Forgery

Forgery

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Encyclopedia
Forgery is the process of making, adapting, or imitating objects, statistics, or documents with the intent to deceive
Deception
Deception, beguilement, deceit, bluff, mystification, bad faith, and subterfuge are acts to propagate beliefs that are not true, or not the whole truth . Deception can involve dissimulation, propaganda, and sleight of hand. It can employ distraction, camouflage or concealment...

. Copies, studio replicas, and reproductions are not considered forgeries, though they may later become forgeries through knowing and willful misrepresentation
Misrepresentation
Misrepresentation is a contract law concept. It means a false statement of fact made by one party to another party, which has the effect of inducing that party into the contract. For example, under certain circumstances, false statements or promises made by a seller of goods regarding the quality...

s. Forging money
Money
Money is any object or record that is generally accepted as payment for goods and services and repayment of debts in a given country or socio-economic context. The main functions of money are distinguished as: a medium of exchange; a unit of account; a store of value; and, occasionally in the past,...

 or currency
Currency
In economics, currency refers to a generally accepted medium of exchange. These are usually the coins and banknotes of a particular government, which comprise the physical aspects of a nation's money supply...

 is more often called counterfeit
Counterfeit
To counterfeit means to illegally imitate something. Counterfeit products are often produced with the intent to take advantage of the superior value of the imitated product...

ing. But consumer goods may also be counterfeits if they are not manufactured or produced by the designated manufacture or producer given on the label
Label
A label is a piece of paper, polymer, cloth, metal, or other material affixed to a container or article, on which is printed a legend, information concerning the product, addresses, etc. A label may also be printed directly on the container or article....

 or flagged by the trademark
Trademark
A trademark, trade mark, or trade-mark is a distinctive sign or indicator used by an individual, business organization, or other legal entity to identify that the products or services to consumers with which the trademark appears originate from a unique source, and to distinguish its products or...

 symbol. When the object forged is a record or document
Document
The term document has multiple meanings in ordinary language and in scholarship. WordNet 3.1. lists four meanings :* document, written document, papers...

 it is often called a false document
False document
A false document is a literary technique employed to create verisimilitude in a work of fiction. By inventing and inserting documents that appear to be factual, an author tries to create a sense of authenticity beyond the normal and expected suspension of disbelief for a work of art...

.

This usage of "forgery" does not derive from metalwork done at a forge, but it has a parallel history. A sense of "to counterfeit
Counterfeit
To counterfeit means to illegally imitate something. Counterfeit products are often produced with the intent to take advantage of the superior value of the imitated product...

" is already in the Anglo-French verb forger, meaning "falsify."

A forgery is essentially concerned with a produced or altered object. Where the prime concern of a forgery is less focused on the object itself – what it is worth or what it "proves" – than on a tacit statement of criticism that is revealed by the reactions the object provokes in others, then the larger process is a hoax
Hoax
A hoax is a deliberately fabricated falsehood made to masquerade as truth. It is distinguishable from errors in observation or judgment, or rumors, urban legends, pseudosciences or April Fools' Day events that are passed along in good faith by believers or as jokes.-Definition:The British...

. In a hoax, a rumor
Rumor
A rumor or rumour is often viewed as "an unverified account or explanation of events circulating from person to person and pertaining to an object, event, or issue in public concern" However, a review of the research on rumor conducted by Pendleton in 1998 found that research across sociology,...

 or a genuine object planted in a concocted situation, may substitute for a forged physical object.

The similar crime of fraud
Fraud
In criminal law, a fraud is an intentional deception made for personal gain or to damage another individual; the related adjective is fraudulent. The specific legal definition varies by legal jurisdiction. Fraud is a crime, and also a civil law violation...

 is the crime of deceiving another, including through the use of objects obtained through forgery.
Forgery is one of the techniques of fraud, including identity theft
Identity theft
Identity theft is a form of stealing another person's identity in which someone pretends to be someone else by assuming that person's identity, typically in order to access resources or obtain credit and other benefits in that person's name...

. Forgery is one of the threats addressed by security engineering
Security engineering
Security engineering is a specialized field of engineering that focuses on the security aspects in the design of systems that need to be able to deal robustly with possible sources of disruption, ranging from natural disasters to malicious acts...

.

In the 16th century imitators of Albrecht Dürer
Albrecht Dürer
Albrecht Dürer was a German painter, printmaker, engraver, mathematician, and theorist from Nuremberg. His prints established his reputation across Europe when he was still in his twenties, and he has been conventionally regarded as the greatest artist of the Northern Renaissance ever since...

's style of printmaking improved the market for their own prints by signing them "AD", making them forgeries. In the 20th century the art market made forgeries highly profitable. There are widespread forgeries of especially valued artists, such as drawings originally by Pablo Picasso
Pablo Picasso
Pablo Diego José Francisco de Paula Juan Nepomuceno María de los Remedios Cipriano de la Santísima Trinidad Ruiz y Picasso known as Pablo Ruiz Picasso was a Spanish expatriate painter, sculptor, printmaker, ceramicist, and stage designer, one of the greatest and most influential artists of the...

