 81 northeast of Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, through Allentown, Pennsylvania, and western and northern New Jersey to the Holland Tunnel and Lower Manhattan in New York City.I-78 is a major road...

 through Brooklyn
Brooklyn
Brooklyn is the most populous of New York City's five boroughs, with nearly 2.6 million residents, and the second-largest in area. Since 1896, Brooklyn has had the same boundaries as Kings County, which is now the most populous county in New York State and the second-most densely populated...

 and Queens
Queens
Queens is the easternmost of the five boroughs of New York City. The largest borough in area and the second-largest in population, it is coextensive with Queens County, an administrative division of New York state, in the United States....

 that would run from the Williamsburg Bridge
Williamsburg Bridge
The Williamsburg Bridge is a suspension bridge in New York City across the East River connecting the Lower East Side of Manhattan at Delancey Street with the Williamsburg neighborhood of Brooklyn at Broadway near the Brooklyn-Queens Expressway...

 (at the end of the Lower Manhattan Expressway
Lower Manhattan Expressway
The Lower Manhattan Expressway was a controversial plan for an expressway through lower Manhattan originally conceived by Robert Moses in 1941, but delayed until the early 1960s...

) to John F. Kennedy International Airport
John F. Kennedy International Airport
John F. Kennedy International Airport is an international airport located in the borough of Queens in New York City, about southeast of Lower Manhattan. It is the busiest international air passenger gateway to the United States, handling more international traffic than any other airport in North...

. Also, the Cross Brooklyn Expressway, a faster commercial route paralleling the Belt Parkway
Belt Parkway
The Belt System is a series of connected limited-access highways that form a belt-like circle around the New York City boroughs of Brooklyn and Queens. The system comprises four officially separate parkways; however, three of the four are signed as the Belt Parkway...

 from the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge
Verrazano-Narrows Bridge
The Verrazano-Narrows Bridge is a double-decked suspension bridge that connects the boroughs of Staten Island and Brooklyn in New York City at the Narrows, the reach connecting the relatively protected upper bay with the larger lower bay....

 to John F. Kennedy International Airport
John F. Kennedy International Airport
John F. Kennedy International Airport is an international airport located in the borough of Queens in New York City, about southeast of Lower Manhattan. It is the busiest international air passenger gateway to the United States, handling more international traffic than any other airport in North...

. The Bushwick was canceled largely due to the cancellation of the Lower Manhattan Expressway. For this reason, none of I-78's spur routes connect to I-78; the closest connection would have been made by Interstate 478 via the Brooklyn-Battery Tunnel
Brooklyn-Battery Tunnel
Interstate 478s entire length consists of the Brooklyn–Battery Tunnel and its approaches. Its south end is at Interstate 278, and its north end is at NY 9A ....

.

Other expressway cancellations included the Queens-Interboro Expressway, which would have connected the Queens Midtown Tunnel
Queens Midtown Tunnel
The Queens–Midtown Tunnel is a highway tunnel and toll road in New York City. It crosses under the East River and connects the Borough of Queens on Long Island with the Borough of Manhattan The Queens–Midtown Tunnel (sometimes simply known as the Midtown Tunnel) is a highway tunnel and toll road...

 with southern neighborhoods of Brooklyn
Brooklyn
Brooklyn is the most populous of New York City's five boroughs, with nearly 2.6 million residents, and the second-largest in area. Since 1896, Brooklyn has had the same boundaries as Kings County, which is now the most populous county in New York State and the second-most densely populated...

 and Queens
Queens
Queens is the easternmost of the five boroughs of New York City. The largest borough in area and the second-largest in population, it is coextensive with Queens County, an administrative division of New York state, in the United States....

 and the Cross Harlem Expressway, which would have run in the vicinity of 125th Street
125th Street (Manhattan)
125th Street is a two-way street that runs east-west in the New York City borough of Manhattan, considered the "Main Street" of Harlem; It is also called Martin Luther King, Jr...

 in Harlem
Harlem
Harlem is a neighborhood in the New York City borough of Manhattan, which since the 1920s has been a major African-American residential, cultural and business center. Originally a Dutch village, formally organized in 1658, it is named after the city of Haarlem in the Netherlands...

 from the Triborough Bridge
Triborough Bridge
The Robert F. Kennedy ' Bridge, formerly known as the Triborough Bridge , is a complex of three separate bridges in New York City, United States...

 to the Hudson River
Hudson River
The Hudson is a river that flows from north to south through eastern New York. The highest official source is at Lake Tear of the Clouds, on the slopes of Mount Marcy in the Adirondack Mountains. The river itself officially begins in Henderson Lake in Newcomb, New York...

 (plans also included building a bridge at 125th Street to New Jersey over the Hudson).

Some of New York City
New York City
New York is the most populous city in the United States and the center of the New York Metropolitan Area, one of the most populous metropolitan areas in the world. New York exerts a significant impact upon global commerce, finance, media, art, fashion, research, technology, education, and...

's expressways were left unfinished due to local opposition. In Queens
Queens
Queens is the easternmost of the five boroughs of New York City. The largest borough in area and the second-largest in population, it is coextensive with Queens County, an administrative division of New York state, in the United States....

, the Clearview Expressway abruptly ends in the neighborhood of Hollis
Hollis, Queens
Hollis is a neighborhood within the southeastern section of the New York City borough of Queens. A predominantly African American community, the boundaries are considered to be the Far Rockaway Branch of the Long Island Rail Road to the west, Hillside Avenue to the north, Francis Lewis Boulevard to...

. It was slated to continue south to John F. Kennedy International Airport
John F. Kennedy International Airport
John F. Kennedy International Airport is an international airport located in the borough of Queens in New York City, about southeast of Lower Manhattan. It is the busiest international air passenger gateway to the United States, handling more international traffic than any other airport in North...

, but was canceled. The proposed segment near JFK Airport was built as the JFK Expressway
JFK Expressway
The JFK Expressway is a short freeway connecting the Belt Parkway with John F. Kennedy International Airport in Queens, New York City. It interchanges with the Nassau Expressway at the former proposed south end of the Clearview Expressway . The roadway is the newest expressway in New York City,...

 between 1989 and 1992. In The Bronx
The Bronx
The Bronx is the northernmost of the five boroughs of New York City. It is also known as Bronx County, the last of the 62 counties of New York State to be incorporated...

, the Sheridan Expressway was to run from the Bruckner Expressway
Bruckner Expressway
The Bruckner Expressway is a freeway in The Bronx. It carries Interstate 278 and Interstate 95 from the Robert F. Kennedy Bridge to the south end of the New England Thruway at the Pelham Parkway interchange....

 in the South Bronx
South Bronx
The South Bronx is an area of the New York City borough of The Bronx. The neighborhoods of Tremont, University Heights, Highbridge, Morrisania, Soundview, Hunts Point, and Castle Hill are sometimes considered part of the South Bronx....

 to the Westchester County Line where it would meet with the New England Thruway
New England Thruway
The New England Thruway is a portion of the U.S. Interstate highway system and of the New York State Thruway, within and operated by the New York State Thruway Authority, linking New York City with New England, specifically with southwestern Connecticut...

, running along what is now Boston Post Road (US-1). However, this extension was canceled and today the Sheridan Expressway runs a very short route from the Bruckner Expressway
Bruckner Expressway
The Bruckner Expressway is a freeway in The Bronx. It carries Interstate 278 and Interstate 95 from the Robert F. Kennedy Bridge to the south end of the New England Thruway at the Pelham Parkway interchange....

 to the Cross Bronx Expressway.

Much of the reason for the cancellations was due to local groups protesting the construction of these expressways through their neighborhoods, and the seen negative effects in local communities caused by the building of such expressways as the Cross Bronx Expressway, which is largely credited for the destruction and dereliction of the Tremont
Tremont, Bronx
Tremont is a low income residential neighborhood geographically located in the west Bronx, New York City. The neighborhood is part of Bronx Community Board 5. Its boundaries, starting from the north and moving clockwise are: East 183rd Street to the north, Webster Avenue to the east, the...

 neighborhood, and the Brooklyn-Queens Expressway.

