Francis V, Duke of Modena

Francis V, Duke of Modena

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Francesco Ferdinando Geminiano von Habsburg-Lothringen, known as Francis V of Modena
Modena
Modena is a city and comune on the south side of the Po Valley, in the Province of Modena in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy....

(1 June 1819 – 20 November 1875), Archduke of Austria-Este, Royal Prince of Hungary
Hungary
Hungary , officially the Republic of Hungary , is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is situated in the Carpathian Basin and is bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine and Romania to the east, Serbia and Croatia to the south, Slovenia to the southwest and Austria to the west. The...

 and Bohemia
Bohemia
Bohemia is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western two-thirds of the traditional Czech Lands. It is located in the contemporary Czech Republic with its capital in Prague...

, was Duke of Modena, Reggio
Reggio Emilia
Reggio Emilia is an affluent city in northern Italy, in the Emilia-Romagna region. It has about 170,000 inhabitants and is the main comune of the Province of Reggio Emilia....

, and Mirandola
Mirandola
Mirandola is a city and comune of Emilia-Romagna, Italy, in the Province of Modena, 31 km northeast of the provincial capital by railway.- History :Mirandola originated as a Renaissance city-fortress...

, Duke of Guastalla
Guastalla
Guastalla is a town and comune in the province of Reggio Emilia in Emilia-Romagna, Italy.-Geography:Guastalla is situated in the Po Valley, and lies on the banks of the Po River...

 (from 1847), Duke of Massa and Prince of Carrara
Carrara
Carrara is a city and comune in the province of Massa-Carrara , notable for the white or blue-grey marble quarried there. It is on the Carrione River, some west-northwest of Florence....

 from 1846 to 1859. He was the eldest son of Francis IV of Modena and of Princess Maria Beatrice of Savoy
Maria Beatrice of Savoy
Maria Beatrice of Savoy was a Princess of Savoy and Duchess of Modena by marriage. She was also the Jacobite Pretender from 1824 until her death.-Biography:...

. He was also the Jacobite Pretender
Jacobite succession
The Jacobite succession is the line through which the crown in pretence of England and Scotland has descended since the flight of James II & VII from London at the time of the Glorious Revolution...

 from 1840 until his death.

Life and legacy


Francis was baptised 5 days after birth by the local Archbishop in the local Cathedral; Emperor Franz I of Austria
Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor
Francis II was the last Holy Roman Emperor, ruling from 1792 until 6 August 1806, when he dissolved the Empire after the disastrous defeat of the Third Coalition by Napoleon at the Battle of Austerlitz...

, the former Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
The Holy Roman Emperor is a term used by historians to denote a medieval ruler who, as German King, had also received the title of "Emperor of the Romans" from the Pope...

, acted as his godfather, but his uncle Archduke Ferdinand
Archduke Ferdinand Karl Joseph of Austria-Este
Archduke Ferdinand Karl Joseph of Austria-Este was the third son of Archduke Ferdinand of Austria-Este and of his wife Princess Maria Beatrice Ricciarda d'Este, last member and heiress of the house of Este. For much of the Napoleonic Wars he was in command of the Austrian army.Ferdinand was born...

 acted as proxy for the emperor.

Upon the death of Victor Emmanuel
Victor Emmanuel I of Sardinia
Victor Emmanuel I was the Duke of Savoy and King of Sardinia from 1802 to 1821, and Jacobite Pretender from 1819 until his death.-Biography:...

 in 1824, Maria Beatrice became recognized as Jacobite Queen of England, Scotland, France and Ireland. Jacobites also recognized Francis as "The Prince Francis of England, Scotland, France, and Ireland, Duke of Cornwall and Rothesay, Earl of Carrick, Baron of Renfrew, Lord of the Isles, and Prince and Great Steward of Scotland".

In 1826 Francis IV of Modena appointed Count Clemente Coronini as tutor of Francis, with Don Pietro Raffaelli, who would later become Bishop of Carpi
Roman Catholic Diocese of Carpi
The Italian Catholic diocese of Carpi is in Emilia Romagna, Italy. It is a suffragan of the archdiocese of Modena-Nonantola.-History:Carpi belonged originally to the Countess Matilda , from whom it passed in 1115 to the Holy See...

 and Reggio, as his assistant. In 1829, Baron Ernest Geramb became the new tutor of Francis.