, Paul Klee
Paul Klee
Paul Klee was born in Münchenbuchsee, Switzerland, and is considered both a German and a Swiss painter. His highly individual style was influenced by movements in art that included expressionism, cubism, and surrealism. He was, as well, a student of orientalism...

, and Henri Matisse
Henri Matisse
Henri Matisse was a French artist, known for his use of colour and his fluid and original draughtsmanship. He was a draughtsman, printmaker, and sculptor, but is known primarily as a painter...

.

A special case of double forgery is the forging of Vermeer's paintings by Han van Meegeren
Han van Meegeren
Han van Meegeren , born Henricus Antonius van Meegeren, was a Dutch painter and portraitist, and is considered to be one of the most ingenious art forgers of the 20th century....

, and in its turn the forging of Van Meegeren's work by his son Jacques van Meegeren
Jacques van Meegeren
Jacques van Meegeren , born Jacques Henri Emil van Meegeren, was a Dutch Illustrator and painter.He is also considered to be a forger of the work of his father Han van Meegeren...

.

Documentary art


Before the invention of photography
Photography
Photography is the art, science and practice of creating durable images by recording light or other electromagnetic radiation, either electronically by means of an image sensor or chemically by means of a light-sensitive material such as photographic film...

, people commonly hired painters and engravers to "re-create" an event or a scene. Artists had to imagine what to illustrate based on the information available to them about the subject. Some artists added elements to make the scene more exotic, while others removed elements out of modesty. In the 18th century, for example, Europeans were curious about what North America looked like and were ready to pay to see illustrations depicting this faraway place. Some of these artists produced prints depicting North America, despite many having never left Europe.

In popular culture

  • The 1839 novel by Honoré de Balzac
    Honoré de Balzac
    Honoré de Balzac was a French novelist and playwright. His magnum opus was a sequence of short stories and novels collectively entitled La Comédie humaine, which presents a panorama of French life in the years after the 1815 fall of Napoleon....

    , Pierre Grassou
    Pierre Grassou
    Pierre Grassou is an 1839 novel by French author Honoré de Balzac and included in the Scènes de la vie parisienne section of his novel sequence La Comédie humaine.-Plot:...

    , concerns an artist who lives off forgeries.
  • The Orson Welles
    Orson Welles
    George Orson Welles , best known as Orson Welles, was an American film director, actor, theatre director, screenwriter, and producer, who worked extensively in film, theatre, television and radio...

     documentary F for Fake
    F for Fake
    F for Fake is the last major film completed by Orson Welles, who directed, co-wrote, and starred in the film. Initially released in 1974, it focuses on Elmyr de Hory's recounting of his career as a professional art forger; de Hory's story serves as the backdrop for a fast-paced, meandering...

    concerns both art and literary forgery. For the movie Welles intercut footage of Elmyr de Hory
    Elmyr de Hory
    Elmyr de Hory was a Hungarian-born painter and art forger who claimed to have sold over a thousand forgeries to reputable art galleries all over the world...

    , an art forger, and Clifford Irving
    Clifford Irving
    Clifford Michael Irving is an American author of novels and works of nonfiction, but best known for using forged handwritten letters to convince his publisher into accepting a fake "autobiography" of reclusive businessman Howard Hughes in the early 1970s...

    , who wrote an "authorized" autobiography of Howard Hughes
    Howard Hughes
    Howard Robard Hughes, Jr. was an American business magnate, investor, aviator, engineer, film producer, director, and philanthropist. He was one of the wealthiest people in the world...

     that had been revealed to be a hoax
    Hoax
    A hoax is a deliberately fabricated falsehood made to masquerade as truth. It is distinguishable from errors in observation or judgment, or rumors, urban legends, pseudosciences or April Fools' Day events that are passed along in good faith by believers or as jokes.-Definition:The British...

    . While forgery is the ostensible subject of the film, it also concerns art, film making, storytelling and the creative process.
  • In the 2002 film Catch Me If You Can
    Catch Me If You Can
    Catch Me If You Can is a 2002 American biographical comedy-drama film based on the life of Frank Abagnale Jr., who, before his 19th birthday, successfully performed cons worth millions of dollars by posing as a Pan American World Airways pilot, a Georgia doctor, and a Louisiana parish prosecutor...

    , directed by Steven Spielberg
    Steven Spielberg
    Steven Allan Spielberg KBE is an American film director, screenwriter, producer, video game designer, and studio entrepreneur. In a career of more than four decades, Spielberg's films have covered many themes and genres. Spielberg's early science-fiction and adventure films were seen as an...