Long Island


New York City was not the only part of New York to face an onslaught of freeway revolts. Long Island
Long Island
Long Island is an island located in the southeast part of the U.S. state of New York, just east of Manhattan. Stretching northeast into the Atlantic Ocean, Long Island contains four counties, two of which are boroughs of New York City , and two of which are mainly suburban...

, which was almost as heavily populated as New York City, had dozens of roads planned by the New York State Department of Transportation, as well as Suffolk and Nassau Counties (see List of Suffolk County (New York) Road proposals). On two occasions, Suffolk County built roads and allowed them to be redesignated as state highways, in the hope that the state would upgrade them when the county couldn't. The following is a list of roads throughout New York State that were either canceled, truncated, or stalled.
  • A.O. Smith Turnpike.
  • Atlantic Expressway-Sunrise Highway
    New York State Route 27
    New York State Route 27 is an east–west long state highway extending from Interstate 278 in the New York City borough of Brooklyn to Montauk Point State Park on Long Island, New York, United States...

    .
  • Babylon-Northport Expressway.
  • Bethpage State
    Bethpage State Parkway
    The Bethpage State Parkway is a 2.49 mile  long state parkway in Nassau County, New York, United States. Its southern end is an interchange with the Southern State Parkway, and its northern end is a traffic circle within Bethpage State Park. In between are three interchanges that service...

     and Caumsett State Parkway
    Caumsett State Parkway
    Caumsett State Parkway was a formerly proposed parkway on the north shore of Long Island which would have been in both Nassau and Suffolk Counties...

    s.
  • Broad Hollow Expressway
    New York State Route 110
    New York State Route 110 is a major north–south state highway along the western border of Suffolk County, New York. It runs between the Village of Amityville in the Town of Babylon and Halesite in the Town of Huntington...

    .
  • Cross River Drive Extension
    County Route 105 (Suffolk County, New York)
    Suffolk County Route 105 is a major county road in Suffolk County, New York. It is four-lane mostly divided highway that runs from Suffolk County Road 104 to Sound Avenue in Northville, west of the western terminus of Suffolk County Road 48 in Mattituck....

    .
  • Cedar Swamp Road.
  • Long Island Expressway Extension
    Interstate 495 (New York)
    Interstate 495 is an auxiliary Interstate Highway on Long Island in New York in the United States. The route extends for from the western portal of the Queens-Midtown Tunnel in the New York City borough of Manhattan to County Route 58 in Riverhead, Suffolk County...

    .
  • Long Lane.
  • MacArthur Airport
    Long Island MacArthur Airport
    Long Island MacArthur Airport, formerly known as Islip Airport is a public airport located on Long Island, in Ronkonkoma, Town of Islip, Suffolk County, New York, United States. It is seven miles northeast of the central business district of Islip hamlet...

     Expressway.
  • Nassau Expressway
    Interstate 78
    Interstate 78 is an Interstate Highway in the Northeast United States, running 144 miles from Interstate 81 northeast of Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, through Allentown, Pennsylvania, and western and northern New Jersey to the Holland Tunnel and Lower Manhattan in New York City.I-78 is a major road...

    .
  • Nicolls Road
    County Route 97 (Suffolk County, New York)
    Suffolk County Road 97, also known as Nicolls Road , is a major county road in Suffolk County, New York...

     (completed, but intended to be upgraded to a limited-access highway for its full length)
  • Northern State Parkway
    Northern State Parkway
    The Northern State Parkway is a long limited-access state parkway on Long Island in the U.S. state of New York. The western terminus is at the Queens-Nassau County line, where the parkway continues westward into New York City as the Grand Central Parkway...

     Extension.
  • Nesconset-Port Jefferson Highway-North Shore Expressway
    New York State Route 347
    New York State Route 347 is an east–west state highway located in Suffolk County, New York, in the United States. It connects the Northern State Parkway in Hauppauge to NY 25A in Mount Sinai. The route serves as a southern bypass of Smithtown and as a direct link between Nesconset and...

    .
  • Ocean Parkway Extension.
  • Patchogue-Mount Sinai Road
    County Route 83 (Suffolk County, New York)
    Suffolk County Road 83 is a major county road in Suffolk County, New York. It runs north and south from New York State Route 27 at exit 52A in North Patchogue to New York State Route 25A in Mount Sinai...

     Extension and Cedar Beach Spur.
  • Ponquogue Causeway
    Ponquogue Causeway
    Ponquogue Causeway was a formerly proposed parkway in Suffolk County, New York, designed to connect Montauk Highway in Hampton Bays with the proposed Ocean Parkway Extension on Fire Island's Tiana Beach...

    .
  • Port Jefferson-Westhampton Beach Highway.
  • Seaford-Oyster Bay Expressway
    New York State Route 135
    New York State Route 135 is a state highway in eastern Nassau County, New York, United States. The route is a limited-access highway that connects Seaford with Syosset. The highway runs from Merrick Road in Seaford to NY 25 in Syosset...

    .

  • Sound Shore Parkway
    Sound Shore Parkway
    Sound Shore Parkway was a formerly proposed parkway intended to run primarily across the north shore of Long Island between the City of Glen Cove and the Town of Smithtown, New York. Like Ocean Parkway on the south shore, and Lake Ontario State Parkway in Upstate New York, it was meant to provide...

    .
  • Southern State Parkway
    Southern State Parkway
    The Southern State Parkway is a long limited-access highway on Long Island, in the U.S. state of New York...

     Extension.
  • Veterans Memorial Highway
    New York State Route 454
    New York State Route 454 , also known as the Suffolk County Veterans' Memorial Highway, is a east–west divided highway in western and central Suffolk County on Long Island in New York. It spans from NY 25 in Commack to NY 27 north of Patchogue...

     Extension.
  • Wantagh State Parkway
    Wantagh State Parkway
    The Wantagh State Parkway is a state parkway on Long Island in New York, in the United States. It links the Ocean Parkway at Jones Beach State Park with the Northern State Parkway in Westbury. The parkway is located approximately east of Manhattan and east of the Nassau–Queens border...

     Extension.
  • West Babylon-Centerport Highway.
  • Western Nassau Expressway.
  • William Floyd Parkway
    County Route 46 (Suffolk County, New York)
    Suffolk County Road 46 is a major county road in eastern Suffolk County, New York. It runs north and south from County Route 75 in Smith Point County Park to New York State Route 25A near the border of Shoreham and Wading River...

    .

Hudson Valley

  • Bear Mountain Parkway
    Bear Mountain State Parkway
    The Bear Mountain State Parkway is a part of the New York State highway system. It was built in 1932 but, unlike most other parkways in Westchester County, New York, it has barely been constructed upon since. It currently stands as an incomplete highway, with a western portion of and an eastern...

  • Blue Mountain Parkway
  • Briarcliff-Peekskill Parkway
  • Catskill Expressway
  • Central Corridor Expressway (included the Bronx-White Plains
    New York State Route 125
    New York State Route 125 is a long north–south state highway in Westchester County, New York. The route begins in The Town of Mamaroneck at U.S...

     and White Plains-Mahopac
    New York State Route 100
    New York State Route 100 is a major north–south state highway in Westchester County, New York, in the United States. It begins parallel to Interstate 87 at a junction with the Cross County Parkway in the city of Yonkers and runs through most of the length of the county via the city of...

     Expressways)
  • Cross County Parkway
    Cross County Parkway
    The Cross County Parkway is a long parkway in Westchester County, New York. The parkway is a critical east–west connection throughout Westchester, having full interchanges with every major north–south parkway in southern Westchester, in addition to the New York State Thruway mainline....

     Extensions
  • Garden State Parkway
    Garden State Parkway
    The Garden State Parkway is a 172.4-mile limited-access toll parkway that stretches the length of New Jersey from the New York line at Montvale, New Jersey, to Cape May at New Jersey's southernmost tip. Its name refers to New Jersey's nickname, the "Garden State." Most New Jersey residents refer...

