Home      Discussion      Topics      Dictionary      Almanac
Signup       Login
Fire ant

Fire ant

Encyclopedia
Fire ants are a variety of stinging
Stinger
-Biology:* Stinger, an organ or body part found in various animals that usually delivers some kind of venom.* Stinger , a minor neurological injury suffered by athletes.-Sports and entertainment:...

 ant
Ant
Ants are social insects of the family Formicidae and, along with the related wasps and bees, belong to the order Hymenoptera. Ants evolved from wasp-like ancestors in the mid-Cretaceous period between 110 and 130 million years ago and diversified after the rise of flowering plants. More than...

s with over 285 species worldwide. They have several common names, including ginger ants, tropical fire ants and red ants.

Appearance



The bodies of fire ants, like all insect
Insect
Insects are a class of living creatures within the arthropods that have a chitinous exoskeleton, a three-part body , three pairs of jointed legs, compound eyes, and two antennae...

s' bodies, are divided into three sections: the head
Head
In anatomy, the head of an animal is the rostral part that usually comprises the brain, eyes, ears, nose and mouth . Some very simple animals may not have a head, but many bilaterally symmetric forms do....

, the thorax
Thorax
The thorax is a division of an animal's body that lies between the head and the abdomen.-In tetrapods:...

, and the abdomen
Abdomen
In vertebrates such as mammals the abdomen constitutes the part of the body between the thorax and pelvis. The region enclosed by the abdomen is termed the abdominal cavity...

, with three pairs of leg
Leg
Łęg may refer to the following places in Poland:*A former name for the town of Ełk *Part of the Czyżyny district of Kraków*Łęg, Pleszew County in Greater Poland Voivodeship...

s and a pair of antennae
Antenna (biology)
Antennae in biology have historically been paired appendages used for sensing in arthropods. More recently, the term has also been applied to cilium structures present in most cell types of eukaryotes....

. Fire ants can be distinguished from other ants by their copper brown head and body with a darker abdomen. The worker ants are blackish to reddish, and their size varies from 2mm to 6 mm (0.12 in to 0.24 in). These different sizes of the ants can all exist in the same nest.

Solenopsis spp. ants can be identified with three body features—a pedicel
Petiole (insect)
In entomology, the term petiole is most commonly used to refer to the constricted first metasomal segment of members of the Hymenopteran suborder Apocrita; it may be used to refer to other insects with similar body shapes, where the metasomal base is constricted...

 with two nodes, an unarmed propodeum
Propodeum
The propodeum is the first abdominal segment in Apocrita Hymenoptera . It is fused with the thorax to form the mesosoma. It is a single large sclerite, not subdivided, and bears a pair of spiracles. It is strongly constricted posteriorly to form the articulation of the petiole, and gives apocritans...

, and antennae with 10 segments and a two-segmented club.

Many ants bite, and can cause irritation by injecting formic acid
Formic acid
Formic acid is the simplest carboxylic acid. Its chemical formula is HCOOH or HCO2H. It is an important intermediate in chemical synthesis and occurs naturally, most notably in the venom of bee and ant stings. In fact, its name comes from the Latin word for ant, formica, referring to its early...

; stinging ants have a dedicated venom-injecting sting
Stinger
-Biology:* Stinger, an organ or body part found in various animals that usually delivers some kind of venom.* Stinger , a minor neurological injury suffered by athletes.-Sports and entertainment:...

 as well as mandibles.

Behavior



A typical fire ant colony
Ant colony
An ant colony is an underground lair where ants live, eat and mate. Colonies consist of a series of underground chambers, connected to each other and the surface of the earth by small tunnels. There are rooms for nurseries, food storage, and mating...

 produces large mounds in open areas, and feeds mostly on young plants, seeds, and sometimes crickets
Cricket (insect)
Crickets, family Gryllidae , are insects somewhat related to grasshoppers, and more closely related to katydids or bush crickets . They have somewhat flattened bodies and long antennae. There are about 900 species of crickets...