    , based on the real story of Frank Abagnale
    Frank Abagnale
    Frank William Abagnale, Jr. is an American security consultant known for his history as a former confidence trickster, check forger, impostor, and escape artist...

    , a con man
    Confidence trick
    A confidence trick is an attempt to defraud a person or group by gaining their confidence. A confidence artist is an individual working alone or in concert with others who exploits characteristics of the human psyche such as dishonesty and honesty, vanity, compassion, credulity, irresponsibility,...

     who stole over $2.5 million through forgery, imposture and other frauds, which are dramatized in the film. His career in crime lasted six years from 1963 to 1969.

Topics in forgery

  • Archaeological forgery
    Archaeological forgery
    Archaeological forgery is the manufacture of supposedly ancient items that are sold to the antiquities market and may even end up in the collections of museums. It is related to art forgery....

    • Archaeoraptor
      Archaeoraptor
      "Archaeoraptor" is the generic name informally assigned in 1999 to a fossil from China in an article published in National Geographic magazine. The magazine claimed that the fossil was a "missing link" between birds and terrestrial theropod dinosaurs. Even prior to this publication there had been...

    • Discoveries of Shinichi Fujimura
      Shinichi Fujimura
      Shinichi Fujimura is a Japanese former amateur archaeologist who claimed he had found a large number of stone artifacts dating back to the Lower Paleolithic and Middle Paleolithic periods. These objects were later revealed as forgeries.-Success:Fujimura was born in Kami, Miyagi in 1950...

    • James Ossuary
      James Ossuary
      The James Ossuary is a 2,000-year old chalk box that was used for containing the bones of the dead. The Aramaic inscription: Ya'akov bar-Yosef akhui diYeshua is cut into one side of the box...

    • Piltdown Man
      Piltdown Man
      The Piltdown Man was a hoax in which bone fragments were presented as the fossilised remains of a previously unknown early human. These fragments consisted of parts of a skull and jawbone, said to have been collected in 1912 from a gravel pit at Piltdown, East Sussex, England...

    • Moses Shapira
      Moses Shapira
      Moses Wilhelm Shapira was a Jerusalem antiquities dealer and purveyor of fake Biblical artifacts. The shame brought about by accusations that he was involved in the forging of ancient biblical texts drove him to suicide in 1884...

    • Tiara of Saitapharne, Louvre
    • Shepton Mallet
      Shepton Mallet
      Shepton Mallet is a small rural town and civil parish in the Mendip district of Somerset in South West England. Situated approximately south of Bristol and east of Wells, the town is estimated to have a population of 9,700. It contains the administrative headquarters of Mendip District Council...

      , Chi-Rho amulet
      Amulet
      An amulet, similar to a talisman , is any object intended to bring good luck or protection to its owner.Potential amulets include gems, especially engraved gems, statues, coins, drawings, pendants, rings, plants and animals; even words said in certain occasions—for example: vade retro satana—, to...

    • The Lady of Elx
      Lady of Elx
      The enigmatic Lady of Elche or Lady of Elx is a once polychrome stone bust that was discovered by chance in 1897 at L'Alcúdia, an archaeological site on a private estate about two kilometers south of Elx/Elche, Valencia, Spain...

       saw a controversy circa 1995 regarding its authenticity. Recently (2005), the Spanish National Research Council concluded in a research that the pigmentation was, in fact, from ancient times.
    • See also Kensington Runestone
      Kensington Runestone
      The Kensington Runestone is a 200-pound slab of greywacke covered in runes on its face and side which, if genuine, would suggest that Scandinavian explorers reached the middle of North America in the 14th century. It was found in 1898 in the largely rural township of Solem, Douglas County,...

       controversy
    • Drake's Plate of Brass
      Drake's Plate of Brass
      The so-called Drake's Plate of Brass is a forgery that purports to be the brass plaque that Francis Drake posted upon landing in Northern California in 1579. The hoax was successful for forty years, despite early doubts. After the plate came to public attention in 1936, historians immediately...

    • Sinaia lead plates
      Sinaia lead plates
      The Sinaia lead plates are a set of lead plates written in an unknown language or constructed language. They are alleged to be a chronicle of the Dacians, but have been widely regarded by scholars as modern forgeries...

  • Art forgery
    Art forgery
    Art forgery is the creation of works of art which are falsely attributed to other, usually more famous, artists. Art forgery can be extremely lucrative, but modern dating and analysis techniques have made the identification of forged artwork much simpler....

    • Tom Keating
      Tom Keating
      For the football player of the same name see Tom Keating .For the priest and author of the same name see Thomas Keating....

    • Eric Hebborn
      Eric Hebborn
      Eric Hebborn was a British painter and art forger and later an author.-Early life:Eric Hebborn was born in the London suburb of South Kensington to a Cockney family in 1934, although his mother was a gypsy. According to his autobiography, his mother beat him constantly as a child...