     Extension
  • Hudson River Expressway
  • New Jersey Turnpike
    New Jersey Turnpike
    The New Jersey Turnpike is a toll road in New Jersey, maintained by the New Jersey Turnpike Authority. According to the International Bridge, Tunnel and Turnpike Association, the Turnpike is the nation's sixth-busiest toll road and is among one of the most heavily traveled highways in the United...

     -- Northern Extension
  • Northern Westchester Expressway
    New York State Route 35
    New York State Route 35 is the principal east–west highway in the northern part of Westchester County, New York, carrying average daily volumes of around 16,500 vehicles...

  • Orange Expressway
    New York State Route 208
    New York State Route 208 is a state highway located in southern New York in the United States. The southern terminus is at an intersection with NY 17M in the Orange County village of Monroe...

  • Ossining-South Salem Expressway
    New York State Route 172
    New York State Route 172 is an state highway in Westchester County, New York, in the United States. The route begins at NY 117 in the village of Mount Kisco and ends in the hamlet of Pound Ridge at NY 137....

  • Pearl River-Haverstraw Expressway
    New York State Route 304
    New York State Route 304 is a New York State Route that is entirely located in Central Rockland County. NY 304 begins at the New Jersey-New York border in Pearl River, New York, and ends at US 9W. Though it crosses both the New York State Thruway and the Palisades Interstate...

  • Peekskill-Brewster Expressway
  • Pelham-Port Chester Parkway
  • Phelps Way
    New York State Route 117
    New York State Route 117 is a 15.57 mile long state highway in Westchester County, New York, United States. The southern terminus of the route is at U.S. Route 9 north of the village of Sleepy Hollow. The northern terminus is at the Saw Mill River Parkway south of Katonah, a hamlet...

  • Pound Ridge-Stamford Expressway
    New York State Route 137
    New York State Route 137 is a long state highway in Westchester County, New York, United States. The route is a continuation of Connecticut's Route 137, which links NY 137 to Stamford, Connecticut...

  • Spring Valley Bypass
    New York State Route 45
    New York State Route 45 is a north–south state highway in central Rockland County, New York, United States. It spans from the village of Chestnut Ridge at the New Jersey – New York border, where it becomes County Route 73 in Bergen County, New Jersey, to U.S. Route 202 in...

  • A major 4-lane straightening and expansion of the Hutchinson River Parkway
    Hutchinson River Parkway
    The Hutchinson River Parkway is a north–south parkway in southern New York, United States. It extends for from the massive Bruckner Interchange in the Throgs Neck section of the Bronx to the New York – Connecticut state line at Rye Brook...

     in Eastchester through a park was put on indefinite hold after outcry from local residents in 1978 and 1979.
  • The Taconic State Parkway
    Taconic State Parkway
    The Taconic State Parkway , is a divided highway between Kensico Dam and Chatham, the longest parkway in the U.S. state of New York. It follows a generally northward route midway between the Hudson River and the Connecticut and Massachusetts state lines...

     was rerouted further away from what is now Lake Taghkanic State Park
    Lake Taghkanic State Park
    Lake Taghkanic State Park is a state park located in the southern part of Columbia County, New York in the USA. The park is on the town line between the Towns of Gallatin and Taghkanic....

     in 1946 when owners of the vacation cottages that would have been condemened along the lake's west shore objected. Construction of the highway was held up for two years while a new route was acquired and planned

Capital District

  • Mid-Crosstown Arterial (US 9-9W
    U.S. Route 9W
    U.S. Route 9W is a north–south U.S. Highway in the states of New Jersey and New York. It begins on Fletcher Avenue in Fort Lee, New Jersey as it crosses the US 1 & 9, US 46, and the Interstate 95 approaches to the George Washington Bridge, where it heads north up the west...

    )
  • Northern Albany Expressway
    Interstate 687
    Interstate 687 was a proposed auxiliary Interstate Highway in the Capital District region of New York in the United States. The highway would have connected I-90 in Albany to I-87 near Albany International Airport in Colonie...

  • Southern Albany Expressway: A free connection between the Adirondack Northway and the Riverfront Route
    Interstate 787
    Interstate 787 is an auxiliary Interstate Highway in the U.S. state of New York. I-787 is the main highway for those traveling into and out of downtown Albany. The southern terminus is at the Interstate 87/New York State Thruway exit 23 toll plaza southwest of downtown Albany...

     running parallel to the New York State Thruway
    New York State Thruway
    The New York State Thruway is a system of limited-access highways located within the state of New York in the United States. The system, known officially as the Governor Thomas E. Dewey Thruway for former New York Governor Thomas E. Dewey, is operated by the New York State Thruway Authority and...

    .
  • Taconic State Parkway
    Taconic State Parkway
    The Taconic State Parkway , is a divided highway between Kensico Dam and Chatham, the longest parkway in the U.S. state of New York. It follows a generally northward route midway between the Hudson River and the Connecticut and Massachusetts state lines...

     Extension
  • Slingerlands Bypass
    New York State Route 85
    New York State Route 85 is a state highway in Albany County, New York, in the United States. It is long and runs from County Route 351 and CR 353 in Rensselaerville to Interstate 90 exit 4 in Albany. It also has a loop route, NY 85A, which connects NY 85 to...

    .
  • Interstate 88
    Interstate 88 (east)
    Interstate 88 is an intrastate Interstate Highway entirely within the U.S. state of New York. Its western end is at Interstate 81 in Binghamton and its eastern end is at Interstate 90 in Schenectady. It serves as an important connector route from Albany to Binghamton, Elmira , and...

     Extension (also known as the East–West Highway)

Buffalo-Niagara Falls


Buffalo-Niagara Falls was also not immune to freeway revolts. An extensive system of highways and parkways were planned to be built in the counties of Niagara and Erie.
  • Lake Ontario State Parkway
    Lake Ontario State Parkway
    The Lake Ontario State Parkway is a parkway along the southern shore of Lake Ontario in western New York in the United States. The western end of the highway is at a partial interchange within Lakeside Beach State Park in Carlton, Orleans County. Its eastern terminus is at an intersection with...

     Extension
  • Robert Moses State Parkway
    Robert Moses State Parkway
    The Robert Moses State Parkway is an long north–south highway in western Niagara County, New York, United States. Its southern terminus is at the LaSalle Expressway on the east bank of the Niagara River in Niagara Falls. The northern terminus is at NY 18 at Four Mile Creek State Park in...

     Extension
  • LaSalle Expressway
    LaSalle Expressway
    The LaSalle Expressway is a long limited-access highway in Niagara County, New York, United States. It begins near the North Grand Island Bridge at an interchange with Interstate 190 in Niagara Falls and ends just south of the Niagara Falls International Airport at Williams Road in Wheatfield...

     This expressway was to be the beginning of the proposed Buffalo Beltway, which was never built except for the LaSalle and the short Milestrip Expressway (New York State Route 179
    New York State Route 179
    New York State Route 179 is a short state highway located south of Buffalo in Erie County, New York, in the United States. It is a four-lane divided road for most of its length. It is known as Mile Strip Road. A small section between U.S...

    ) in Blasdell, New York
    Blasdell, New York
    Blasdell is a village in Erie County, New York, United States. The population was 2,718 according to the year 2000 census. The name is derived from Herman Blasdell, the first station master of the Erie and Pennsylvania railroad depot...

    .
  • Interstate 990
    Interstate 990
    Interstate 990 is an auxiliary Interstate Highway located entirely within the town of Amherst in Erie County, New York, in the United States. It runs in a roughly north–south direction for through the southwestern and central parts of Amherst from Interstate 290 north of Buffalo to...

     was originally to extend all the way to Lockport, New York and eventually to Rochester, New York; instead, it terminates at New York State Route 263
    New York State Route 263
    New York State Route 263 is a state highway located entirely within the town of Amherst in Erie County, New York, in the United States. It extends from just north of the northeast corner of the city of Buffalo in a roughly northeast direction almost straight to just south of the north county...

