Franklin Medal

Franklin Medal

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The Franklin Medal was a science and engineering award presented by the Franklin Institute
Franklin Institute
The Franklin Institute is a museum in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and one of the oldest centers of science education and development in the United States, dating to 1824. The Institute also houses the Benjamin Franklin National Memorial.-History:On February 5, 1824, Samuel Vaughn Merrick and...

, of Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Laureates

  • 1915 - Thomas Alva Edison (Engineering)
  • 1915 - Heike Kamerlingh Onnes
    Heike Kamerlingh Onnes
    Heike Kamerlingh Onnes was a Dutch physicist and Nobel laureate. He pioneered refrigeration techniques, and he explored how materials behaved when cooled to nearly absolute zero. He was the first to liquify helium...

     (Physics)
  • 1916 - John J. Carty
    John J. Carty
    John Joseph Carty was an American electrical engineer and a major contributor to the development of telephone wires and related technology. He was a recipient of the Edison Medal. As Chief Engineer of AT&T, he was instrumental in the development of the first transcontinental telephone line...

     (Engineering)
  • 1916 - Theodore William Richards
    Theodore William Richards
    Theodore William Richards was the first American scientist to receive the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, earning the award "in recognition of his exact determinations of the atomic weights of a large number of the chemical elements."- Biography :Theodore Richards was born in Germantown, Philadelphia,...

     (Chemistry)
  • 1917 - Hendrik Antoon Lorentz (Physics)
  • 1917 - David Watson Taylor (Engineering)
  • 1918 - Guglielmo Marconi
    Guglielmo Marconi
    Guglielmo Marconi was an Italian inventor, known as the father of long distance radio transmission and for his development of Marconi's law and a radio telegraph system. Marconi is often credited as the inventor of radio, and indeed he shared the 1909 Nobel Prize in Physics with Karl Ferdinand...

     (Engineering)
  • 1918 - Thomas Corwin Mendenhall
    Thomas Corwin Mendenhall
    Thomas Corwin Mendenhall was an autodidact US physicist and meteorologist.-Biography:Mendenhall was born in Hanoverton, Ohio to Stephen Mendenhall, a farmer and carriage-maker,...

     (Physics)
  • 1919 - James Dewar
    James Dewar
    Sir James Dewar FRS was a Scottish chemist and physicist. He is probably best-known today for his invention of the Dewar flask, which he used in conjunction with extensive research into the liquefaction of gases...

     (Physics)
  • 1919 - George Owen Squier (Engineering)
  • 1920 - Svante August Arrhenius (Chemistry)
  • 1920 - Charles A. Parsons (Engineering)
  • 1921 - Charles Fabry
    Charles Fabry
    Maurice Paul Auguste Charles Fabry FMRS was a French physicist.-Life:Fabry graduated from the Ecole Polytechnique in Paris and received his doctorate from the University of Paris in 1892, for his work on interference fringes, which established him as an authority in the field of optics and...

     (Physics)
  • 1921 - Frank Julian Sprague (Engineering)
  • 1922 - Ralph Modjeski
    Ralph Modjeski
    Ralph Modjeski was a Polish-born American civil engineer who achieved prominence as a pre-eminent bridge designer in the United States.-Life:...

     (Engineering)
  • 1922 - Joseph John Thomson (Physics)
  • 1923 - Auguste G. Ferrie (Engineering/Computer and Cognitive Science)
  • 1923 - Albert A. Michelson (Physics)
  • 1924 - Ernest Rutherford
    Ernest Rutherford
    Ernest Rutherford, 1st Baron Rutherford of Nelson OM, FRS was a New Zealand-born British chemist and physicist who became known as the father of nuclear physics...

     (Chemistry)
  • 1924 - Edward Weston
    Edward Weston (chemist)
    Edward Weston was an English-born American chemist noted for his achievements in electroplating and his development of the electrochemical cell, named the Weston cell, for the voltage standard...

     (Engineering)
  • 1925 - Elihu Thomson
    Elihu Thomson
    Elihu Thomson was an American engineer and inventor who was instrumental in the founding of major electrical companies in the United States, the United Kingdom and France.-Early life:...