    • Elmyr de Hory
      Elmyr de Hory
      Elmyr de Hory was a Hungarian-born painter and art forger who claimed to have sold over a thousand forgeries to reputable art galleries all over the world...

    • Zhang Daqian
      Zhang Daqian
      Chang Dai-chien was one of the best-known and most prodigious Chinese artists of the twentieth century. Originally known as a guohua painter, by the 1960s he was also renowned as a modern impressionist and expressionist painter...

    • Dürer's
      Albrecht Dürer
      Albrecht Dürer was a German painter, printmaker, engraver, mathematician, and theorist from Nuremberg. His prints established his reputation across Europe when he was still in his twenties, and he has been conventionally regarded as the greatest artist of the Northern Renaissance ever since...

       imitators
    • Camille Corot's imitators
    • Han van Meegeren
      Han van Meegeren
      Han van Meegeren , born Henricus Antonius van Meegeren, was a Dutch painter and portraitist, and is considered to be one of the most ingenious art forgers of the 20th century....

      's Vermeer
      Johannes Vermeer
      Johannes, Jan or Johan Vermeer was a Dutch painter who specialized in exquisite, domestic interior scenes of middle class life. Vermeer was a moderately successful provincial genre painter in his lifetime...

      s
    • Jacques van Meegeren
      Jacques van Meegeren
      Jacques van Meegeren , born Jacques Henri Emil van Meegeren, was a Dutch Illustrator and painter.He is also considered to be a forger of the work of his father Han van Meegeren...

      's fakes of Han van Meegeren
      Han van Meegeren
      Han van Meegeren , born Henricus Antonius van Meegeren, was a Dutch painter and portraitist, and is considered to be one of the most ingenious art forgers of the 20th century....

      's work
    • Michelangelo's Cupid
    • Etruscan terracotta warriors
      Etruscan terracotta warriors
      The three Etruscan terracotta warriors are art forgeries, statues made to resemble work of ancient Etruscans. The New York Metropolitan Museum of Art bought them between 1915 and 1921...

      , Metropolitan Museum of Art
      Metropolitan Museum of Art
      The Metropolitan Museum of Art is a renowned art museum in New York City. Its permanent collection contains more than two million works, divided into nineteen curatorial departments. The main building, located on the eastern edge of Central Park along Manhattan's Museum Mile, is one of the...

    • The Rospigliosi Cup
      The Rospigliosi Cup
      The Rospigliosi Cup , sometimes referred to as the Cellini Cup, is a decorative ornament, in gold and enamel, previously attributed to Benvenuto Cellini now known to be a forgery of nineteenth-century manufacture.It is believed that the Rospigliosi Cup was created by Reinhold Vasters, a German...

       or The 'Cellini Cup'
    • Samson Ceramics
      Samson Ceramics
      Edmé Samson , founder of the ceramics firm Samson, Edmé et Cie , was a famous copyist of porcelain and pottery.-Edme Samson's ceramics:...

       forgeries/reproductions
    • Black Admiral
      Black Admiral
      "Black Admiral" is the colloquial name for a Revolutionary War-era U.S. painting of unknown provenance that appears to depict a black man in U.S. naval uniform. In 2006, it was revealed that this 18th century painting was merely a white sailor overlaid in the mid-to-late 20th century with African...

  • Currency Forgery
    • Counterfeit money
      Counterfeit money
      Counterfeit money is currency that is produced without the legal sanction of the state or government to resemble some official form of currency closely enough that it may be confused for genuine currency. Producing or using counterfeit money is a form of fraud or forgery. Counterfeiting is probably...

    • Central Bank Counterfeit Deterrence Group
      Central Bank Counterfeit Deterrence Group
      The mission of the Central Bank Counterfeit Deterrence Group is to investigate emerging threats to the security of banknotes and to propose solutions for implementation by issuing authorities...

    • Counterfeit Coin Bulletin
      Counterfeit Coin Bulletin
      The Counterfeit Coin Bulletin was a publication of the American Numismatic Association, released three times a year to help battle counterfeiting of collector coins...

    • Counterfeit United States currency
      Counterfeit United States currency
      Counterfeiting of the currency of the United States is widely attempted. According to the United States Department of Treasury, an estimated 70 million counterfeit dollars are believed to be in circulation, or approximately $1 in counterfeits for every $12,500 in genuine currency.-Historical...

    • Fake denominations of United States currency
      Fake denominations of United States currency
      Fake denominations of United States currency have been created by individuals as practical joke and do not assert that they are legal tender. The bills often have images of their enemies or other people. The bills usually have "THIS IS NOT LEGAL TENDER FOR ANY DEBTS, THE PUBLIC, OR PRIVATE"...