    . Also, the expressway was planned to cross the east side of Buffalo, in a portion to be called the Crosstown Expressway; it would have terminated at the Niagara section Interstate 190
    Interstate 190 (New York)
    Interstate 190 runs 28.34 miles from Interstate 90 near Buffalo, New York to Lewiston, New York via Niagara Falls. Parts of this highway were built on the former rights-of-way of the Lehigh Valley Railroad and the Erie Canal. It is referred to by locals as The One-Ninety...

     near the northern sections of South Buffalo.
  • New York State Route 5
    New York State Route 5
    New York State Route 5 is a state highway that extends for across the state of New York in the United States. It begins at the Pennsylvania state line in the Chautauqua County town of Ripley and passes through Buffalo, Syracuse, Utica, Schenectady, and several other smaller cities and...

     (Southshore Expressway) expressway section to New York State Route 75
    New York State Route 75
    New York State Route 75 is a north–south state highway in Erie County, New York, in the United States. It extends for from an intersection with NY 39 in the Collins hamlet of Collins Center to an interchange with NY 5 in the town of Hamburg...

    .
  • New York State Route 33
    New York State Route 33
    New York State Route 33 is an east–west state highway in western New York in the United States. The route extends for just under from NY 5 in Buffalo in the west to NY 31 in Rochester in the east. It is, in fact, the only state highway that directly connects both cities, although...

     (Kensington Expressway) extension to the Outer Beltway. Also West Side Arterial to Interstate 190
    Interstate 190 (New York)
    Interstate 190 runs 28.34 miles from Interstate 90 near Buffalo, New York to Lewiston, New York via Niagara Falls. Parts of this highway were built on the former rights-of-way of the Lehigh Valley Railroad and the Erie Canal. It is referred to by locals as The One-Ninety...

     in Downtown Buffalo.
  • New York State Route 400
    New York State Route 400
    New York State Route 400 is a state highway located within Erie County, New York, in the United States. The northwest end is connected to the New York State Thruway and the southeast end terminates at NY 16 in the town of Aurora. NY 400, a limited-access highway, roughly parallels...

     Extension from New York State Route 16
    New York State Route 16
    New York State Route 16 is a state highway in western New York, United States. It runs from the Pennsylvania state line, where it is one of the highest highways in the state in elevation, to downtown Buffalo. NY 16 is a major route through Erie County, despite the construction of the...

     To Erie County Line and possibly to Olean, New York
    Olean, New York
    Olean is a city in Cattaraugus County, New York, United States. Olean is the largest city in Cattaraugus County, and serves as the financial, business, transportation and entertainment center of the county. It is one of the principal cities of the Southern Tier region of New York.The city is...

    .
  • Gowanda Expressway Angola, New York
    Angola, New York
    Angola is a village in Erie County, New York, United States. The population was 2,266 at the 2000 census. The name is reportedly derived from the South-central African country of Angola...

     to Gowanda, New York
    Gowanda, New York
    Gowanda is a village in New York in the United States and lies partly in Erie County and partly in Cattaraugus County. The population was 2,842 at the 2000 census. The name is a local native term meaning "almost surrounded by hills" or "beautiful place among the hills...

    .
  • North Park Expressway From Interstate 190
    Interstate 190 (New York)
    Interstate 190 runs 28.34 miles from Interstate 90 near Buffalo, New York to Lewiston, New York via Niagara Falls. Parts of this highway were built on the former rights-of-way of the Lehigh Valley Railroad and the Erie Canal. It is referred to by locals as The One-Ninety...

     to New York State Route 33
    New York State Route 33
    New York State Route 33 is an east–west state highway in western New York in the United States. The route extends for just under from NY 5 in Buffalo in the west to NY 31 in Rochester in the east. It is, in fact, the only state highway that directly connects both cities, although...

     in North Buffalo.
  • East Side Arterial New York State Route 33
    New York State Route 33
    New York State Route 33 is an east–west state highway in western New York in the United States. The route extends for just under from NY 5 in Buffalo in the west to NY 31 in Rochester in the east. It is, in fact, the only state highway that directly connects both cities, although...

     to Interstate 90
    Interstate 90
    Interstate 90 is the longest Interstate Highway in the United States at . It is the northernmost coast-to-coast interstate, and parallels US 20 for the most part. Its western terminus is in Seattle, at Edgar Martinez Drive S. near Safeco Field and CenturyLink Field, and its eastern terminus is in...

     New York State Thruway.
  • Lancaster Expressway Interstate 90
    Interstate 90
    Interstate 90 is the longest Interstate Highway in the United States at . It is the northernmost coast-to-coast interstate, and parallels US 20 for the most part. Its western terminus is in Seattle, at Edgar Martinez Drive S. near Safeco Field and CenturyLink Field, and its eastern terminus is in...

     to US Route 20.
  • River Road Expressway Buffalo Beltway in Niagara Falls to South Grand Island Bridges.
  • Tonawanda Expressway (Today's Twin Cities Memorial Highway New York State Route 425
    New York State Route 425
    New York State Route 425 is a New York state highway that runs from NY 18 in Wilson, New York on the shore of Lake Ontario to a connection with Interstate 290 in the Town of Tonawanda...

    ) Creating a freeway instead of an arterial from Interstate 290
    Interstate 290 (New York)
    Interstate 290 runs for near Buffalo, New York from I-90 to I-190. It connects Buffalo with its northern suburbs of Amherst and Tonawanda, and provides a route to Niagara Falls that bypasses the city of Buffalo. I-290 also connects to Interstate 990, and through this connection,...

     to the Buffalo Beltway.
  • Tuscarora Expressway An outer Beltway for the City of Niagara Falls from Tonawanda Expressway to Robert Moses State Parkway
    Robert Moses State Parkway
    The Robert Moses State Parkway is an long north–south highway in western Niagara County, New York, United States. Its southern terminus is at the LaSalle Expressway on the east bank of the Niagara River in Niagara Falls. The northern terminus is at NY 18 at Four Mile Creek State Park in...

    .
  • Inner Belt Parkway
  • Outer Belt Parkway

Other regions

  • Watertown-Champlain Expressway
  • New York State Route 13
    New York State Route 13
    New York State Route 13 is a state highway that runs mainly north–south for between NY 14 in Horseheads and NY 3 west of Pulaski in Central New York in the United States. In between, NY 13 intersects with Interstate 81 in Cortland and Pulaski and meets the New York...

     Expressway, Ithaca
  • East–West Highway (New England) along US 4

Ohio


In 1964 and 1965, the State of Ohio
Ohio
Ohio is a Midwestern state in the United States. The 34th largest state by area in the U.S.,it is the 7th‑most populous with over 11.5 million residents, containing several major American cities and seven metropolitan areas with populations of 500,000 or more.The state's capital is Columbus...

 proposed three freeways that would bisect Cleveland’s eastern suburbs and parkland including Cleveland Heights, Shaker Heights and East Cleveland. The Clark Freeway was to connect I-271 with downtown Cleveland via Shaker Blvd, the Shaker Lakes, North Park Blvd and East Cleveland. The Lee Freeway was to run north from an interchange with the Clark Highway at Shaker Lakes over Lee Rd to a third highway that would run east–west approximately where Monticello Blvd and Taylor roads are today. Local residents blocked all three highways. One of several key actions was the 1966 formation of the Nature Center at Shaker Lakes
Nature Center at Shaker Lakes
The Nature Center at Shaker Lakes, a nonprofit organization that is dedicated to conserving a natural area, connecting people with nature, and inspiring environmental stewardship, was founded in 1966 as the result of a grassroots community effort to preserve the Shaker Parklands from becoming the...

.