     (Engineering)
  • 1925 - Pieter Zeeman
    Pieter Zeeman
    Pieter Zeeman was a Dutch physicist who shared the 1902 Nobel Prize in Physics with Hendrik Lorentz for his discovery of the Zeeman effect.-Childhood and youth:...

     (Physics)
  • 1926 - Niels Bohr
    Niels Bohr
    Niels Henrik David Bohr was a Danish physicist who made foundational contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum mechanics, for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1922. Bohr mentored and collaborated with many of the top physicists of the century at his institute in...

     (Physics)
  • 1926 - Samuel Rea
    Samuel Rea
    Samuel Rea was an American engineer and the 9th president of the Pennsylvania Railroad . He was awarded the Franklin Medal in 1926.-Early life and career:...

     (Engineering)
  • 1927 - George Ellery Hale
    George Ellery Hale
    George Ellery Hale was an American solar astronomer.-Biography:Hale was born in Chicago, Illinois. He was educated at MIT, at the Observatory of Harvard College, , and at Berlin . As an undergraduate at MIT, he is known for inventing the spectroheliograph, with which he made his discovery of...

     (Physics)
  • 1927 - Max Planck
    Max Planck
    Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck, ForMemRS, was a German physicist who actualized the quantum physics, initiating a revolution in natural science and philosophy. He is regarded as the founder of the quantum theory, for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1918.-Life and career:Planck came...

     (Physics)
  • 1928 - Charles F. Brush
    Charles F. Brush
    Charles Francis Brush was a U.S. inventor, entrepreneur and philanthropist.-Biography:Born in Euclid Township, Ohio, Brush was raised on a farm about 10 miles from downtown Cleveland...

     (Engineering)
  • 1928 - Walther Nernst
    Walther Nernst
    Walther Hermann Nernst FRS was a German physical chemist and physicist who is known for his theories behind the calculation of chemical affinity as embodied in the third law of thermodynamics, for which he won the 1920 Nobel Prize in chemistry...

     (Chemistry)
  • 1929 - Emile Berliner
    Emile Berliner
    Emile Berliner or Emil Berliner was a German-born American inventor. He is best known for developing the disc record gramophone...

     (Engineering)
  • 1929 - Charles Thomson Rees Wilson
    Charles Thomson Rees Wilson
    Charles Thomson Rees Wilson, CH, FRS was a Scottish physicist and meteorologist who received the Nobel Prize in physics for his invention of the cloud chamber.- Biography:...

     (Physics)
  • 1930 - William H. Bragg (Physics)
  • 1930 - John Frank Stevens
    John Frank Stevens
    John Frank Stevens was an American engineer who built the Great Northern Railway in the United States and was chief engineer on the Panama Canal between 1905 and 1907.- Biography :...

     (Engineering)
  • 1931 - James Hopwood Jeans
    James Hopwood Jeans
    Sir James Hopwood Jeans OM FRS MA DSc ScD LLD was an English physicist, astronomer and mathematician.-Background:...

     (Physics)
  • 1931 - Willis Rodney Whitney
    Willis Rodney Whitney
    Willis Rodney Whitney was an American chemist and founder of the research laboratory of the General Electric Company.- Early life and studies :...

     (Engineering)
  • 1932 - Philipp Lenard
    Philipp Lenard
    Philipp Eduard Anton von Lenard , known in Hungarian as Lénárd Fülöp Eduárd Antal, was a Hungarian - German physicist and the winner of the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1905 for his research on cathode rays and the discovery of many of their properties...

     (Physics)
  • 1932 - Ambrose Swasey
    Ambrose Swasey
    Ambrose Swasey was an American mechanical engineer, inventor, entrepreneur, manager, astronomer, and philanthropist. With Worcester R. Warner he co-founded the Warner & Swasey Company....

     (Engineering)
  • 1933 - Paul Sabatier
    Paul Sabatier (chemist)
    Paul Sabatier FRS was a French chemist, born at Carcassonne. He taught science classes most of his life before he became Dean of the Faculty of Science at the University of Toulouse in 1905....