. Fire ants often attack small animals and can kill them. Unlike many other ant
Ant
Ants are social insects of the family Formicidae and, along with the related wasps and bees, belong to the order Hymenoptera. Ants evolved from wasp-like ancestors in the mid-Cretaceous period between 110 and 130 million years ago and diversified after the rise of flowering plants. More than...

s, which bite and then spray acid
Acid
An acid is a substance which reacts with a base. Commonly, acids can be identified as tasting sour, reacting with metals such as calcium, and bases like sodium carbonate. Aqueous acids have a pH of less than 7, where an acid of lower pH is typically stronger, and turn blue litmus paper red...

 on the wound, fire ants bite only to get a grip and then sting (from the abdomen) and inject a toxic alkaloid
Alkaloid
Alkaloids are a group of naturally occurring chemical compounds that contain mostly basic nitrogen atoms. This group also includes some related compounds with neutral and even weakly acidic properties. Also some synthetic compounds of similar structure are attributed to alkaloids...

 venom
Venom
Venom is the general term referring to any variety of toxins used by certain types of animals that inject it into their victims by the means of a bite or a sting...

 called solenopsin
Solenopsin
Solenopsin is an alkaloid which inhibits angiogenesis via the phosphoinositol-3 kinase signaling pathway, in addition to contributing to the toxic effect of fire ant venom. Solenopsin has also been shown to have cytotoxic, hemolytic, necrotic, insecticidal, antibacterial, antifungal, and ...

, a compound from the class of piperidines. For humans, this is a painful sting, a sensation similar to what one feels when burned by fire
Fire
Fire is the rapid oxidation of a material in the chemical process of combustion, releasing heat, light, and various reaction products. Slower oxidative processes like rusting or digestion are not included by this definition....

—hence the name fire ant—and the after effects of the sting can be deadly to sensitive individuals. The venom is both insecticidal and antibiotic.

Fire ants nest in the soil
Soil
Soil is a natural body consisting of layers of mineral constituents of variable thicknesses, which differ from the parent materials in their morphological, physical, chemical, and mineralogical characteristics...

, often near moist areas, such as river banks, pond
Pond
A pond is a body of standing water, either natural or man-made, that is usually smaller than a lake. A wide variety of man-made bodies of water are classified as ponds, including water gardens, water features and koi ponds; all designed for aesthetic ornamentation as landscape or architectural...

 shores, watered lawn
Lawn
A lawn is an area of aesthetic and recreational land planted with grasses or other durable plants, which usually are maintained at a low and consistent height. Low ornamental meadows in natural landscaping styles are a contemporary option of a lawn...

s and highway
Highway
A highway is any public road. In American English, the term is common and almost always designates major roads. In British English, the term designates any road open to the public. Any interconnected set of highways can be variously referred to as a "highway system", a "highway network", or a...

 shoulder. Usually, the nest will not be visible, as it will be built under objects such as timber
Timber
Timber may refer to:* Timber, a term common in the United Kingdom and Australia for wood materials * Timber, Oregon, an unincorporated community in the U.S...

, log
Log
Log, LOG, or LoG may refer to:*Wooden log, also known as timber, wood from trees used for construction, fuel, or wood pulp for paper production...

s, rocks
Rock (geology)
In geology, rock or stone is a naturally occurring solid aggregate of minerals and/or mineraloids.The Earth's outer solid layer, the lithosphere, is made of rock. In general rocks are of three types, namely, igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic...

, or brick
Brick
A brick is a block of ceramic material used in masonry construction, usually laid using various kinds of mortar. It has been regarded as one of the longest lasting and strongest building materials used throughout history.-History:...

s. If there is no cover for nesting, dome
Dome
A dome is a structural element of architecture that resembles the hollow upper half of a sphere. Dome structures made of various materials have a long architectural lineage extending into prehistory....