    • William Chaloner
      William Chaloner
      William Chaloner was a serial offender counterfeit coiner and confidence trickster, who was imprisoned in Newgate Prison several times and eventually proven guilty of High Treason by Sir Isaac Newton, Master of the Royal Mint...

       (died 1699 at Tyburn), forger, coiner, coin clipper and counterfeiter,
    • Catherine Murphy (counterfeiter)
      Catherine Murphy (counterfeiter)
      Catherine Murphy was an English counterfeiter, the last woman to be officially sentenced and executed by the method of burning in England and Great Britain....

       (died 1789) the last woman to be executed by burning.
  • Literary forgery
    Literary forgery
    Literary forgery refers to writing, such as a manuscript or a literary work either deliberately misattributed to a historical or invented author, or a purported memoir presented as genuine.- History :The common, or popularly known, instance of literary forgery may involve for example the work of a...

     - these literary forgeries all had some effect on the course of cultural history. Other literary forgeries, such as the Hitler diaries
    Hitler Diaries
    In April 1983, the West German news magazine Stern published excerpts from what purported to be the diaries of Adolf Hitler, known as the Hitler Diaries , which were subsequently revealed to be forgeries...

    , briefly achieve wide notoriety, without affecting subsequent history; they are brought together as literary hoaxes.
    • Epistle to the Laodiceans
      Epistle to the Laodiceans
      An Epistle to the Laodiceans, purportedly written by Paul of Tarsus to the Laodicean Church, is mentioned in the canonical Epistle to the Colossians...

    • Theology of Aristotle
    • Ademar of Chabannes' forged Life of St. Martial
    • Thomas Chatterton
      Thomas Chatterton
      Thomas Chatterton was an English poet and forger of pseudo-medieval poetry. He died of arsenic poisoning, either from a suicide attempt or self-medication for a venereal disease.-Childhood:...

      's pseudo-medieval poetry
      Medieval poetry
      Because most of what we have was written down by clerics, much of extant medieval poetry is religious. The chief exception is the work of the troubadours and the minnesänger, whose primary innovation was the ideal of courtly love. Among the most famous of secular poetry is Carmina Burana, a...

    • Ossian
      Ossian
      Ossian is the narrator and supposed author of a cycle of poems which the Scottish poet James Macpherson claimed to have translated from ancient sources in the Scots Gaelic. He is based on Oisín, son of Finn or Fionn mac Cumhaill, anglicised to Finn McCool, a character from Irish mythology...

      ic poems
    • The Book of the Zohar, a primary text of medieval Kabbalah, was written by a 16th century Spanish Rabbi but attributed to Rabbi Shimon Bar Yochai, an ancient sage of the Second Temple period. It was widely accepted as genuine until the advent of modern scholarship.
    • The Salamander Letter
      Salamander Letter
      The Salamander Letter was a document created by Mark Hofmann in the early 1980s.The letter was one of hundreds of documents concerning the history of Latter Day Saint movement that surfaced in the early 1980s...

      , which offered an alternative account of Joseph Smith's finding of the Book of Mormon
      Book of Mormon
      The Book of Mormon is a sacred text of the Latter Day Saint movement that adherents believe contains writings of ancient prophets who lived on the American continent from approximately 2600 BC to AD 421. It was first published in March 1830 by Joseph Smith, Jr...

      , written by master forger Mark Hofmann
      Mark Hofmann
      Mark William Hofmann is an American counterfeiter, forger and convicted murderer. Widely regarded as one of the most accomplished forgers in history, Hofmann is especially noted for his creation of documents related to the history of the Latter Day Saint movement...

      .
    • Jack the Ripper's Diary
    • Clifford Irving
      Clifford Irving
      Clifford Michael Irving is an American author of novels and works of nonfiction, but best known for using forged handwritten letters to convince his publisher into accepting a fake "autobiography" of reclusive businessman Howard Hughes in the early 1970s...

      's Howard Hughes
      Howard Hughes
      Howard Robard Hughes, Jr. was an American business magnate, investor, aviator, engineer, film producer, director, and philanthropist. He was one of the wealthiest people in the world...

       autobiography
    • Charles Weisberg
      Charles Weisberg
      "Baron" Charles Weisberg was a US document forger who forged manuscripts, letters and signatures of celebrities and historical figures....

  • False document
    False document
    A false document is a literary technique employed to create verisimilitude in a work of fiction. By inventing and inserting documents that appear to be factual, an author tries to create a sense of authenticity beyond the normal and expected suspension of disbelief for a work of art...

    s
    • Yellowcake Forgery
      Yellowcake forgery
      The Niger uranium forgeries are forged documents initially revealed by Italian Military intelligence. These documents seem to depict an attempt made by Saddam Hussein in Iraq to purchase yellowcake uranium powder from Niger during the Iraq disarmament crisis....