     (Chemistry)
  • 1933 - Orville Wright (Engineering)
  • 1934 - Irving Langmuir
    Irving Langmuir
    Irving Langmuir was an American chemist and physicist. His most noted publication was the famous 1919 article "The Arrangement of Electrons in Atoms and Molecules" in which, building on Gilbert N. Lewis's cubical atom theory and Walther Kossel's chemical bonding theory, he outlined his...

     (Chemistry)
  • 1934 - Henry Norris Russell
    Henry Norris Russell
    Henry Norris Russell was an American astronomer who, along with Ejnar Hertzsprung, developed the Hertzsprung–Russell diagram . In 1923, working with Frederick Saunders, he developed Russell–Saunders coupling which is also known as LS coupling.-Biography:Russell was born in 1877 in Oyster Bay, New...

     (Physics)
  • 1935 - Albert Einstein
    Albert Einstein
    Albert Einstein was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of general relativity, effecting a revolution in physics. For this achievement, Einstein is often regarded as the father of modern physics and one of the most prolific intellects in human history...

     (Physics)
  • 1935 - John Ambrose Fleming
    John Ambrose Fleming
    Sir John Ambrose Fleming was an English electrical engineer and physicist. He is known for inventing the first thermionic valve or vacuum tube, the diode, then called the kenotron in 1904. He is also famous for the left hand rule...

     (Engineering)
  • 1936 - Frank Baldwin Jewett (Engineering)
  • 1936 - Charles Franklin Kettering (Engineering)
  • 1937 - Peter Debye
    Peter Debye
    Peter Joseph William Debye FRS was a Dutch physicist and physical chemist, and Nobel laureate in Chemistry.-Early life:...

     (Chemistry)
  • 1937 - Robert Andrews Millikan (Physics)
  • 1938 - William Frederick Durand (Engineering)
  • 1938 - Charles August Kraus (Chemistry)
  • 1939 - Edwin Hubble
    Edwin Hubble
    Edwin Powell Hubble was an American astronomer who profoundly changed the understanding of the universe by confirming the existence of galaxies other than the Milky Way - our own galaxy...

     (Physics)
  • 1939 - Albert Sauveur
    Albert Sauveur
    Albert Sauveur was an American Metallurgist, originally Belgian.He studied at Athénée Royal in Brussels, then the School of Mines, Liege and graduated at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1889....

     (Engineering)
  • 1940 - Leo Hendrick Baekeland (Engineering)
  • 1940 - Arthur Holly Compton (Physics)
  • 1941 - Edwin H. Armstrong (Engineering)
  • 1941 - Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman
    Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman
    Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman, FRS was an Indian physicist whose work was influential in the growth of science in the world. He was the recipient of the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1930 for the discovery that when light traverses a transparent material, some of the light that is deflected...

     (Physics)
  • 1942 - Jerome Clarke Hunsaker
    Jerome Clarke Hunsaker
    Jerome Clarke Hunsaker was an American airman born in Creston, Iowa, and educated at the Naval Academy and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.-Life:...

     (Engineering)
  • 1942 - Paul Dyer Merica (Engineering)
  • 1943 - George Washington Pierce (Engineering)
  • 1943 - Harold Clayton Urey (Physics)
  • 1944 - William David Coolidge
    William David Coolidge
    William David Coolidge was an American physicist, who made major contributions to X-ray machines. He was the director of the General Electric Research Laboratory and a vice-president of the corporation...

     (Engineering)
  • 1944 - Peter Kapitza (Physics)
  • 1945 - Harlow Shapley
    Harlow Shapley
    Harlow Shapley was an American astronomer.-Career:He was born on a farm in Nashville, Missouri, and dropped out of school with only the equivalent of a fifth-grade education...

     (Physics)
  • 1946 - Henry Clapp Sherman (Life Science)
  • 1946 - Henry Thomas Tizard (Engineering)
  • 1947 - Enrico Fermi
    Enrico Fermi
    Enrico Fermi was an Italian-born, naturalized American physicist particularly known for his work on the development of the first nuclear reactor, Chicago Pile-1, and for his contributions to the development of quantum theory, nuclear and particle physics, and statistical mechanics...