-shaped mounds will be constructed, but these are usually only found in open spaces, such as fields
Field (agriculture)
In agriculture, the word field refers generally to an area of land enclosed or otherwise and used for agricultural purposes such as:* Cultivating crops* Usage as a paddock or, generally, an enclosure of livestock...

, park
Park
A park is a protected area, in its natural or semi-natural state, or planted, and set aside for human recreation and enjoyment, or for the protection of wildlife or natural habitats. It may consist of rocks, soil, water, flora and fauna and grass areas. Many parks are legally protected by...

s and lawns. These mounds can reach heights of 40 cm (15.7 in), and can also be as deep as five feet.http://www.localpestcontrolservices.com/pest_control_blog/category/pests/fire-ants/
Colonies are founded by small groups of queens or single queens. Even if only one queen survives, within a month or so, the colony can expand to thousands of individuals. Some colonies may be polygynous (having multiple queens per nest).

Roles



Queen


A queen is generally the largest individual in the colony. Her primary function is reproduction; she may live for six to seven years and produce up to 3,500 eggs per day.

Males / drones


Males mate with the queen for the sole purpose of producing offspring. Their lifespan is approximately four days.

Workers


The workers are sterile females which build and repair the nest, care for the young, defend the nest, and feed both young and adult ants. The worker ants also go find supplies to build up the colony. Life span 1 month.

Introduced species


Although most fire ant species do not bother people and are not invasive due to biological factors, Solenopsis invicta, known in the United States as the red imported fire ant
Red imported fire ant
See main article Fire ant.The red imported fire ant , or simply RIFA, is one of over 280 species in the widespread genus Solenopsis...

 (or RIFA) is an invasive pest in many areas of the world, notably the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

, Australia
Australia
Australia , officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country in the Southern Hemisphere comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area...

, the Philippines
Philippines
The Philippines , officially known as the Republic of the Philippines , is a country in Southeast Asia in the western Pacific Ocean. To its north across the Luzon Strait lies Taiwan. West across the South China Sea sits Vietnam...

, China
China
Chinese civilization may refer to:* China for more general discussion of the country.* Chinese culture* Greater China, the transnational community of ethnic Chinese.* History of China* Sinosphere, the area historically affected by Chinese culture...

 and Taiwan
Taiwan
Taiwan , also known, especially in the past, as Formosa , is the largest island of the same-named island group of East Asia in the western Pacific Ocean and located off the southeastern coast of mainland China. The island forms over 99% of the current territory of the Republic of China following...

. The RIFA was accidentally introduced into the United States aboard a South American cargo ship that docked at the port of Mobile, Alabama
Mobile, Alabama
Mobile is the third most populous city in the Southern US state of Alabama and is the county seat of Mobile County. It is located on the Mobile River and the central Gulf Coast of the United States. The population within the city limits was 195,111 during the 2010 census. It is the largest...

, in the 1930s, and came to infest the majority of the Southern
Southern United States
The Southern United States—commonly referred to as the American South, Dixie, or simply the South—constitutes a large distinctive area in the southeastern and south-central United States...

 and Southwestern United States
Southwestern United States
The Southwestern United States is a region defined in different ways by different sources. Broad definitions include nearly a quarter of the United States, including Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas and Utah...

.

In the US the FDA
Food and Drug Administration
The Food and Drug Administration is an agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments...

 estimates more than US$5 billion is spent annually on medical treatment, damage, and control in RIFA-infested areas. Furthermore, the ants cause approximately $750 million in damage annually to agricultural assets, including veterinarian
Veterinarian
A veterinary physician, colloquially called a vet, shortened from veterinarian or veterinary surgeon , is a professional who treats disease, disorder and injury in animals....

 bills and livestock
Livestock
Livestock refers to one or more domesticated animals raised in an agricultural setting to produce commodities such as food, fiber and labor. The term "livestock" as used in this article does not include poultry or farmed fish; however the inclusion of these, especially poultry, within the meaning...