    • Mark Hofmann
      Mark Hofmann
      Mark William Hofmann is an American counterfeiter, forger and convicted murderer. Widely regarded as one of the most accomplished forgers in history, Hofmann is especially noted for his creation of documents related to the history of the Latter Day Saint movement...

    • James Maybrick
      James Maybrick
      James Maybrick was a Liverpool cotton merchant. After his death, his wife, Florence Maybrick, was convicted of his murder by poisoning in a sensational trial. The "Aigburth Poisoning" case was widely reported in the press on both sides of the Atlantic...

    • Donation of Constantine
      Donation of Constantine
      The Donation of Constantine is a forged Roman imperial decree by which the emperor Constantine I supposedly transferred authority over Rome and the western part of the Roman Empire to the pope. During the Middle Ages, the document was often cited in support of the Roman Church's claims to...

    • Vinland map
      Vinland map
      The Vinland map is claimed to be a 15th century mappa mundi with unique information about Norse exploration of America. It is very well known because of the publicity campaign which accompanied its revelation to the public as a "genuine" pre-Columbian map in 1965...

    • Dossiers Secrets
      Dossiers Secrets
      The Dossiers Secrets d'Henri Lobineau , compiled by Philippe Toscan du Plantier is a 27-page document deposited in the Bibliothèque nationale de France on 27 April 1967. The document purports to represent a part of the history of the Priory of Sion. The section of the history is attributed to...

      , the document forgeries planted in the Bibliothèque nationale de France
      Bibliothèque nationale de France
      The is the National Library of France, located in Paris. It is intended to be the repository of all that is published in France. The current president of the library is Bruno Racine.-History:...

       that were developed into Holy Blood, Holy Grail etc.
    • Identity document forgery
      Identity document forgery
      Identity document forgery is the process by which identity documents issued by governing bodies are copied and/or modified by persons not authorized to create such documents or engage in such modifications, for the purpose of deceiving those who would view the documents about the identity or status...

  • Musical Forgery (Music allegedly written by composers of past eras, but actually composed later by someone else)
    • W. A. Mozart
      Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
      Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart , baptismal name Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart , was a prolific and influential composer of the Classical era. He composed over 600 works, many acknowledged as pinnacles of symphonic, concertante, chamber, piano, operatic, and choral music...

      , "Adélaïde" concerto for violin
      Adelaide Concerto
      The Adélaïde Concerto is the nickname of a Violin Concerto in D Major attributed to Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and given the catalog number K. Anh. 294a in the third edition of the standard Köchel catalogue of Mozart's works. Unknown until the 20th century, this concerto was later discovered to be a...

       (by Marius Casadesus
      Marius Casadesus
      Marius Casadesus was a French violinist and composer. He was the brother of Henri Casadesus, uncle of the famed pianist Robert Casadesus, and grand-uncle to Jean Casadesus....

      )
    • G. F. Handel, Viola Concerto (by Henri Casadesus
      Henri Casadesus
      Henri Casadesus was a violist and music publisher. He was the brother of Marius Casadesus, uncle of the famous pianist Robert Casadesus, and granduncle of Jean Casadesus....

      )
    • J. C. Bach
      Johann Christian Bach
      Johann Christian Bach was a composer of the Classical era, the eleventh and youngest son of Johann Sebastian Bach. He is sometimes referred to as 'the London Bach' or 'the English Bach', due to his time spent living in the British capital...

      , Cello Concerto in C minor (by Henri Casadesus)
    • Valentin Strobel, Concerto (by François-Joseph Fétis
      François-Joseph Fétis
      François-Joseph Fétis was a Belgian musicologist, composer, critic and teacher. He was one of the most influential music critics of the 19th century, and his enormous compilation of biographical data in the Biographie universelle des musiciens remains an important source of information today...

      )
    • Works for lute
      Lute
      Lute can refer generally to any plucked string instrument with a neck and a deep round back, or more specifically to an instrument from the family of European lutes....

       by Sautscheck
      Roman Turovsky-Savchuk
      Roman Turovsky-Savchuk is an American painter and lutenist-composer born in Ukraine.-Biography:Turovsky was born in Kiev, Ukraine in 1961, when it was part of the Soviet Union. He studied art from an early age under his father, the painter Mikhail Turovsky and at the Shevchenko State Art School...

       (by Roman Turovsky-Savchuk
      Roman Turovsky-Savchuk
      Roman Turovsky-Savchuk is an American painter and lutenist-composer born in Ukraine.-Biography:Turovsky was born in Kiev, Ukraine in 1961, when it was part of the Soviet Union. He studied art from an early age under his father, the painter Mikhail Turovsky and at the Shevchenko State Art School...

      )
    • Works for lute
      Lute
      Lute can refer generally to any plucked string instrument with a neck and a deep round back, or more specifically to an instrument from the family of European lutes....

       by Ioannes Leopolita (by Roman Turovsky-Savchuk
      Roman Turovsky-Savchuk
      Roman Turovsky-Savchuk is an American painter and lutenist-composer born in Ukraine.-Biography:Turovsky was born in Kiev, Ukraine in 1961, when it was part of the Soviet Union. He studied art from an early age under his father, the painter Mikhail Turovsky and at the Shevchenko State Art School...