On 15 September 1836, Francis became Knight of the Austrian Order of the Golden Fleece
Order of the Golden Fleece
The Order of the Golden Fleece is an order of chivalry founded in Bruges by Philip III, Duke of Burgundy in 1430, to celebrate his marriage to the Portuguese princess Infanta Isabella of Portugal, daughter of King John I of Portugal. It evolved as one of the most prestigious orders in Europe...

, and 3 years later he got the Grand Cordon of the Dutch Order of the Lion.

After the death of his mother in 1840, Francis was considered the legitimate heir to the thrones of England and Scotland by Jacobites
Jacobitism
Jacobitism was the political movement in Britain dedicated to the restoration of the Stuart kings to the thrones of England, Scotland, later the Kingdom of Great Britain, and the Kingdom of Ireland...

 (with the regnal title King Francis I). At his death the position of Jacobite heir passed to his niece (as Mary IV and III), Maria Theresia Henriette Dorothee, who was subsequently Queen Consort
Queen consort
A queen consort is the wife of a reigning king. A queen consort usually shares her husband's rank and holds the feminine equivalent of the king's monarchical titles. Historically, queens consort do not share the king regnant's political and military powers. Most queens in history were queens consort...

 of Bavaria
Bavaria
Bavaria, formally the Free State of Bavaria is a state of Germany, located in the southeast of Germany. With an area of , it is the largest state by area, forming almost 20% of the total land area of Germany...

.

On March 30, 1842, Francis married Princess Adelgunde of Bavaria
Princess Adelgunde of Bavaria
Princess Adelgunde of Bavaria was a daughter of Ludwig I of Bavaria and Therese of Saxe-Hildburghausen. She was Duchess consort of Modena by her marriage to Francis V, Duke of Modena.-Family:...

, daughter of King Ludwig I of Bavaria, at the Munich Residenz in the Allerheiligen-Hofkirche
Allerheiligen-Hofkirche
The Allerheiligen-Hofkirche is a church in the Munich Residence designed by Leo von Klenze and built between 1826 and 1837. The church was badly damaged from bombing during World War II and for decades remained a ruin before undergoing partial restoration and secularization...

. The Archbishop of Munich-Freising was the chief witness to the wedding. The couple had only one child, Princess Anna Beatrice (October 19, 1848 in Gries, Bolzano – July 8, 1849 in Modena
Modena
Modena is a city and comune on the south side of the Po Valley, in the Province of Modena in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy....

).

In 1842, Francis got another order: the Savoy Supreme Order of the Most Holy Annunciation
Order of the Most Holy Annunciation
The Supreme Order of the Most Holy Annunciation is an order of chivalry, or knighthood, originating in mediæval Italy. It eventually was the pinnacle of the honours system in the Kingdom of Italy, which ceased to be a national order when the kingdom became a republic in 1946...

.

At the death of his father Francis IV of Modena (January 21, 1846), Francis succeeded as reigning Duke of Modena. As member of a cadet branch
Cadet branch
Cadet branch is a term in genealogy to describe the lineage of the descendants of the younger sons of a monarch or patriarch. In the ruling dynasties and noble families of much of Europe and Asia, the family's major assets – titles, realms, fiefs, property and income – have...

 of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine he also bore the titles of an Archduke of Austria and a Prince Royal of Hungary and Bohemia from birth; from his father he inherited also the title of Duke of Reggio
Duchy of Reggio
The Duchy of Reggio was one of the states that belonged to the Duchy of Modena and Reggio, ruled by the house of Este, in the north of Italy, in a territory now belonging to the Province of Reggio Emilia. The capital was Reggio....

 and Mirandola
Mirandola
Mirandola is a city and comune of Emilia-Romagna, Italy, in the Province of Modena, 31 km northeast of the provincial capital by railway.- History :Mirandola originated as a Renaissance city-fortress...

, Duke of Massa
Massa
Massa is a town and comune in Tuscany, central Italy, the administrative centre of the province of Massa-Carrara. It is located in the Frigido River Valley, near the Alpi Apuane, some 5 kilometers from the Tyrrhenian Sea....

, Prince of Carrara
Carrara
Carrara is a city and comune in the province of Massa-Carrara , notable for the white or blue-grey marble quarried there. It is on the Carrione River, some west-northwest of Florence....

 and Lunigiana
Lunigiana
The Lunigiana is an historical territory of Italy, which today falls within the provinces of La Spezia and Massa Carrara. Its borders derive from the ancient Roman settlement, later the medieval diocese of Luni, which no longer exists....

