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Forough Farrokhzad

Forough Farrokhzad

Overview
Forugh Farrokhzād (b. January 5, 1935, Tehran
Tehran
Tehran , sometimes spelled Teheran, is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province. With an estimated population of 8,429,807; it is also Iran's largest urban area and city, one of the largest cities in Western Asia, and is the world's 19th largest city.In the 20th century, Tehran was subject to...

, Iran
Iran
Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

 — February 13, 1967) was an Iranian poet and film director. Forugh Farrokhzad is arguably one of Iran's most influential female poets of the twentieth century. She was a controversial modernist poet and an iconoclast.

Forugh (also spelled Forough) was born in Tehran to career military officer Colonel Mohammad Bagher Farrokhzad and his wife Touran Vaziri-Tabar in 1935.
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Encyclopedia
Forugh Farrokhzād (b. January 5, 1935, Tehran
Tehran
Tehran , sometimes spelled Teheran, is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province. With an estimated population of 8,429,807; it is also Iran's largest urban area and city, one of the largest cities in Western Asia, and is the world's 19th largest city.In the 20th century, Tehran was subject to...

, Iran
Iran
Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

 — February 13, 1967) was an Iranian poet and film director. Forugh Farrokhzad is arguably one of Iran's most influential female poets of the twentieth century. She was a controversial modernist poet and an iconoclast.

Biography


Forugh (also spelled Forough) was born in Tehran to career military officer Colonel Mohammad Bagher Farrokhzad and his wife Touran Vaziri-Tabar in 1935. The third of seven children (Amir, Massoud, Mehrdad, Fereydoun Farrokhzad
Fereydoun Farrokhzad
Fereydoun Farrokhzad PhD. was an Iranian singer, actor, poet, TV and radio host, writer, and political opposition activist. He was the younger brother of the acclaimed Persian poet Forough Farrokhzad....

, Pouran Farrokhzad, Gloria), she attended school until the ninth grade, then was taught painting and sewing at a girl's school for the manual arts. At age sixteen she was married to Parviz Shapour
Parviz Shapour
Parviz Shapour was an Iranian writer, caricaturist, and satirist. He is well known for his short, humorous pieces.In 1951 he married his second cousin, poet Forough Farrokhzad, but they divorced three years later....

, an acclaimed satirist. Farrokhzad continued her education with classes in painting and sewing and moved with her husband to Ahvaz
Ahvaz
-History:For a more comprehensive historical treatment of the area, see the history section of Khūzestān Province.-Ancient history:Ahvaz is the anagram of "Avaz" and "Avaja" which appear in Darius's epigraph...

. A year later, she bore her only child, a son named Kāmyār (subject of A Poem for You).

Within two years, in 1954, Farrokhzad and her husband divorced; Parviz won custody of the child. She moved back to Tehran to write poetry
Poetry
Poetry is a form of literary art in which language is used for its aesthetic and evocative qualities in addition to, or in lieu of, its apparent meaning...

 and published her first volume, entitled The Captive, in 1955.

Farrokhzad, a female divorcée writing controversial poetry with a strong feminine voice, became the focus of much negative attention and open disapproval. In 1958 she spent nine months in Europe and met film-maker and writer Ebrahim Golestan
Ebrahim Golestan
Ebrahim Golestan is an Iranian filmmaker and literary figure with a career spanning half a century...

, who reinforced her own inclinations to express herself and live independently. She published two more volumes, The Wall and The Rebellion before traveling to Tabriz
Tabriz
Tabriz is the fourth largest city and one of the historical capitals of Iran and the capital of East Azerbaijan Province. Situated at an altitude of 1,350 meters at the junction of the Quri River and Aji River, it was the second largest city in Iran until the late 1960s, one of its former...

 to make a film about Iranians affected by leprosy
Leprosy
Leprosy or Hansen's disease is a chronic disease caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium lepromatosis. Named after physician Gerhard Armauer Hansen, leprosy is primarily a granulomatous disease of the peripheral nerves and mucosa of the upper respiratory tract; skin lesions...