     (Physics)
  • 1947 - Robert Robinson (Chemistry)
  • 1948 - Wendell Meredith Stanley
    Wendell Meredith Stanley
    Wendell Meredith Stanley was an American biochemist, virologist and Nobel laureate.-Biography:Stanley was born in Ridgeville, Indiana, and earned a BS in Chemistry at Earlham College in Richmond, Indiana. He then studied at the University of Illinois, gaining an MS in science in 1927 followed by...

     (Life Science)
  • 1948 - Theodor Von Karman (Engineering)
  • 1949 - The Svedberg (Life Science)
  • 1950 - Eugene P. Wigner (Physics)
  • 1951 - James Chadwick
    James Chadwick
    Sir James Chadwick CH FRS was an English Nobel laureate in physics awarded for his discovery of the neutron....

     (Physics)
  • 1952 - Wolfgang Pauli
    Wolfgang Pauli
    Wolfgang Ernst Pauli was an Austrian theoretical physicist and one of the pioneers of quantum physics. In 1945, after being nominated by Albert Einstein, he received the Nobel Prize in Physics for his "decisive contribution through his discovery of a new law of Nature, the exclusion principle or...

     (Physics)
  • 1953 - William Francis Gibbs
    William Francis Gibbs
    William Francis Gibbs was a renowned naval architect who directed the mass production of cargo ships for the United States during World War II, including the famous Liberty ships, of which 2,751 were built...

     (Engineering)
  • 1954 - Charles Edward Kenneth Mees (Engineering)
  • 1955 - Arne Tiselius
    Arne Tiselius
    Arne Wilhelm Kaurin Tiselius was a Swedish biochemist who won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1948.- Biography:Tiselius was born in Stockholm...

     (Life Science)
  • 1956 - Frank Whittle
    Frank Whittle
    Air Commodore Sir Frank Whittle, OM, KBE, CB, FRS, Hon FRAeS was a British Royal Air Force engineer officer. He is credited with independently inventing the turbojet engine Air Commodore Sir Frank Whittle, OM, KBE, CB, FRS, Hon FRAeS (1 June 1907 – 9 August 1996) was a British Royal Air...

     (Engineering)
  • 1957 - Hugh Stott Taylor
    Hugh Stott Taylor
    Hugh Stott Taylor was an English chemist primarily interested in catalysis. In 1928, in a landmark contribution to catalytic theory, Taylor suggested that a catalyzed chemical reaction is not catalyzed over the entire solid surface of the catalyst but only at certain ‘active sites’ or centers.He...

     (Chemistry)
  • 1958 - Donald Wills Douglas
    Donald Wills Douglas, Sr.
    Donald Wills Douglas, Sr. was a United States aircraft industrialist and founder of the Douglas Aircraft Company in 1921 .-Early life:...

     (Engineering)
  • 1959 - Hans Albrecht Bethe (Physics)
  • 1960 - Roger Adams (Engineering)
  • 1961 - Detlev W. Bronk (Life Science)
  • 1962 - Geoffrey Ingram Taylor
    Geoffrey Ingram Taylor
    Sir Geoffrey Ingram Taylor OM was a British physicist, mathematician and expert on fluid dynamics and wave theory. His biographer and one-time student, George Batchelor, described him as "one of the most notable scientists of this century".-Biography:Taylor was born in St. John's Wood, London...

     (Life Science)
  • 1963 - Glenn T. Seaborg
    Glenn T. Seaborg
    Glenn Theodore Seaborg was an American scientist who won the 1951 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for "discoveries in the chemistry of the transuranium elements", contributed to the discovery and isolation of ten elements, and developed the actinide concept, which led to the current arrangement of the...

     (Physics)
  • 1964 - Gregory Breit
    Gregory Breit
    Gregory Breit was a Russian-born American physicist and professor at universities in New York, Wisconsin, Yale, and Buffalo...

     (Physics)
  • 1965 - Frederick Seitz
    Frederick Seitz
    Frederick Seitz was an American physicist and a pioneer of solid state physics. Seitz was president of Rockefeller University, and president of the United States National Academy of Sciences 1962–1969. He was the recipient of the National Medal of Science, NASA's Distinguished Public Service...

     (Engineering)
  • 1966 - Britton Chance
    Britton Chance
    Britton Chance was the Eldridge Reeves Johnson University Professor Emeritus of Biochemistry and Biophysics, as well as Professor Emeritus of Physical Chemistry and Radiological Physics at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine.At the 1952 Summer Olympics, Chance won a gold medal in...