Cincinnati also had a freeway revolt: the Colerain, Queen City and Taft Expressways were never built (though a particularly congested segment of Queen City Avenue was eventually bypassed in 2005) and the Red Bank Expressway, designed as a freeway connection between Interstate 71
Interstate 71
Interstate 71 is an Interstate Highway in the Great Lakes/Midwestern and Southeastern region of the United States. Its southern terminus is at an interchange with Interstate 64 and Interstate 65 in Louisville, Kentucky. Its northern terminus is at an interchange with Interstate 90 in Cleveland,...

 and U.S. Route 50
U.S. Route 50
U.S. Route 50 is a major east–west route of the U.S. Highway system, stretching just over from Ocean City, Maryland on the Atlantic Ocean to West Sacramento, California. Until 1972, when it was replaced by Interstate Highways west of the Sacramento area, it extended to San Francisco, near...

, was built instead as a surface artery, albeit with limited intersections. There are prominent ramp stubs at the interchange of Interstate 74
Interstate 74
Interstate 74 is an Interstate Highway in the Midwestern and Southeastern United States. Its western end is at an intersection with Interstate 80 in Davenport, Iowa; the eastern end of its Midwest segment is at an intersection with Interstate 75 in Cincinnati, Ohio...

 and Beekman Street that would have connected I-74 to the Colerain Expressway.

In addition, the Cross County Highway, which was designed to connect the eastern and western sides of I-275 through Hamilton County, was built, but never fully completed. For years, the highway existed in two separate segments; the eastern segment was built between Galbraith Road and Montgomery Road (just east of I-71) in the late 1950s and early 1960s. In the mid-1970s, the western stretch was built from Colerain Avenue (U.S. Route 27) to the western side of I-275. While these segments were finally connected in 1997, and the highway was renamed the Ronald Reagan Highway, the three-mile (5 km) stretch between Montgomery Road and the eastern side of I-275 was never built due to protests from wealthy residents of The Village of Indian Hill
Indian Hill, Ohio
The Village of Indian Hill is a city in Hamilton County, Ohio, United States, and an affluent suburb of the Greater Cincinnati area. The population was 5,907 at the 2000 census. Prior to 1970, Indian Hill was incorporated as a village, but under Ohio law became designated as a city once its...

, who convinced officials to stop the highway's construction from occurring in the city. This resulted in the lack of a direct freeway connection between existing Interstate 74 and its proposed extension along Ohio State Route 32 to the east toward the Carolinas.

Portland



Shortly after World War II, the city leaders of Portland, Oregon
Portland, Oregon
Portland is a city located in the Pacific Northwest, near the confluence of the Willamette and Columbia rivers in the U.S. state of Oregon. As of the 2010 Census, it had a population of 583,776, making it the 29th most populous city in the United States...

 commissioned famed transportation planner Robert Moses
Robert Moses
Robert Moses was the "master builder" of mid-20th century New York City, Long Island, Rockland County, and Westchester County, New York. As the shaper of a modern city, he is sometimes compared to Baron Haussmann of Second Empire Paris, and is one of the most polarizing figures in the history of...

 to design a freeway network for the city. Moses produced a proposal which called for numerous freeways to crisscross the city; of this proposal six freeway routes made it to the planning stage. Four of the six were eventually constructed (in some cases in the face of intense opposition); these are:
  • The Banfield Freeway (Interstate 84
    Interstate 84 in Oregon
    In the U.S. state of Oregon, Interstate 84 travels east–west, following the Columbia River and the rough path of the old Oregon Trail from Portland east to Idaho. For this reason, it is also known as most of the Columbia River Highway No. 2 and all of the Old Oregon Trail Highway No. 6 . It...

    )
  • The Baldock Freeway (Interstate 5
    Interstate 5 in Oregon
    In the U.S. state of Oregon, Interstate 5 traverses the state from north to south, passing through the major cities of Portland, Salem, Eugene, and Medford.-Route description:...

    )
  • The Stadium Freeway (Interstate 405
    Interstate 405 (Oregon)
    Interstate 405 is a short Interstate Highway in Portland, Oregon. It forms a loop from Interstate 5 that travels through downtown Portland west of the Willamette River.-Route description:...

    )
  • The East Portland Freeway (Interstate 205
    Interstate 205 (Oregon-Washington)
    Interstate 205 is a loop route that serves the Portland—Vancouver metropolitan area in the U.S. states of Oregon and Washington. I-205 is officially named the War Veterans Memorial Freeway, and is also known as the East Portland Freeway...

    )


However, two other planned freeways—the Interstate 505 freeway, and the Mount Hood Freeway, were far more controversial. Each proposed route cut through established city neighborhoods. An intense battle arose over the Mount Hood Freeway, a proposed routing of U.S. Route 26
U.S. Route 26 in Oregon
In the U.S. state of Oregon, U.S. Route 26 is a major cross-state state highway, connecting U.S. Route 101 on the Oregon Coast near Seaside with the Idaho state line east of Nyssa. Local highway names include the Sunset Highway No. 47, Mount Hood Highway No. 26, and John Day Highway No...

 and Interstate 84 (then 80N) that stretched from the Marquam Bridge out to the city of Sandy
Sandy, Oregon
Sandy is a city located in Clackamas County, Oregon, United States, and named after the nearby Sandy River. As of the 2000 census, the city had a total population of 5,385, however the 2006 estimate shows 7,070 people....

 at the base of Mount Hood
Mount Hood
Mount Hood, called Wy'east by the Multnomah tribe, is a stratovolcano in the Cascade Volcanic Arc of northern Oregon. It was formed by a subduction zone and rests in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States...

. One section of the freeway—an expressway
Limited-access road
A limited-access road known by various terms worldwide, including limited-access highway, dual-carriageway and expressway, is a highway or arterial road for high-speed traffic which has many or most characteristics of a controlled-access highway , including limited or no access to adjacent...

 stretch between Sandy and Gresham
Gresham, Oregon
- Demographics :As of the census of 2000, there were 90,205 people, 33,327 households, and 22,695 families residing in the city. The population density was 4,071.6 people per square mile . There were 35,309 housing units at an average density of 1,593.8 per square mile...

 with an uncompleted interchange—was built; but the remainder was controversial.

The 1972 mayoral race, with Neil Goldschmidt
Neil Goldschmidt
Neil Edward Goldschmidt is an American businessman and former Democratic politician from Oregon who held local, state, and federal offices over three decades. After serving as the governor of Oregon, Goldschmidt is widely considered the most influential figure in the state's politics, both as an...

 representing the anti-freeway side and Frank Ivancie
Frank Ivancie
Francis J. "Frank" Ivancie is a retired Portland, Oregon businessman and politician who served as mayor of that city from 1981 through 1985. Prior to his term as mayor, Ivancie served for fourteen years on the Portland City Council...

 representing the supporters of the freeway, became a de-facto referendum on the proposed route. The election was won by Goldschmidt and the freeway was canceled. The proposed federal funds for the project were instead made available for a planned light rail
Light rail
Light rail or light rail transit is a form of urban rail public transportation that generally has a lower capacity and lower speed than heavy rail and metro systems, but higher capacity and higher speed than traditional street-running tram systems...

 line, built in the 1980s to connect Portland with Gresham and now part of the MAX Blue Line
MAX Blue Line
The MAX Blue Line is a 33 mile light rail line in the MAX Light Rail system in the Portland metropolitan area in the U.S. state of Oregon. Operated by TriMet, the line runs between Hillsboro and Gresham, via downtown Portland...

. This light-rail network is steadily expanding, including sections along Interstate 205 in room that resulted from the controversy.

Soon after, the Interstate 505 proposal was also canceled; a shorter freeway "stub" was built instead, and U.S. Route 30 was routed on a new alignment through an industrial area (and away from the residential neighborhood that its prior alignment—and the I-505 proposal—ran through).

In addition to the cancellation of three proposed freeway routes, Portland saw another milestone in the freeway revolts: the destruction of an already-existing freeway. The first freeway to be built through the city—Harbor Drive
Harbor Drive
Harbor Drive is the name of a street in Portland, Oregon, which was formerly a freeway that carried U.S. Route 99W along the western shore of the Willamette River in the downtown area...