. This 1962 documentary film titled The House is Black
The House Is Black
The House is Black is an acclaimed Iranian documentary short film directed by Forough Farrokhzad.The film is a look at life and suffering in a leper colony and focuses on the human condition and the beauty of creation. It is spliced with Farrokhzad's narration of quotes from the Old Testament, the...

won several international awards. During the twelve days of shooting, she became attached to Hossein Mansouri, the child of two lepers. She adopted the boy and brought him to live at her mother's house.

In 1963 she published Another Birth. Her poetry was now mature and sophisticated, and a profound change from previous modern Iranian poetic conventions.

At 4:30PM on February 13, 1967, Farrokhzad died in a car accident at age thirty-two. In order to avoid hitting a school bus, she swerved her Jeep, which hit a stone wall; she died before reaching the hospital. Her poem Let us believe in the beginning of the cold season was published posthumously, and is considered by some to be the best-structured modern poem in Persian
Persian language
Persian is an Iranian language within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European languages. It is primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan and countries which historically came under Persian influence...

.

Farrokhzad's poetry was banned for more than a decade after the Islamic Revolution. A brief literary biography of Forough, Michael Hillmann's A lonely woman: Forough Farrokhzad and her poetry, was published in 1987. Also about her is a chapter in Farzaneh Milani's work Veils and words: the emerging voices of Iranian women writers (1992).

She is the sister of the singer, poet and political activist Fereydoon Farrokhzad (1936 — 1992; assassinated in Bonn
Bonn
Bonn is the 19th largest city in Germany. Located in the Cologne/Bonn Region, about 25 kilometres south of Cologne on the river Rhine in the State of North Rhine-Westphalia, it was the capital of West Germany from 1949 to 1990 and the official seat of government of united Germany from 1990 to 1999....

, Germany
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

). Translations into English include those by Sholeh Wolpe, The Sad Little Fairy Maryam Dilmaghani, Sin: Selected poems of Forough Farrokhzad. Nasser Saffarian has directed three documentaries on her; The Mirror of the Soul (2000), The Green Cold (2003), and Summit of the Wave (2004).


Translations of Farrokhzad's works

  • Arabic: Mohammad Al-Amin, Gassan Hamdan
    Gassan Hamdan
    Gassan Hamdan is an Iraqi scholar, poet and translator.He is noted for having translated poems of legendary poets such as Rumi, Forough Farrokhzad, Sohrab Sepehri and Ahmad Shamlou into the Arabic language.-Notes:...

  • Azeri: Samad Behrangi
    Samad Behrangi
    Samad Behrangi was an Iranian teacher, social critic, folklorist, translator, and short story writer of Azeri extraction. He is famous for his children's book, The Little Black Fish.-Life:He was born in Tabriz to a lower-class Azerbaijani family...

  • English: Ismail Salami; Maryam Dilmaghani, Sholeh Wolpe. Sholeh Wolpe edited the collection titled Sin: Selected poems of Forugh Farrokhzad, (Fayetteville [Arkansas]: University of Arkansas Press, 2007). ISBN 1557288615 Wolpe reads from the collection on the radio show, "Voices of the Middle East and North Africa," available here: http://kpfa.org/archives/index.php?arch=25725. Hasan Javadi and Susan Sallee translated Another Birth:Selected Poems of Forugh Farrokhzad with her letters and interviews in 1981. A revised edition of the same volume is published by Mage Publishers (Washington, DC) in 2010 as a bilingual edition.
  • French: Mahshid Moshiri
    Mahshid Moshiri
    Mahshid Moshiri is an Iranian novelist and lexicographer. She graduated from the Sorbonne with a PhD in linguistics. She is the author of the first Persian Phono-Orthographic Dictionary. She is also an encyclopedist, and has served as the Research Vice President of The Great Persian Encyclopedia...