     (Life Science)
  • 1967 - Murray Gell-Mann
    Murray Gell-Mann
    Murray Gell-Mann is an American physicist and linguist who received the 1969 Nobel Prize in physics for his work on the theory of elementary particles...

     (Physics)
  • 1968 - Marshall Warren Nirenberg
    Marshall Warren Nirenberg
    Marshall Warren Nirenberg was an American biochemist and geneticist of Jewish origin. He shared a Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1968 with Har Gobind Khorana and Robert W. Holley for "breaking the genetic code" and describing how it operates in protein synthesis...

     (Life Science)
  • 1969 - John Archibald Wheeler
    John Archibald Wheeler
    John Archibald Wheeler was an American theoretical physicist who was largely responsible for reviving interest in general relativity in the United States after World War II. Wheeler also worked with Niels Bohr in explaining the basic principles behind nuclear fission...

     (Physics)
  • 1970 - Wolfgang K.H. Panofsky (Physics)
  • 1971 - Hannes Alfven
    Hannes Alfvén
    Hannes Olof Gösta Alfvén was a Swedish electrical engineer, plasma physicist and winner of the 1970 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on magnetohydrodynamics . He described the class of MHD waves now known as Alfvén waves...

     (Physics)
  • 1972 - George B. Kistiakowsky (Chemistry)
  • 1973 - Theodosius Grigorevich Dobzhansky (Life Science)
  • 1974 - Nikolai Nikolaevich Bogoliubov (Physics)
  • 1975 - John Bardeen
    John Bardeen
    John Bardeen was an American physicist and electrical engineer, the only person to have won the Nobel Prize in Physics twice: first in 1956 with William Shockley and Walter Brattain for the invention of the transistor; and again in 1972 with Leon Neil Cooper and John Robert Schrieffer for a...

     (Physics)
  • 1976 - Mahlon B. Hoagland (Life Science)
  • 1977 - Cyril Manton Harris (Engineering)
  • 1978 - Elias J. Corey (Chemistry)
  • 1979 - G. Evelyn Hutchinson
    G. Evelyn Hutchinson
    George Evelyn Hutchinson FRS was an Anglo-American zoologist known for his studies of freshwater lakes and considered the father of American limnology....

     (Life Science)
  • 1980 - Avram Goldstein (Life Science)
  • 1980 - Lyman Spitzer, Jr. (Physics)
  • 1981 - Stephen W. Hawking (Physics)
  • 1982 - Cesar Milstein
    César Milstein
    César Milstein FRS was an Argentine biochemist in the field of antibody research. Milstein shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1984 with Niels K. Jerne and Georges Köhler.-Biography:...

     (Life Science)
  • 1982 - Kenneth Geddes Wilson (Physics)
  • 1984 - Verner E. Suomi (Engineering)
  • 1985 - George Claude Pimentel (Physics)
  • 1986 - Benoît Mandelbrot
    Benoît Mandelbrot
    Benoît B. Mandelbrot was a French American mathematician. Born in Poland, he moved to France with his family when he was a child...

     (Physics)
  • 1987 - Stanley Cohen (Life Science)
  • 1988 - Donald Ervin Knuth (Computer and Cognitive Science)
  • 1990 - Hugh E. Huxley (Life Science)
  • 1990 - David Turnbull
    David Turnbull (materials scientist)
    David Turnbull was an American physical chemist who worked in the interdisciplinary fields of materials science and applied physics. Turnbull made seminal contribution to solidification theory and glass formation. Turnbull was born in Elmira, Elmira Township, Stark County, Illinois...

     (Physics)
  • 1992 - Frederick Reines
    Frederick Reines
    Frederick Reines was an American physicist. He was awarded the 1995 Nobel Prize in Physics for his co-detection of the neutrino with Clyde Cowan in the neutrino experiment, and may be the only scientist in history "so intimately associated with the discovery of an elementary particle and the...

     (Physics)
  • 1995 - Gerard 't Hooft (Physics)
  • 1996 - Richard E. Smalley (Chemistry)
  • 1997 - Mario Renato Capecchi (Life Science)