Free State of Brunswick

Free State of Brunswick

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{{Unreferenced|date=October 2006}} The '''Free State of Brunswick''' ({{Lang-de|Freistaat Braunschweig}}) was the republic formed after the abolition of the [[Duchy of Brunswick]] in the course of the [[German Revolution of 1918–19]]. It was a [[Historic states of Germany|state]] of the [[German Reich]] in the time of the [[Weimar Republic]] and [[Nazi Germany]]. ==History== On 8 November 1918 the last [[House of Welf|Welf]] duke, [[Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick|Ernest Augustus of Brunswick]], was forced to resign and went into exile. Two days later, acitivists of the [[Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany]] (USPD) proclaimed the "Socialist Republic of Brunswick". However, in the first parliamentary elections on 6 December 1919 they were outnumbered by the [[Social Democratic Party of Germany|Social Democrats]] (SPD), who reached 27.7 % of the votes cast. Both parties formed a [[coalition government]] that shifted the state's constitution towards a [[parliamentary republic]]. A subsequent uprising in [[Braunschweig]] led by the Communist [[Spartacus League]] was crushed with the aid of ''[[Freikorps]]'' troops under [[Georg Ludwig Rudolf Maercker]]. [[File:Braunschweig Brunswick BS-Landtag (2005).JPG|thumb|left|Brunswick ''[[Landtag]]'' building]] [[File:Herzogtum Braunschweig.png|thumb|270px|Brunswick territory with later [[inner German border]]]] In 1922 the SPD/USPD government lost its majority, wherafter the Social Democrats had to form a coalition with the liberal [[German Democratic Party]] (DDP) and the [[German People's Party]] (DVP). Upon the 1924 elections, the DVP led a coalition government of several national liberal and right-wing parties, among them the [[National Socialist Freedom Movement]], a substitute of the outlawed [[Nazi Party]] (NSDAP). In the 1930 elections, the NSDAP reached 22.9 % of the votes cast, whereafter the Nazi politician Anton Franzen became Minister of the Interior, succeeded by his party fellow [[Dietrich Klagges]] in 1931. Klagges was instrumental in organizing the anti-democratic [[Harzburg Front]] in October 1931 and especially in naturalizing the former [[First Austrian Republic|Austrian]] citizen [[Adolf Hitler]], who aimed to run for the [[German presidential election, 1932|1932 German presidential election]]. After a first attempt to obtain a tenure at the [[Braunschweig University of Technology]] had shamefully failed, Klagges in 1932 finally reached the appointment of Hitler as a public functionary at the Brunswick delegation to the [[Reichsrat (Germany)|Reichsrat]] in [[Berlin]], which earned him the German citizenship. After the Nazi ''[[Machtergreifung]]'', Klagges became Minister president of Brunswick on 6 May 1933, he nevertheless had to accept the superior power of ''[[Reichsstatthalter]]'' [[Wilhelm Friedrich Loeper]], whose office was established in the course of the Nazi ''[[Gleichschaltung]]'' process. On 12 April 1945 [[US Army|US forces]] took the city of Brunswick and deposed the Nazi government. In 1946, the Brunswick territory within the [[Allied-occupied Germany|British occupation zone]] merged with the former Prussian [[Province of Hanover]], the Free States of [[Free State of Oldenburg|Oldenburg]] and [[Free State of Schaumburg-Lippe|Schaumburg-Lippe]] into the newly founded state (Land) of [[Lower Saxony]], while some eastern exclaves (mainly around [[Blankenburg (Harz)|Blankenburg]] and [[Calvörde]]) became part of [[Soviet occupation zone|Soviet]]-administered [[Saxony-Anhalt]]. ===Chairmen of the Council of People's Commissioners of the Republic of Brunswick, 1918–1919=== # 1918–1919: [[Sepp Oerter]] ([[Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany|USPD]]) # 1919–1920: [[Heinrich Jasper]] ([[Social Democratic Party of Germany|SPD]]) ===Ministers-president of the Republic of Brunswick, 1919–1946=== # 1919–1920: [[Heinrich Jasper]] (SPD) # 1920–1921: [[Sepp Oerter]] (USPD) # 1921–1922: [[August Junke]] (SPD) # 1922: [[Otto Antrick]] (SPD) # 1922: [[Heinrich Jasper]] (SPD) # 1924–1927: [[Gerhard Marquordt]] ([[German People's Party|DVP]]) # 1927–1930: [[Heinrich Jasper]] (SPD) # 1930–1933: [[Werner Küchenthal]] ([[German National People's Party|DNVP]]) # 1933–1945: [[Dietrich Klagges]] ([[National Socialist German Workers' Party|NSDAP]]) # 1945–1946: [[Hubert Schlebusch]] (SPD) # 1946: [[Alfred Kubel]] (SPD) ===Reichsstatthalter=== [[Reichsstatthalter]] for [[Free State of Anhalt|Anhalt]] and Brunswick (headquarters in [[Dessau]]) # 1933-1935: [[Wilhelm Loeper]] # 1935-1937: [[Fritz Sauckel]] # 1937-1945: [[Rudolf Jordan]] {{States of the Weimar Republic}} {{coord missing|Germany}} {{DEFAULTSORT:Free State Of Brunswick}}