      )
    • Works for baroque guitar
      Baroque guitar
      The Baroque guitar is a guitar from the baroque era , an ancestor of the modern classical guitar. The term is also used for modern instruments made in the same style....

       by Antonio da Costa (by Paulo Galvao
      Paulo Galvão
      Paulo Galvão - is a composer, lutenist, theorbist and guitarist, noted in particular for his compositions for 5-course baroque guitar published under the allonym "AdC"...

      )
    • "Kanzona" for lute
      Lute
      Lute can refer generally to any plucked string instrument with a neck and a deep round back, or more specifically to an instrument from the family of European lutes....

       by Francesco da Milano (by Vladimir Vavilov)
    • A.Sychra, Elegy for guitar (by Vladimir Vavilov)
    • Fritz Kreisler
      Fritz Kreisler
      Friedrich "Fritz" Kreisler was an Austrian-born violinist and composer. One of the most famous violin masters of his or any other day, he was known for his sweet tone and expressive phrasing. Like many great violinists of his generation, he produced a characteristic sound which was immediately...

      's works for violin attributed to other composers
    • Joseph Haydn
      Joseph Haydn
      Franz Joseph Haydn , known as Joseph Haydn , was an Austrian composer, one of the most prolific and prominent composers of the Classical period. He is often called the "Father of the Symphony" and "Father of the String Quartet" because of his important contributions to these forms...

      , 6 Keyboard Sonatas (by Winfried Michel
      Winfried Michel
      Winfried Michel is a German recorder player, composer, and editor of music.Michel studied with Ingetraud Drescher, Nikolaus Delius, and Frans Brüggen. He is lecturer for the recorder at the Staatliche Hochschule Münster and at the Musikakademie Kassel...

      )
    • Joseph Haydn
      Joseph Haydn
      Franz Joseph Haydn , known as Joseph Haydn , was an Austrian composer, one of the most prolific and prominent composers of the Classical period. He is often called the "Father of the Symphony" and "Father of the String Quartet" because of his important contributions to these forms...

      , Cello Concerto 'No 5' in C major, Hob VIIb:5 (by David Popper
      David Popper
      David Popper was a Bohemian cellist and composer.-Life:He was born in Prague, and studied music at the Prague Conservatory. He studied the cello under Julius Goltermann , and soon attracted attention...

      )
  • Philatelic fakes and forgeries
    Philatelic fakes and forgeries
    In general, philatelic fakes and forgeries refers to labels that look like postage stamps but are not. Most have been produced to deceive or defraud...

  • Relic forgery - It is not the efficacy of a relic that is in question, but only its provenance
    Provenance
    Provenance, from the French provenir, "to come from", refers to the chronology of the ownership or location of an historical object. The term was originally mostly used for works of art, but is now used in similar senses in a wide range of fields, including science and computing...

    .
    • cf True Cross
      True Cross
      The True Cross is the name for physical remnants which, by a Christian tradition, are believed to be from the cross upon which Jesus was crucified.According to post-Nicene historians, Socrates Scholasticus and others, the Empress Helena The True Cross is the name for physical remnants which, by a...

    • cf Shroud of Turin
      Shroud of Turin
      The Shroud of Turin or Turin Shroud is a linen cloth bearing the image of a man who appears to have suffered physical trauma in a manner consistent with crucifixion. It is kept in the royal chapel of the Cathedral of Saint John the Baptist in Turin, northern Italy. The image on the shroud is...

  • Biblical archaeology
    Biblical archaeology
    For the movement associated with William F. Albright and also known as biblical archaeology, see Biblical archaeology school. For the interpretation of biblical archaeology in relation to biblical historicity, see The Bible and history....

     - Ancient artifacts
    • Moses Shapira
      Moses Shapira
      Moses Wilhelm Shapira was a Jerusalem antiquities dealer and purveyor of fake Biblical artifacts. The shame brought about by accusations that he was involved in the forging of ancient biblical texts drove him to suicide in 1884...

  • Political forgery - false document
    False document
    A false document is a literary technique employed to create verisimilitude in a work of fiction. By inventing and inserting documents that appear to be factual, an author tries to create a sense of authenticity beyond the normal and expected suspension of disbelief for a work of art...

    s used for purposes of black propaganda
    Black propaganda
    Black propaganda is false information and material that purports to be from a source on one side of a conflict, but is actually from the opposing side. It is typically used to vilify, embarrass or misrepresent the enemy...