    , Sylvie M. Miller,
  • German: Annemarie Schimmel
    Annemarie Schimmel
    Annemarie Schimmel, SI, HI, was a well known and very influential German Orientalist and scholar, who wrote extensively on Islam and Sufism. She was a professor at Harvard University from 1967 to 1992.-Early life:...

  • Italian: Domenico Ingenito, http://www.orientexpress.na.it/libro.asp?LibroID=12&AutoreID=85
  • Turkish: Hashem Khosrow-Shahi, Jalal Khosrow-Shahi
  • Farzaneh Milani, Veils and words: the emerging voices of Iranian women writers (Syracuse University Press, Syracuse, N.Y., 1992). ISBN 0-815-62557-X, ISBN 978-1-85043-574-7.
  • Interview with Simin Behbahani
    Simin Behbahani
    Simin Beh'bahāni is one of the most prominent figures of the modern Persian literature and one of the most outstanding amongst the contemporary Persian poets. She is Iran's national poet and an icon of the Iranian intelligentsia and literati who affectionately refer to her as the lioness of Iran...

     on the occasion of the fortieth anniversary of Forugh Farrokhzad's death on Thursday 13 February 2007 (BBC Persian).
  • Urdu: Fehmida Riaz published by 'Sheherzade Publications' Karachi.

Further reading

  • Manijeh Mannani, The Reader's Experience and Forough Farrokhzad's Poetry, Crossing Boundaries - an interdiciplinary journal, Vol. 1, pp. 49–65 (2001). PDF
  • Michael Craig Hillmann, An Autobiographical Voice: Forough Farrokhzad, in Women's Autobiographies in Contemporary Iran, edited by Afsaneh Najmabadi
    Afsaneh Najmabadi
    Afsāneh Najmābādi is an Iranian-American historian and gender theorist. She is professor of History and of Studies of Women, Gender, and Sexuality at Harvard University. At present she chairs the Committee on Degrees in Studies of Women, Gender, and Sexuality...

     (Cambridge [Massachusetts]: Harvard University Press, 1990). ISBN 0932885055. This essay can be read here: http://www.forughfarrokhzad.org/papers/papers2.htm.
  • Sholeh Wolpe, Sin: Selected poems of Forugh Farrokhzad, (Fayetteville [Arkansas]: University of Arkansas Press, 2007). ISBN 1557288615
  • Ezzat Goushegir, The Bride of Acacias, (a play about Forough Farrokhzad).

Documentaries and other works


External links



See also


  • Ebrahim Golestan
    Ebrahim Golestan
    Ebrahim Golestan is an Iranian filmmaker and literary figure with a career spanning half a century...

  • Simin Behbahani
    Simin Behbahani
    Simin Beh'bahāni is one of the most prominent figures of the modern Persian literature and one of the most outstanding amongst the contemporary Persian poets. She is Iran's national poet and an icon of the Iranian intelligentsia and literati who affectionately refer to her as the lioness of Iran...

  • Parvin E'tesami
    Parvin E'tesami
    Parvin E'tesami , also Parvin Etesami was a 20th century Persian poet of Iran. According to Ali Akbar Dehkhoda, her given name was Rakhshanda .-Life:...

  • Pegah Ahmadi
    Pegah Ahmadi
    Pegāh Ahmadi is an Iranian poet, scholar, literary critic and translator of poetry.Pegah Ahmadi was born in Tehran. She began writing poetry at the age of seven. At seventeen she made her début as a poet by the publication of a poem in the literary magazine Takāpu, edited by Mansur Kushān. Since...

  • Mina Assadi
    Mina Assadi
    -Biography:Mina Assadi is a famous poet, author, journalist and songwriter who lives in exile in Stockholm, Sweden. She is known for writing about controversial and provocative subjects, especially when she describes the fight against the Iranian regime. In 2007 she wrote the poem called "Pimps"...