 loss, as well as crop
Crop (agriculture)
A crop is a non-animal species or variety that is grown to be harvested as food, livestock fodder, fuel or for any other economic purpose. Major world crops include maize , wheat, rice, soybeans, hay, potatoes and cotton. While the term "crop" most commonly refers to plants, it can also include...

 loss. Over 40 million people live in RIFA-infested areas in the southeastern United States. Between 30 and 60% of the people living in fire ant-infested areas are stung each year. Since September 2004 Taiwan has been seriously affected by the red fire ant. The US, Taiwan and Australia all have ongoing national programs to control or eradicate the species, but, other than Australia, none have been especially effective. In Australia, an intensive program costing A$175 million had by February 2007 eradicated 99% of fire ants from the sole infestation occurring in south-east Queensland.

In just 70 years, according to a study published in 2009, lizards
Eastern fence lizard
The eastern fence lizard is a medium-sized species of lizard found along forest edges, rock piles, and rotting logs or stumps in the eastern United States...

 in parts of the United States had developed longer legs and new behaviors to escape the ants, which can kill the lizard in under a minute.

Symptoms and treatment



The venom of fire ants is composed of alkaloids such as piperidine
Piperidine
Piperidine is an organic compound with the molecular formula 5NH. This heterocyclic amine consists of a six-membered ring containing five methylene units and one nitrogen atom...

 (see Solenopsis saevissima
Solenopsis saevissima
Solenopsis saevissima, commonly known in Brazil as formiga ruiva , is one of more than 185 species in the genus Solenopsis. It, along with 12 other species, is also a member of the Solenopsis saevissima species-group....

). The sting swells into a bump, which can cause much pain
Pain
Pain is an unpleasant sensation often caused by intense or damaging stimuli such as stubbing a toe, burning a finger, putting iodine on a cut, and bumping the "funny bone."...

 and irritation at times, especially when caused by several stings in the same place. The bump often forms into a white pustule, which can become infected
Infection
An infection is the colonization of a host organism by parasite species. Infecting parasites seek to use the host's resources to reproduce, often resulting in disease...

 if scratched, but if left alone will usually flatten within a few days. The pustules are obtrusive and uncomfortable while active and, if they become infected, can cause scar
Scar
Scars are areas of fibrous tissue that replace normal skin after injury. A scar results from the biological process of wound repair in the skin and other tissues of the body. Thus, scarring is a natural part of the healing process. With the exception of very minor lesions, every wound results in...

ring. Some people are allergic to the venom, and as with many allergies, may experience anaphylaxis
Anaphylaxis
Anaphylaxis is defined as "a serious allergic reaction that is rapid in onset and may cause death". It typically results in a number of symptoms including throat swelling, an itchy rash, and low blood pressure...

, which requires emergency treatment. An antihistamine
Antihistamine
An H1 antagonist is a histamine antagonist of the H1 receptor that serves to reduce or eliminate effects mediated by histamine, an endogenous chemical mediator released during allergic reactions...

 or topical corticosteroid
Corticosteroid
Corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex. Corticosteroids are involved in a wide range of physiologic systems such as stress response, immune response and regulation of inflammation, carbohydrate metabolism, protein catabolism, blood electrolyte...

s may help reduce the itching.

First aid for fire ant bites includes external treatments and oral medicines.
  • External treatments: a topical steroid cream (hydrocortisone), or one containing aloe vera
    Aloe vera
    Aloe vera, pronounced , also known as the true aloe or medicinal aloe, is a species of succulent plant in the genus Aloe that is believed to have originated in the Sudan. Aloe vera grows in arid climates and is widely distributed in Africa, India, Nepal and other arid areas.The species is...

  • Oral medicines: antihistamines


Severe allergic reactions to fire ant stings, including severe chest pain, nausea, severe sweating, loss of breath, serious swelling, and slurred speech, can be fatal if not treated.