.
At the death of his cousin the Empress Marie-Louise, December 18, 1847, he succeeded as Duke of Guastalla.

During the revolutions of 1848, Francis was forced to flee his Duchy by a popular uprising and was restored by Austrian troops in the following year.

In 1855, Francis established his own new order: the Order of the Eagle of Este, and he acted as the Grand Master
Grand Master (order)
Grand Master is the typical title of the supreme head of various orders of knighthood, including various military orders, religious orders and civil orders such as the Ancient Order of Hibernians and the Orange Order...

 himself.

In 1859 the Duchy of Modena
Duchy of Modena and Reggio
The Duchy of Modena and Reggio |Italian]] state that existed from 1452 to 1859, with a break between 1796 and 1814. It was ruled by the noble House of Este, from 1814 Austria-Este.-House of Este:...

 was invaded by armies of France and Piedmont
Piedmont
Piedmont is one of the 20 regions of Italy. It has an area of 25,402 square kilometres and a population of about 4.4 million. The capital of Piedmont is Turin. The main local language is Piedmontese. Occitan is also spoken by a minority in the Occitan Valleys situated in the Provinces of...

. On June 14, Francis fled. On March 18, King Victor Emanuel II of Sardinia ordered Modena to be incorporated into the new kingdom of Italy
Italian unification
Italian unification was the political and social movement that agglomerated different states of the Italian peninsula into the single state of Italy in the 19th century...

. Francis protested it 4 days later.

After the loss of his duchy, Francis withdrew to Vienna
Vienna
Vienna is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austria's primary city, with a population of about 1.723 million , and is by far the largest city in Austria, as well as its cultural, economic, and political centre...

 and lived in Palais Modena
Palais Modena
Palais Modena is a palace in Vienna, Austria. It was built and owned by the Habsburgs of the Modenese branch of the family.Today it houses offices of the Federal Ministry for the Interior.-External links:...

. He also had a summer residence at Schloss Wildenwart, Bavaria. Although he spent most time in Austria, he sometimes want traveling. In 1864 he visited Middle East
Middle East
The Middle East is a region that encompasses Western Asia and Northern Africa. It is often used as a synonym for Near East, in opposition to Far East...

.

On March 7, 1861, William Ewart Gladstone
William Ewart Gladstone
William Ewart Gladstone FRS FSS was a British Liberal statesman. In a career lasting over sixty years, he served as Prime Minister four separate times , more than any other person. Gladstone was also Britain's oldest Prime Minister, 84 years old when he resigned for the last time...

, the Chancellor of the Exchequer
Chancellor of the Exchequer
The Chancellor of the Exchequer is the title held by the British Cabinet minister who is responsible for all economic and financial matters. Often simply called the Chancellor, the office-holder controls HM Treasury and plays a role akin to the posts of Minister of Finance or Secretary of the...

 de facto, made a verbal attack against Francis. Later Lord Derby
Edward Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby
Edward George Geoffrey Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby, KG, PC was an English statesman, three times Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, and to date the longest serving leader of the Conservative Party. He was known before 1834 as Edward Stanley, and from 1834 to 1851 as Lord Stanley...

 and Constantine Phipps, Marquis of Normanby
Constantine Phipps, 1st Marquess of Normanby
Constantine Henry Phipps, 1st Marquess of Normanby KG GCB GCH, PC , styled Viscount Normanby between 1812 and 1831 and known as The Earl of Mulgrave between 1831 and 1838, was a British Whig politician and author...

 discovered it that the accusation of Gladstone was entirely false.

Francis died at Vienna
Vienna
Vienna is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austria's primary city, with a population of about 1.723 million , and is by far the largest city in Austria, as well as its cultural, economic, and political centre...

 on November 20, 1875. He left most of his huge estate to his cousin Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria
Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria
Franz Ferdinand was an Archduke of Austria-Este, Austro-Hungarian and Royal Prince of Hungary and of Bohemia, and from 1889 until his death, heir presumptive to the Austro-Hungarian throne. His assassination in Sarajevo precipitated Austria-Hungary's declaration of war against Serbia...

 who subsequently used the title Archduke of Austria-Este
Austria-Este
Archduke of Austria-Este and Habsburg-Este are a title and a surname which have been used by several cadet branches of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine to denote a connection with the extinct Italian princely and feudal family of Este and the Duchy of Modena ruled by them...

. His remains was kept at the Capuchin Church in Vienna.

Ancestors





External links