 (along the western shore of the Willamette River
Willamette River
The Willamette River is a major tributary of the Columbia River, accounting for 12 to 15 percent of the Columbia's flow. The Willamette's main stem is long, lying entirely in northwestern Oregon in the United States...

), which was, at the time, the route of Oregon Route 99W—was demolished and replaced with Tom McCall Waterfront Park
Tom McCall Waterfront Park
Governor Tom McCall Waterfront Park is a park located on the west bank of the Willamette River in downtown Portland, Oregon. It is , comprising 16 tax lots owned by the City of Portland....

. 99W was moved onto nearby Front Avenue (the stretch of 99W through Portland would be later decommissioned), and little evidence remains that there was once a freeway along the waterfront. The removal of Harbor Drive was not very controversial; the construction of I-5 on the river's East Bank, and I-405 through the downtown core, had made Harbor Drive unnecessary.

Elsewhere in Oregon


Other Oregon freeway revolts occurred in Salem
Salem, Oregon
Salem is the capital of the U.S. state of Oregon, and the county seat of Marion County. It is located in the center of the Willamette Valley alongside the Willamette River, which runs north through the city. The river forms the boundary between Marion and Polk counties, and the city neighborhood...

 and Eugene
Eugene, Oregon
Eugene is the second largest city in the U.S. state of Oregon and the seat of Lane County. It is located at the south end of the Willamette Valley, at the confluence of the McKenzie and Willamette rivers, about east of the Oregon Coast.As of the 2010 U.S...

. In Salem, the Interstate 305 project was shelved and replaced with the Salem Parkway, a highway along the same alignment but with at-grade intersections. In Eugene, the Roosevelt Freeway and West Eugene Parkway projects were canceled, and the Belt Line Road was severely curtailed; only the northwestern segment of the proposed beltway was ever built.

Philadelphia


There were plans for the Cobbs Creek Expressway
Interstate 695 (Pennsylvania)
Interstate 695 was a proposed three-digit Interstate Highway that would have connected Interstate 95 in Southeast Philadelphia, at the Philadelphia International Airport, with I-95 near the Delaware River waterfront near the Benjamin Franklin Bridge...

, which would have started at Interstate 95
Interstate 95 in Pennsylvania
Interstate 95 is an Interstate highway running from Miami, Florida north to Houlton, Maine. In the U.S. state of Pennsylvania, the route is known by many as the Delaware Expressway, but is officially named The Vietnam Veterans Memorial Highway. and locally known as "95"...

 and run up the western edge of Philadelphia, along with the Crosstown Expressway, which would have connected back to I-95 near downtown
Center City, Philadelphia
Center City, or Downtown Philadelphia includes the central business district and central neighborhoods of the City of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States. As of 2005, its population of over 88,000 made it the third most populous downtown in the United States, after New York City's and Chicago's...

. Both freeways were part of a planned routing of Interstate 695. Because of community opposition, neither freeway was constructed. (Additionally, the position of the Crosstown Expressway portion of I-695 between the Schuylkill
Interstate 76 (east)
Interstate 76 is an Interstate Highway in the United States, running 435 miles from an interchange with Interstate 71 west of Akron, Ohio, east to Interstate 295 near Camden, New Jersey....

 and Vine Street Expressway
Interstate 676
Interstate 676 is an Interstate Highway that serves as a major thoroughfare through Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, where it is known as the Vine Street Expressway, and Camden, New Jersey, where it is known as the northern segment of the North–South Freeway, as well as the Martin Luther King Jr....

s would be considered redundant, particularly because of its close proximity to the Vine Street Expressway.) Also, the Roosevelt Expressway was planned to extend from the Schuylkill Expressway
Schuylkill Expressway
The Schuylkill Expressway , locally known as the Schuylkill, is a freeway through southwestern Montgomery County and the city of Philadelphia, and the easternmost segment of Interstate 76 in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania...

 to Northeast Philadelphia (only a small portion of this freeway was built; the rest is an at-grade boulevard, the Roosevelt Boulevard
Roosevelt Boulevard (Philadelphia)
Roosevelt Boulevard , often referred to simply as "the Boulevard," is a major traffic artery through North and Northeast Philadelphia...

), and an Interstate 895
Interstate 895 (New Jersey-Pennsylvania)
Interstate 895 was a planned long Interstate Highway in New Jersey and Pennsylvania that would have provided a freeway between I-295 near Burlington in Burlington County, New Jersey and Interstate 95 near Bristol in Bucks County, Pennsylvania....

 was planned to connect the Philadelphia suburbs of Bristol, Pennsylvania
Bristol, Pennsylvania
Bristol is a borough in Bucks County, Pennsylvania, northeast of Philadelphia opposite Burlington, N.J. on the Delaware River. Bristol was first incorporated in 1720. Although its charter was revised in 1905, the original charter remains in effect, making Bristol one of the older boroughs in...

 and Burlington, New Jersey
Burlington, New Jersey
Burlington is a city in Burlington County, New Jersey, United States and a suburb of Philadelphia. As of the 2010 United States Census, the city population was 9,920....

.

A section of Pennsylvania Route 23
Pennsylvania Route 23
Pennsylvania Route 23 is a state highway in southeastern Pennsylvania. The route begins at Pennsylvania Route 441 in Marietta and heads east to U.S. Route 1 in Philadelphia.-Marietta to Valley Forge:...

 was once planned for an expressway upgrade, and construction on the expressway began, but lack of funding at the state level halted construction. The grading and several overpasses for the expressway still exist, but as a mostly unpaved section that has since gained popularity as the "Goat Path Expressway". , the route is still under consideration by PennDOT, and appears in the Commonwealth 12-Year Transportation Plan.

Pittsburgh


A freeway revolt also occurred in Pittsburgh, where stub ramps near the Birmingham Bridge
Birmingham Bridge
The Birmingham Bridge is a tied arch bridge in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, which crosses over the Monongahela River. The bridge connects East Carson Street on the South Side with Fifth and Forbes Avenues going to Uptown, Oakland, and the Hill District.-History:The Birmingham Bridge was built in 1976...

 exist from the cancellation of the unbuilt Oakland Crosstown Freeway. Other canceled freeways include the South Hills Expressway, Pittsburgh-McKeesport Expressway, and the East Liberty Expressway.

Tennessee


Interstate 40
Interstate 40
Interstate 40 is the third-longest major east–west Interstate Highway in the United States, after I-90 and I-80. Its western end is at Interstate 15 in Barstow, California; its eastern end is at a concurrency of U.S. Route 117 and North Carolina Highway 132 in Wilmington, North Carolina...

 was planned to go through Memphis's Overton Park but public opposition, combined with a United States Supreme Court victory by opponents, forced abandonment of the plans. The eastern portion of the road had already been built inside the Interstate 240
Interstate 240 (Tennessee)
Interstate 240 is an Interstate Highway in the U.S. state of Tennessee. Running or 31.0 km, it loops southward from Interstate 40 in east Memphis, then turning west at TN 385 . At I-55, the highway turns north and runs through midtown to end at I-40...

 loop and this non-interstate highway is now named Sam Cooper Boulevard
Sam Cooper Boulevard
Sam Cooper Boulevard is a six-lane controlled-access parkway/expressway in Memphis, Tennessee, U.S.A.. The more recent western segment of the road follows a parkway design, the older eastern portion which was proposed and constructed as a segment of Interstate 40 is built as an expressway, without...

 while the northern portion of the I-240 loop was redesignated as I-40.