Predators


Phorid flies, or Phoridae, are a family of small, hump-backed flies resembling fruit flies
Drosophilidae
Drosophilidae is a diverse, cosmopolitan family of flies, which includes fruit flies. Another family of flies called Tephritidae also includes fruit flies. The best known species of Drosophilidae is Drosophila melanogaster, within the genus Drosophila, and this species Is used extensively for...

; two species in this family (Pseudacteon tricuspis and Pseudacteon curvatus) are parasitoid
Parasitoid
A parasitoid is an organism that spends a significant portion of its life history attached to or within a single host organism in a relationship that is in essence parasitic; unlike a true parasite, however, it ultimately sterilises or kills, and sometimes consumes, the host...

s of the red imported fire ant
Red imported fire ant
See main article Fire ant.The red imported fire ant , or simply RIFA, is one of over 280 species in the widespread genus Solenopsis...

 in its native range in South America
South America
South America is a continent situated in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere. The continent is also considered a subcontinent of the Americas. It is bordered on the west by the Pacific Ocean and on the north and east...

. Some 110 species of the genus Pseudacteon, or ant-decapitating flies, have been described. Members of Pseudacteon reproduce by laying eggs in the thorax
Thorax
The thorax is a division of an animal's body that lies between the head and the abdomen.-In tetrapods:...

 of the ant. The first instar
Instar
An instar is a developmental stage of arthropods, such as insects, between each molt , until sexual maturity is reached. Arthropods must shed the exoskeleton in order to grow or assume a new form. Differences between instars can often be seen in altered body proportions, colors, patterns, or...

 larvae migrates to the head, then develops by feeding on the hemolymph
Hemolymph
Hemolymph, or haemolymph, is a fluid in the circulatory system of some arthropods and is analogous to the fluids and cells making up both blood and interstitial fluid in vertebrates such as birds and mammals...

, muscle tissue, and nervous tissue. After about two weeks, they cause the ant's head to fall off by releasing an enzyme
Enzyme
Enzymes are proteins that catalyze chemical reactions. In enzymatic reactions, the molecules at the beginning of the process, called substrates, are converted into different molecules, called products. Almost all chemical reactions in a biological cell need enzymes in order to occur at rates...

 that dissolves the membrane attaching the ant's head to its body. The fly pupates in the detached head capsule, emerging two weeks later.

Pseudacteon flies have been widely introduced throughout the southern United States, starting with Travis
Travis County, Texas
As of 2009, the U.S. census estimates there were 1,026,158 people, 320,766 households, and 183,798 families residing in the county. The population density was 821 people per square mile . There were 335,881 housing units at an average density of 340 per square mile...

, Brazos
Brazos County, Texas
Brazos County is a county located in the U.S. state of Texas in the Central Texas region. In 2010, its population was 194,851. The county seat is Bryan and it is part of the Bryan-College Station metropolitan area. Brazos is named for the Brazos River, along with Brazoria...

, and Dallas
Dallas County, Texas
As of the census of 2000, there were 2,218,899 people, 807,621 households, and 533,837 families residing in the county. The population density was 2,523 people per square mile . There were 854,119 housing units at an average density of 971/sq mi...

 counties in Texas
Texas
Texas is the second largest U.S. state by both area and population, and the largest state by area in the contiguous United States.The name, based on the Caddo word "Tejas" meaning "friends" or "allies", was applied by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves and to the region of their settlement in...

, as well as Mobile, Alabama
Mobile, Alabama
Mobile is the third most populous city in the Southern US state of Alabama and is the county seat of Mobile County. It is located on the Mobile River and the central Gulf Coast of the United States. The population within the city limits was 195,111 during the 2010 census. It is the largest...

, where the ants first entered North America.

