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Aviation is the design, development, production, operation, and use of aircraft, especially heavier-than-air aircraft. Aviation is derived from avis, the Latin word for bird.-History:...
a flight information region
) is a region of airspace
Airspace means the portion of the atmosphere controlled by a country above its territory, including its territorial waters or, more generally, any specific three-dimensional portion of the atmosphere....
with specific dimensions, in which a flight information service
A flight information service is a form of air traffic service which is available to any aircraft within a flight information region , as agreed internationally by ICAO....
and an alerting service are provided. It is the largest regular division of airspace in use in the world today.
Any portion of the atmosphere belongs to some specific FIR. Smaller countries' airspace is encompassed by a single FIR, larger countries' airspace is subdivided into a number of regional FIRs. Some FIRs may encompass the territorial airspace of several countries. Oceanic airspace is divided into Oceanic Information Regions and delegated to a controlling authority bordering that region. The division among authorities is done by international agreement through International Civil Aviation Organization
The International Civil Aviation Organization , pronounced , , is a specialized agency of the United Nations. It codifies the principles and techniques of international air navigation and fosters the planning and development of international air transport to ensure safe and orderly growth...
There is no standard size for FIRs, it is a matter for administrative convenience of the country concerned. In some cases there may exist a horizontal division of the FIR, in which case the lower portion remains named as such, whereas the airspace above is named Upper Information Region, or UIR.
An information service and alerting service are the basic levels of air traffic service, providing information pertinent to the safe and efficient conduct of flights and alerting the relevant authorities should an aircraft be in distress. These are available to all aircraft through an FIR. Higher levels of Air Traffic Advisory and Control services may be available within certain portions of airspace within an FIR, according to the ICAO class of that portion of airspace (with regard to national regulations), and the existence of a suitably equipped authority to provide the services.
- Area Control Center
In air traffic control, an Area Control Center , also known as a Center, is a facility responsible for controlling instrument flight rules aircraft en route in a particular volume of airspace at high altitudes between airport approaches and departures...
- List of Area Control Centers
- Airway (aviation)
In aviation, an airway is a designated route in the air. Airways are laid out between navigational aids such as VORs, NDBs and Intersections ....
- Air corridor
An air corridor is a designated region of airspace that an aircraft must remain in during its transit through a given region. Air corridors are typically imposed by military or diplomatic requirements...
- Control Area
A control area is an aviation term that describes a volume of controlled airspace that exists in the vicinity of an airport. It has a specified lower level and a specified upper level. It usually is situated on top of a control zone and provides protection to aircraft climbing out from the airport...
- Control Zone
A control zone is an aviation term that describes a volume of controlled airspace, normally around an airport, which extends from the surface to a specified upper limit, established to protect air traffic operating to and from that airport...
- Terminal Control Area
A terminal control area , also known as a terminal manoeuvring area in Europe, is an aviation term to describe a designated area of controlled airspace surrounding a major airport where there is a high volume of traffic...