Houston


The inner city segment of Texas State Highway 225
Texas State Highway 225
State Highway 225, or SH 225, is an east–west freeway in the Houston area between the Interstate 610 Loop in Houston and State Highway 146 in La Porte. It is identified as the La Porte Freeway over its entire length except for Pasadena where it is called the Pasadena Freeway...

 was originally planned to begin in downtown Houston and traverse the city's predominantly Hispanic east side as the Harrisburg Freeway
Texas State Highway 225
State Highway 225, or SH 225, is an east–west freeway in the Houston area between the Interstate 610 Loop in Houston and State Highway 146 in La Porte. It is identified as the La Porte Freeway over its entire length except for Pasadena where it is called the Pasadena Freeway...

, but was never built due to neighborhood opposition and environmental concerns. Ghost ramps are still visible today at both the east and west ends of the freeway's planned route (at Loop 610 and US 59, respectively).

Burlington


The Burlington Beltline was a planned highway envisioned in the 1960s to be built around the Burlington metropolis with the freeway cutting through the waterfront for access to the core business district. The only part of this built to federal specifications was Interstate 189, a short two mile spur. Various parts of the Beltline have been built piecemeal as both divided and undivided two lane freeways.

Central and Northeastern


Another conceived freeway that has been continually protested is a proposal by the state of Maine and business interests in Maine and Vermont for a freeway extending from Montpelier at I-89, crossing to St. Johnsbury, meeting up with I-93, then splitting right after crossing into New Hampshire. The freeway would cut straight across northern New Hampshire into Maine, where it would cut down to Maine's coastal cities. The freeway has been called a critical link for loggers in Maine to reach Western markets in the U.S. and Canada.

Washington


The R.H. Thomson Expressway, connecting Interstate 90
Interstate 90
Interstate 90 is the longest Interstate Highway in the United States at . It is the northernmost coast-to-coast interstate, and parallels US 20 for the most part. Its western terminus is in Seattle, at Edgar Martinez Drive S. near Safeco Field and CenturyLink Field, and its eastern terminus is in...

 to State Route 520 through the Central District
Central District, Seattle, Washington
The Central District is a mostly residential district in Seattle located east of Cherry Hill, west of Madrona and Leschi, south of Capitol Hill, and north of Rainier Valley...

, Madison Valley
Madison Valley, Seattle, Washington
Madison Valley is a neighborhood in Seattle located east of Capitol Hill; west of Washington Park; south of Montlake; and north of the Central District.The valley is centered on the corner of E. Madison Street and Martin Luther King Jr...

, and Washington Park Arboretum
Washington Park Arboretum
Washington Park is a public park in Seattle, Washington, USA, most of which is taken up by the Washington Park Arboretum, a joint project of the University of Washington, the Seattle Department of Parks and Recreation, and the nonprofit Arboretum Foundation. Washington Park also includes a...

, and the Bay Freeway
Bay Freeway
The Bay Freeway was the name of separate freeways proposed in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and Seattle, Washington, United States. No portion of either freeway was ever constructed.-Milwaukee:...

, connecting Interstate 5
Interstate 5
Interstate 5 is the main Interstate Highway on the West Coast of the United States, running largely parallel to the Pacific Ocean coastline from Canada to Mexico . It serves some of the largest cities on the U.S...

 to State Route 99
Washington State Route 99
State Route 99, abbreviated SR 99, commonly called Highway 99, is a numbered state highway in the U.S. state of Washington extending just under from Fife in the south to Everett in the north, with a gap in Tukwila.-Southern division:...

 in South Lake Union
South Lake Union, Seattle, Washington
South Lake Union is a neighborhood in Seattle, Washington, so named because it is at the south tip of Lake Union.The official boundaries of the City of Seattle Urban Center are Denny Way on the south, beyond which is Denny Triangle; Interstate 5 on the east, beyond which is Capitol Hill; Aurora...

 near Seattle Center
Seattle Center
Seattle Center is a park and arts and entertainment center in Seattle, Washington. The campus is the site used in 1962 by the Century 21 Exposition. It is located just north of Belltown in the Lower Queen Anne neighborhood.-Attractions:...

, faced mounting protests beginning in 1969. The death of these two highways is generally considered to be the 1972 referendum that withdrew their funding.

In the 1960s, the state legislature proposed Interstate 605
Interstate 605 (Washington)
Interstate 605 is the common designation given to several proposals for a new auxiliary route of the Interstate Highway System bypassing Interstate 5 and I-405 in the US state of Washington. Proposals have been heard from since the 1960s, including highways connecting from I-5 all the way to the...

 as a second bypass of Seattle. Similar proposals were made in 2000 and 2003. While the routings have varied, public opposition has shut down each of the projects.

After the Alaskan Way Viaduct
Alaskan Way Viaduct
The Alaskan Way Viaduct, completed on April 4, 1953, is a double-decked elevated section of State Route 99 that runs along the Elliott Bay waterfront in Seattle's Industrial District and downtown Seattle. It is the smaller of the two major north–south traffic corridors through Seattle ,...

 in Seattle was damaged by an earthquake in 2001, there was a significant political movement to not replace it, including large majorities voting against both replacement options, but the Washington State Department of Transportation
Washington State Department of Transportation
The Washington State Department of Transportation , was established in 1905. The agency, led by a Secretary and overseen by the Governor, is a Washington governmental agency that constructs, maintains, and regulates the use of the state's transportation infrastructure...

 voted to allocate funding to build a tunnel to replace the viaduct. A large number of citizens, including mayoral candidate Mike McGinn, have vowed to stop this tunnel.

In 1964, the Spokane Metropolitan Area Transportation Study was formed to fulfill requirements of Federal Highway Act of 1962, and in 1970, along with the Department of Highways, released the "Corridor Study for North Spokane and North Suburban Area Freeway". It recommended a north–south freeway along Hamilton and Nevada streets (the corridor between Nevada and Helena). Though a full freeway interchange connecting Hamilton Street with I-90 (exit 282/282A) was built, residents successfully blocked any further construction through this area. The remaining section of the freeway stub is now Washington State Route 290. The North-South Freeway (now known as the US 395/North Spokane Corridor) was reawakened in 1997 when a new corridor was chosen, and in 2003 groundbreaking began. In August 2009, a 3.5 mile section between Francis/Freya and Farwell Road was completed in North Spokane. In 2011-12, construction will be completed from the existing US 395 near Wandermere to US 2, nearly 5 miles of the 10 mile corridor. By 2015, the freeway will be finished to at least the Spokane River, and the rest of the freeway connecting to I-90 will be completed as funds become available. Until then, through traffic connecting to the freeway will use the at-grade Freya/Green Street corridor.

Washington, D.C.


Plans to build Interstate 270 (Maryland)
Interstate 270 (Maryland)
Interstate 270 is a auxiliary Interstate Highway in the U.S. state of Maryland that travels between Interstate 495 just north of Bethesda, Montgomery County and Interstate 70 in the city of Frederick in Frederick County. It consists of the mainline as well as a spur that provides access to and...

, Interstate 95
Interstate 95
Interstate 95 is the main highway on the East Coast of the United States, running parallel to the Atlantic Ocean from Maine to Florida and serving some of the most populated urban areas in the country, including Boston, Providence, New Haven, New York City, Newark, Philadelphia, Baltimore,...

, and Interstate 66
Interstate 66
Interstate 66 is an Interstate Highway in the eastern United States. As indicated by its even route number, it runs in an east–west direction. Its western terminus is at Middletown, Virginia, at an intersection with Interstate 81; its eastern terminus is in Washington, D.C., at an...

, as well as a proposed Interstate 266 over a new Three Sisters Bridge through Washington, D.C. and the Maryland and Virginia suburbs were canceled due to public opposition. This is why Interstate 395
Interstate 395 (District of Columbia-Virginia)
Interstate 395 in Washington, D.C., and Virginia is a 13 mile long spur route that begins at a junction with Interstate 95 in Springfield, Virginia and ends in northwest Washington, D.C. It passes underneath the National Mall near the United States Capitol and ends at a junction with U.S...

 ends at New York Avenue and Interstate 95 goes around the Capital Beltway
Interstate 495 (Capital Beltway)
Interstate 495 is a Interstate Highway that surrounds the United States' capital of Washington, D.C., and its inner suburbs in adjacent Maryland and Virginia. I-495 is widely known as the Capital Beltway or simply the Beltway, especially when the context of Washington, D.C., is clear...

 rather than continuing through the city. Funds for several of these projects were redirected to the construction of the Washington Metro
Washington Metro
The Washington Metro, commonly called Metro, and unofficially Metrorail, is the rapid transit system in Washington, D.C., United States, and its surrounding suburbs. It is administered by the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority , which also operates Metrobus service under the Metro name...