Species


This species list is complete.
  • Solenopsis abdita Thompson, 1989
  • Solenopsis africana Santschi, 1914
  • Solenopsis albidula Emery, 1906
  • Solenopsis alecto Santschi, 1934
  • Solenopsis altinodis Forel, 1912
  • Solenopsis amblychila Wheeler, 1915
  • Solenopsis andina Santschi, 1923
  • Solenopsis angulata Emery, 1894
  • Solenopsis atlantis Santschi, 1934
  • Solenopsis aurea Wheeler, 1906
  • Solenopsis avia (Bernard, 1978)
  • Solenopsis azteca Forel, 1893
  • Solenopsis balachowskyi Bernard, 1959
  • Solenopsis banyulensis Bernard, 1950
  • Solenopsis basalis Forel, 1896
  • Solenopsis belisarius Forel, 1907
  • Solenopsis blanda (Foerster, 1891)
  • Solenopsis brasiliana Santschi, 1925
  • Solenopsis brazoensis (Buckley, 1867)
  • Solenopsis brevicornis Emery, 1888
  • Solenopsis brevipes Emery, 1906
  • Solenopsis bruchiella Emery, 1922
  • Solenopsis bruesi Creighton, 1930
  • Solenopsis bucki Kempf, 1973
  • Solenopsis canariensis Forel, 1893
  • Solenopsis capensis Mayr, 1866
  • Solenopsis carolinensis Forel, 1901
  • Solenopsis castor Forel, 1893
  • Solenopsis celata (Dlussky & Zabelin, 1985)
  • Solenopsis clarki Crawley, 1922
  • Solenopsis clytemnestra Emery, 1896
  • Solenopsis conjurata Wheeler, 1925
  • Solenopsis cooperi Donisthorpe, 1947
  • Solenopsis corticalis Forel, 1881
  • Solenopsis crivellarii Menozzi, 1936
  • Solenopsis daguerrei
    Solenopsis daguerrei
    Solenopsis daguerrei is a species of parasitic ants native to Argentina and Uruguay . The young queens of the species invade the nests of other species, such as the red imported fire ant . This is made possible by the fact that the S. daguerrei queen produces pheromones which are very similar...

    (Santschi, 1930)
  • Solenopsis dalli (Kusnezov, 1969)
  • Solenopsis decipiens Emery, 1906
  • Solenopsis delta (Bernard, 1978)
  • Solenopsis deserticola Ruzsky, 1905
  • Solenopsis duboscqui Bernard, 1950
  • Solenopsis dysderces Snelling, 1975
  • Solenopsis egregia (Kusnezov, 1953)
  • Solenopsis electra Forel, 1914
  • Solenopsis emeryi Santschi, 1934
  • Solenopsis eximia (Kusnezov, 1953)
  • Solenopsis fairchildi Wheeler, 1926
  • Solenopsis foersteri Theobald, 1937
  • Solenopsis franki Forel, 1908
  • Solenopsis froggatti Forel, 1913
  • Solenopsis fugax
    Solenopsis fugax
    Solenopsis fugax is a myrmicine ant of the genus Solenopsis.It is the only member of its genus to be native to the British Isles, and although rare, it has been taken by Horace Donisthorpe in a number of localities on England's Southern coast, including Sandown and Shanklin on the Isle of Wight,...

    (Latreille, 1798)
  • Solenopsis fusciventris Clark, 1934
  • Solenopsis gallardoi Santschi, 1925
  • Solenopsis gallica Santschi, 1934
  • Solenopsis gayi (Spinola, 1851)
  • Solenopsis geminata (Fabricius, 1804)
  • Solenopsis georgica Menozzi, 1942
  • Solenopsis germaini Emery, 1895
  • Solenopsis globularia (Smith, 1858)
  • Solenopsis gnomula Emery, 1915
  • Solenopsis goeldii Forel, 1912
  • Solenopsis granivora Kusnezov, 1957
  • Solenopsis hammari Mayr, 1903
  • Solenopsis hayemi Forel, 1908
  • Solenopsis helena Emery, 1895
  • Solenopsis hostilis (Borgmeier, 1959)
  • Solenopsis iheringi Forel, 1908
  • Solenopsis ilinei Santschi, 1936
  • Solenopsis indagatrix Wheeler, 1928
  • Solenopsis insculpta Clark, 1938
  • Solenopsis insinuans Santschi, 1933
  • Solenopsis insularis (Bernard, 1978)
  • Solenopsis interrupta Santschi, 1916
  • Solenopsis invicta
    Red imported fire ant
    See main article Fire ant.The red imported fire ant , or simply RIFA, is one of over 280 species in the widespread genus Solenopsis...