    .
    • The Protocols of the Elders of Zion
      The Protocols of the Elders of Zion
      The Protocols of the Elders of Zion is a fraudulent, antisemitic text purporting to describe a Jewish plan for achieving global domination. It was first published in Russia in 1903, translated into multiple languages, and disseminated internationally in the early part of the twentieth century...

    • Zinoviev Letter
      Zinoviev Letter
      The "Zinoviev Letter" refers to a controversial document published by the British press in 1924, allegedly sent from the Communist International in Moscow to the Communist Party of Great Britain...

    • Tanaka Memorial
      Tanaka Memorial
      The is an alleged Japanese strategic planning document from 1927, in which Prime Minister Baron Tanaka Giichi laid out for the Emperor Hirohito a strategy to take over the world...

    • Ems Dispatch
      Ems Dispatch
      The Ems Dispatch , sometimes called the Ems Telegram, caused France to declare the Franco-Prussian War in July 1870. The actual dispatch was an internal message from the Prussian King's vacationing site to Bismarck in Berlin, reporting demands made by the French ambassador; it was Bismarck's...

       (actually more of a document altered by Otto von Bismarck
      Otto von Bismarck
      Otto Eduard Leopold, Prince of Bismarck, Duke of Lauenburg , simply known as Otto von Bismarck, was a Prussian-German statesman whose actions unified Germany, made it a major player in world affairs, and created a balance of power that kept Europe at peace after 1871.As Minister President of...

       in order to incite a war response from France against Germany)
    • Killian documents
      Killian documents
      The Killian documents controversy involved six documents critical of President George W. Bush's service in the Air National Guard in 1972–73...

       (Memos critical of the United States National Guard
      United States National Guard
      The National Guard of the United States is a reserve military force composed of state National Guard militia members or units under federally recognized active or inactive armed force service for the United States. Militia members are citizen soldiers, meaning they work part time for the National...

       service of President George W. Bush
      George W. Bush
      George Walker Bush is an American politician who served as the 43rd President of the United States, from 2001 to 2009. Before that, he was the 46th Governor of Texas, having served from 1995 to 2000....

      , now widely considered to be forgeries. See also Killian documents authenticity issues
      Killian documents authenticity issues
      During the Killian documents controversy in 2004, the authenticity of the documents themselves was disputed by a variety of individuals and groups. Proof of authenticity is not possible without original documents, and since CBS used only faxed and photocopied duplicates, authentication to...

      .)

See also


  • Authentication
    Authentication
    Authentication is the act of confirming the truth of an attribute of a datum or entity...

  • Counterfeiting
    • coins
      Coin counterfeiting
      Coin counterfeiting of valuable antique coins is common; modern high-value coins are also counterfeited and circulated.Counterfeit antique coins are generally made to a very high standard so that they can deceive experts; this is not easy and many coins still stand out.-Circulating...

    • currency
      Counterfeit money
      Counterfeit money is currency that is produced without the legal sanction of the state or government to resemble some official form of currency closely enough that it may be confused for genuine currency. Producing or using counterfeit money is a form of fraud or forgery. Counterfeiting is probably...

    • drugs
    • watches
    • postage stamps
      Philatelic fakes and forgeries
      In general, philatelic fakes and forgeries refers to labels that look like postage stamps but are not. Most have been produced to deceive or defraud...

       
  • Epigraphy
    Epigraphy
    Epigraphy Epigraphy Epigraphy (from the , literally "on-writing", is the study of inscriptions or epigraphs as writing; that is, the science of identifying the graphemes and of classifying their use as to cultural context and date, elucidating their meaning and assessing what conclusions can be...


  • False document
    False document
    A false document is a literary technique employed to create verisimilitude in a work of fiction. By inventing and inserting documents that appear to be factual, an author tries to create a sense of authenticity beyond the normal and expected suspension of disbelief for a work of art...

  • Falsification
    Falsification
    Falsification may refer to:* The act of disproving a proposition, hypothesis, or theory: see Falsifiability* Mathematical proof* Falsified evidence...

  • FBI
  • Phishing
    Phishing
    Phishing is a way of attempting to acquire information such as usernames, passwords, and credit card details by masquerading as a trustworthy entity in an electronic communication. Communications purporting to be from popular social web sites, auction sites, online payment processors or IT...

  • Questioned document examination
    Questioned document examination
    Questioned document examination is the forensic science discipline pertaining to documents that are in dispute in a court of law...

  • Replica
    Replica
    A replica is a copy closely resembling the original concerning its shape and appearance. An inverted replica complements the original by filling its gaps. It can be a copy used for historical purposes, such as being placed in a museum. Sometimes the original never existed. For example, Difference...

  • United States Secret Service
    United States Secret Service
    The United States Secret Service is a United States federal law enforcement agency that is part of the United States Department of Homeland Security. The sworn members are divided among the Special Agents and the Uniformed Division. Until March 1, 2003, the Service was part of the United States...

  • White Collar Crime


External links