.

Wisconsin


In Milwaukee, several planned freeways were either never built, partially built, or partially built but subsequently demolished and replaced with an at-grade boulevard.
  • The Lake Freeway was designed to be the eastern leg of an inner loop around downtown Milwaukee, to extend along the lakefront south from the Park Freeway
    Park Freeway
    The Park Freeway was a freeway planned and partially constructed in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States. It is notable for the freeway removal policy that demolished Park East Freeway, the only section to be completed....

     to Bay View and southeastern Milwaukee and thence through the southeastern suburbs, with a proposed extension to run much further south, through central Racine
    Racine, Wisconsin
    Racine is a city in and the county seat of Racine County, Wisconsin, United States. According to 2008 U.S. Census Bureau estimates, the city had a population of 82,196...

     and Kenosha
    Kenosha, Wisconsin
    Kenosha is a city and the county seat of Kenosha County in the State of Wisconsin in United States. With a population of 99,218 as of May 2011, Kenosha is the fourth-largest city in Wisconsin. Kenosha is also the fourth-largest city on the western shore of Lake Michigan, following Chicago,...

    , Wisconsin
    Wisconsin
    Wisconsin is a U.S. state located in the north-central United States and is part of the Midwest. It is bordered by Minnesota to the west, Iowa to the southwest, Illinois to the south, Lake Michigan to the east, Michigan to the northeast, and Lake Superior to the north. Wisconsin's capital is...

    , continuing further south through Chicago's northeastern lakefront suburb
    Suburb
    The word suburb mostly refers to a residential area, either existing as part of a city or as a separate residential community within commuting distance of a city . Some suburbs have a degree of administrative autonomy, and most have lower population density than inner city neighborhoods...

    s, where a portion of the proposed freeway was constructed, and is today the Interstate-standard section of Lake Shore Drive
    Lake Shore Drive
    Lake Shore Drive is a mostly freeway-standard expressway running parallel with and alongside the shoreline of Lake Michigan through Chicago, Illinois, USA. Except for the portion north of Foster Avenue , Lake Shore Drive is designated as part of U.S...

    . Besides Lake Shore Drive
    Lake Shore Drive
    Lake Shore Drive is a mostly freeway-standard expressway running parallel with and alongside the shoreline of Lake Michigan through Chicago, Illinois, USA. Except for the portion north of Foster Avenue , Lake Shore Drive is designated as part of U.S...

     in Chicago, along with the never-completed Amstutz Expressway
    Illinois Route 137
    Illinois Route 137 is a state highway in northeast Illinois. It runs from the Wisconsin Border north of Winthrop Harbor south to North Chicago, west to Libertyville, and then back northwest to Grayslake, terminating at Illinois Route 83 just south of Illinois Route 120...

     through Waukegan
    Waukegan, Illinois
    Waukegan is a city and county seat of Lake County, Illinois. As of the 2000 census, the city had a total population of 87,901. The 2010 population was 89,078. It is the ninth-largest city in Illinois by population...

    , the only portion of this system that is completed to Interstate standards is a 2 miles (3.2 km) portion of Interstate 794
    Interstate 794
    Interstate 794 is Interstate Highway spur route in Milwaukee County in the U.S. state of Wisconsin. It is one of two auxiliary Interstates in the Milwaukee metropolitan area and serves the lakefront, the Port of Milwaukee and connects downtown with the southeastern suburbs of St...

    , although a portion of the route south of the official southern terminus of Interstate 794 continues as 4-lane divided controlled-access freeway, as Highway 794
    Highway 794 (Wisconsin)
    State Trunk Highway 794 is a state highway in the U.S. state of Wisconsin. It runs north–south in Milwaukee County from downtown Milwaukee to its southern suburbs...

    , or the Lake Parkway.

  • The northern end of the Lake Freeway turned westward, and this section became known as the Park Freeway
    Park Freeway
    The Park Freeway was a freeway planned and partially constructed in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States. It is notable for the freeway removal policy that demolished Park East Freeway, the only section to be completed....

    . This was the northern leg of the inner loop. The eastern section was known as the Park East Freeway and the western section as the Park West Freeway, with the dividing point at the intersection with I-43. The Park West Freeway was intended to run northwesterly along Fond du Lac Avenue, and then turn westward just north of North Avenue. A major intersection with the Stadium Freeway
    Stadium Freeway (Wisconsin)
    The Stadium Freeway is a 6-lane divided highway running north–south in the city of Milwaukee, Wisconsin. This freeway was the first road of its kind built in Milwaukee County. It is designated as US Highway 41 along its northern stretch from Interstate 94 to Lisbon Avenue...

     was planned for the area around 45th and North Avenue. The right-of-way for the entire corridor was cleared. Due to neighborhood opposition, the only section of this freeway completed was from Milwaukee Street to Walnut Street. The above-grade section between Milwaukee Street and 6th Street was removed and replaced by an at-grade boulevard - McKinley Boulevard. Part of this corridor remains vacant, but most of the corridor has been developed or has development plans in place.

  • The Stadium Freeway
    Stadium Freeway (Wisconsin)
    The Stadium Freeway is a 6-lane divided highway running north–south in the city of Milwaukee, Wisconsin. This freeway was the first road of its kind built in Milwaukee County. It is designated as US Highway 41 along its northern stretch from Interstate 94 to Lisbon Avenue...

     was partially completed. The original plan was for its south end to be at I-894/I-43 near Loomis Road. From that point it would extend northward, intersecting I-94 at the Stadium Interchange and proceeding northward to its intersection with the Park Freeway
    Park Freeway
    The Park Freeway was a freeway planned and partially constructed in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States. It is notable for the freeway removal policy that demolished Park East Freeway, the only section to be completed....

    . From there it would jog northwesterly until heading north, parallelling 60th Street and continuing north to Port Washington
    Port Washington, Wisconsin
    Port Washington is the county seat of Ozaukee County in the U.S. state of Wisconsin. The city is about 25 miles north of Milwaukee and 110 miles north of Chicago. In the 2000 census Port Washington had a population of 10,467...

     where it met with I-43. The only section built was that between National Avenue and Lisbon Avenue, today's US 41.

  • Another planned freeway was the Bay Freeway
    Bay Freeway
    The Bay Freeway was the name of separate freeways proposed in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and Seattle, Washington, United States. No portion of either freeway was ever constructed.-Milwaukee:...

    . This was to be the northern bypass around the central city, complementing I-894 which is the built southern bypass. The Bay Freeway eastern point was I-43 at Hampton Avenue. The freeway was to run over Hampton Avenue, westward to the intersection with the Stadium Freeway
    Stadium Freeway (Wisconsin)
    The Stadium Freeway is a 6-lane divided highway running north–south in the city of Milwaukee, Wisconsin. This freeway was the first road of its kind built in Milwaukee County. It is designated as US Highway 41 along its northern stretch from Interstate 94 to Lisbon Avenue...

     and the Fond du Lac Freeway. From there it continued westward to Pewaukee where it would meet with Wisconsin Highway 16. No section of the Bay Freeway was ever built.

  • The Belt Freeway was to be a freeway encircling the metro Milwaukee area on the south, west and north sides. No section of the Belt Freeway was ever built.

Results


Many of the cities that had freeway revolts and listed above are now some of the most congested cities in the world.

External links


Cleveland


New Jersey


New York


Oregon


Pennsylvania


San Francisco


Berkeley


Connecticut


Maryland