    Buren, 1972
  • Solenopsis jacoti Wheeler, 1923
  • Solenopsis jalalabadica Pisarski, 1970
  • Solenopsis japonica Wheeler, 1928
  • Solenopsis joergenseni Santschi, 1919
  • Solenopsis juliae (Arakelian, 1991)
  • Solenopsis kabylica Santschi, 1934
  • Solenopsis knuti Pisarski, 1967
  • Solenopsis krockowi Wheeler, 1908
  • Solenopsis laeviceps Mayr, 1870
  • Solenopsis laevithorax Bernard, 1950
  • Solenopsis latastei Emery, 1895
  • Solenopsis latro Forel, 1894
  • Solenopsis leptanilloides Santschi, 1925
  • Solenopsis longiceps Forel, 1907
  • Solenopsis loretana Santschi, 1936
  • Solenopsis lotophaga Santschi, 1911
  • Solenopsis lou Forel, 1902
  • Solenopsis lusitanica Emery, 1915
  • Solenopsis macdonaghi Santschi, 1916
  • Solenopsis macrops Santschi, 1917
  • Solenopsis madara Roger, 1863
  • Solenopsis major Theobald, 1937
  • Solenopsis maligna Santschi, 1910
  • Solenopsis mameti Donisthorpe, 1946
  • Solenopsis marxi Forel, 1915
  • Solenopsis maxillosa Emery, 1900
  • Solenopsis maxima (Foerster, 1891)
  • Solenopsis megera Santschi, 1934
  • Solenopsis megergates Trager, 1991
  • Solenopsis metanotalis Emery, 1896
  • Solenopsis metatarsalis (Kusnezov, 1957)
  • Solenopsis mikeyroxis
  • Solenopsis minutissima Emery, 1906
  • Solenopsis moesta (Foerster, 1891)
  • Solenopsis molesta
    Solenopsis molesta
    Solenopsis molesta, also known as thief ants, get their names from their habit of nesting close to other ant nests, from which they steal food. They are also called grease ants because they are attracted to grease.-Appearance:...

    (Say, 1836)
  • Solenopsis monticola Bernard, 1950
  • Solenopsis mozabensis (Bernard, 1977)
  • Solenopsis nicaeensis Bernard, 1950
  • Solenopsis nickersoni Thompson, 1982
  • Solenopsis nigella Emery, 1888
  • Solenopsis nitens Bingham, 1903
  • Solenopsis nitidum (Dlussky & Radchenko, 1994)
  • Solenopsis normandi Santschi, 1934
  • Solenopsis novemmaculata Wheeler, 1925
  • Solenopsis occipitalis Santschi, 1911
  • Solenopsis oculata Santschi, 1925
  • Solenopsis oraniensis Forel, 1894
  • Solenopsis orbula Emery, 1875
  • Solenopsis orbuloides Andre, 1890
  • Solenopsis overbecki Viehmeyer, 1916
  • Solenopsis pachycera (Forel, 1915)
  • Solenopsis papuana Emery, 1900
  • Solenopsis parabiotica Weber, 1943
  • Solenopsis parva Mayr, 1868
  • Solenopsis patagonica Emery, 1906
  • Solenopsis pawaensis Mann, 1919
  • Solenopsis pergandei Forel, 1901
  • Solenopsis photophila Santschi, 1923
  • Solenopsis picea Emery, 1896
  • Solenopsis picquarti Forel, 1899
  • Solenopsis picta Emery, 1895
  • Solenopsis pilosa (Bernard, 1978)
  • Solenopsis pilosula Wheeler, 1908
  • Solenopsis pollux Forel, 1893
  • Solenopsis privata (Foerster, 1891)
  • Solenopsis provincialis Bernard, 1950
  • Solenopsis punctaticeps Mayr, 1865
  • Solenopsis puncticeps MacKay & Vinson, 1989
  • Solenopsis pusillignis Trager, 1991
  • Solenopsis pygmaea Forel, 1901
  • Solenopsis pythia Santschi, 1934
  • Solenopsis quinquecuspis Forel, 1913
  • Solenopsis reichenspergeri Santschi, 1923
  • Solenopsis richardi Bernard, 1950
  • Solenopsis richteri Forel, 1909
  • Solenopsis robusta Bernard, 1950
  • Solenopsis rugiceps Mayr, 1870
  • Solenopsis rugosa Bernard, 1950
  • Solenopsis sabeana (Buckley, 1867)
  • Solenopsis saevissima
    Solenopsis saevissima
    Solenopsis saevissima, commonly known in Brazil as formiga ruiva , is one of more than 185 species in the genus Solenopsis. It, along with 12 other species, is also a member of the Solenopsis saevissima species-group....

