Fortifications of Copenhagen

Fortifications of Copenhagen

Discussion
Ask a question about 'Fortifications of Copenhagen'
Start a new discussion about 'Fortifications of Copenhagen'
Answer questions from other users
Full Discussion Forum
 
Encyclopedia
[[File:Kastellet cph.jpg|thumb|400px|View from the Rampart on [[Kastellet, Copenhagen|Kastellet]]]] [[File:Vestvolden Rødovre.jpg|thumb|right|Bunker in [[Vestvolden]] in [[Rødovre]]]] The '''fortifications of Copenhagen''' is the broad name for the rings of [[fortifications]] surrounding the city of [[Copenhagen]]. It can be classified historically as follows: * The medieval fortifications dating from the 12th century * The [[bastion]]ed fortifications dating from the 17th century * The ring fortification system dating from the 19th century ==Medieval fortifications (12th-15th centuries)== The first fortification was the [[Christiansborg Palace#Absalon's Castle|castle]] built by bishop [[Absalon]] in 1167 on [[Slotsholmen]] at the foundation of the city. This stood for 200 years until it was destroyed by the [[Hanseatic League|Hanse]] in 1369. It was replaced in 1417 by the [[Copenhagen Castle]] built by the then bishop, but taken over by the king, [[Eric of Pomerania]]. The ruins of both these castles are visible to the public view under the [[Christiansborg Palace]]. ==Bastioned Fortifications (17th century)== {{Main|Fortifications of Copenhagen (17th century)}} The city was extensively fortified by [[Christian IV of Denmark|Christian IV]] in the mid 17th century. To the west the city was protected by a series of ramparts and bastions northwards from the Indrehavn, below Langebro. The remains of these works can be seen in the parks at [[Tivoli Gardens|''Tivoli'']], ''Orstedsgarten'', ''Botanisk Have'' and ''Ostre Anlaeg''. To the north, at the end of the wall, a fort was built, the ''[[Kastellet, Copenhagen|Kastellet]]''. To the east land was reclaimed from the sea to enclose the harbour; this land was also fortified with a rampart and ditch and a series of bastions. This now forms the district of [[Christianshavn]]. == Ring Fortification system (1886-94) == The most recent fortification of Copenhagen dates from the late 19th century. To the west was a fortification ring consisting of a rampart and ditch, with numerous bastions and batteries (''Vestvolden''). To the north, beyond a line of inundations around Utterslev Mose, lie 5 detached land forts (''Bagsværd Fort'', ''Fortunfortet'', ''Garderhøj Fort'', ''Gladsaxe Fort'', ''Lyngby Fort''), backed to the south by 7 small batteries. Along the coast, and connecting with the land defences were two bands of Naval forts or batteries; the first (inner) band comprising 3 older forts (''Trekroner'', ''Lynetten'' and ''Strykers'') and 3 new (''Kalk'', ''Mellen'' and ''Provestenen''); and a second of 2 coastal forts (''Charlottenlund'', ''Kastrup'') and a sea fortress (''[[Middelgrundsfortet]]''), plus 2 inland batteries (''Avedøre'' and ''Hvidøre'') to reinforce the ''Vestvolden''. A third, outer line was added fifteen years later. The design of the forts was guided by the principles of [[Brialmont]]. == Coastal defenses (1909-16) == The group of new coastal forts were constructed at the beginning of [[World War I]]. These were (clockwise): ''Taarbæk Fort'', connecting to the northern fort line; [[Flakfortet]], at sea beyond ''Middelgrund''; and ''Dragør Fort'', ''Kongelundsfortet'', ''Mosede Fort'' to the south. == External links == * [http://www.befaestningen.dk Project for the revitalization of the Copenhagen fortifications, in Danish] * [http://www.vestvolden.info The fortification of Copenhagen 1880-1920. Danish / English] {{coord missing|Denmark}} {{DEFAULTSORT:Fortifications Of Copenhagen}}