    (Smith, 1855)
  • Solenopsis salina Wheeler, 1908
  • Solenopsis santschii Forel, 1905
  • Solenopsis schilleri Santschi, 1923
  • Solenopsis schmalzi Forel, 1901
  • Solenopsis scipio Santschi, 1911
  • Solenopsis sea (Kusnezov, 1953)
  • Solenopsis seychellensis Forel, 1909
  • Solenopsis silvestrii
    Solenopsis silvestrii
    Solenopsis silvestrii is a fire ant species of in the insect family Formicidae....

    Emery, 1906
  • Solenopsis solenopsidis
    Solenopsis solenopsidis
    Solenopsis solenopsidis is a species of ant in the insect family Formicidae. It is endemic to Argentina.-Source:* Social Insects Specialist Group 1996. . Downloaded on 10 August 2007....

    (Kusnezov, 1953)
  • Solenopsis soochowensis Wheeler, 1921
  • Solenopsis spei Forel, 1912
  • Solenopsis stricta Emery, 1896
  • Solenopsis substituta Santschi, 1925
  • Solenopsis subterranea MacKay & Vinson, 1989
  • Solenopsis subtilis Emery, 1896
  • Solenopsis succinea Emery, 1890
  • Solenopsis sulfurea (Roger, 1862)
  • Solenopsis superba (Foerster, 1891)
  • Solenopsis targuia Bernard, 1953
  • Solenopsis tennesseensis Smith, 1951
  • Solenopsis tenuis Mayr, 1878
  • Solenopsis terricola Menozzi, 1931
  • Solenopsis tertialis Ettershank, 1966
  • Solenopsis tetracantha Emery, 1906
  • Solenopsis texana Emery, 1895
  • Solenopsis tipuna Forel, 1912
  • Solenopsis tonsa Thompson, 1989
  • Solenopsis tridens Forel, 1911
  • Solenopsis trihasta Santschi, 1923
  • Solenopsis truncorum Forel, 1901
  • Solenopsis ugandensis Santschi, 1933
  • Solenopsis valida (Foerster, 1891)
  • Solenopsis virulens (Smith, 1858)
  • Solenopsis vorax Santschi, 1934
  • Solenopsis wagneri Santschi, 1916
  • Solenopsis wasmannii Emery, 1894
  • Solenopsis weiseri Forel, 1914
  • Solenopsis westwoodi Forel, 1894
  • Solenopsis weyrauchi Trager, 1991
  • Solenopsis wolfi Emery, 1915
  • Solenopsis xyloni McCook, 1879
  • Solenopsis zambesiae Arnold, 1926
  • Solenopsis zeteki Wheeler, 1942


External links