Fifth Aliyah

Fifth Aliyah

Discussion
Ask a question about 'Fifth Aliyah'
Start a new discussion about 'Fifth Aliyah'
Answer questions from other users
Full Discussion Forum
 
Encyclopedia
The Fifth Aliyah refers to the fifth wave of the Jewish immigration to Israel
Israel
The State of Israel is a parliamentary republic located in the Middle East, along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea...

 from Europe
Europe
Europe is, by convention, one of the world's seven continents. Comprising the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is generally 'divided' from Asia to its east by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways connecting...

 and Asia
Asia
Asia is the world's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the eastern and northern hemispheres. It covers 8.7% of the Earth's total surface area and with approximately 3.879 billion people, it hosts 60% of the world's current human population...

 between the years 1929 and 1939. The Fifth immigration wave began after the 1929 Palestine riots
1929 Palestine riots
The 1929 Palestine riots, also known as the Western Wall Uprising, the 1929 Massacres, , or the Buraq Uprising , refers to a series of demonstrations and riots in late August 1929 when a long-running dispute between Muslims and Jews over access to the Western Wall in Jerusalem escalated into violence...

, and after the comeback from the economic crisis in Israel in 1927, during the period of the Fourth Aliyah
Fourth Aliyah
The Fourth Aliyah refers to the fourth wave of the Jewish immigration to Israel from Europe and Asia who came based on Zionist motives between the years 1924 and 1928.-The character of the Fourth Aliyah:...

. The end of this immigration wave was with the start of World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

.

This wave of immigration began as a pioneering one but with the onset of racial persecution in Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany , also known as the Third Reich , but officially called German Reich from 1933 to 1943 and Greater German Reich from 26 June 1943 onward, is the name commonly used to refer to the state of Germany from 1933 to 1945, when it was a totalitarian dictatorship ruled by...

 attained the character of a mass migration between 1933 and 1939. The riots in the Mandate during 1936 had weakened the immigration wave but during the years 1938-1939 thousands of immigrants came, part of them illegally.

266,000 Jews arrived in Palestine.

The causes for the Immigration

  • The rise of Hitler and the Nazi Party to power, caused enormous disruption to the lives of the Jews in Germany and Eastern Europe. As Nazi persecution tightened its grip on the Jewish population many who wished to leave Germany were prevented from doing so by the immigration laws of the Third Reich. As a result the Jews in Nazi Germany were forced to stay and suffer from the titanic wave of naked and overt antisemitism that was sweeping the country. In an attempt to ameliorate this problem a transmission agreement (the Haavara Agreement
    Haavara Agreement
    The Haavara Agreement was signed on 25 August 1933 after three months of talks by the Zionist Federation of Germany , the Anglo-Palestine Bank and the economic authorities of Nazi Germany...

    ) was reached in August of 1933 between the Jewish agency and the Nazi authorities
    Nazi Germany
    Nazi Germany , also known as the Third Reich , but officially called German Reich from 1933 to 1943 and Greater German Reich from 26 June 1943 onward, is the name commonly used to refer to the state of Germany from 1933 to 1945, when it was a totalitarian dictatorship ruled by...

    . The agreement stipulated that Jews leaving Germany were paid for their assets even though according to German law at that time Jews were required to give up their assets in order to leave Germany. In addition to these provisions an allowance was also made for the importation of German merchandise to Palestine. While not destined to be a permanent arrangement the Haavara Agreement served interests on both sides of the dispute and helped facilitate continued Jewish immigration to the region.
  • The exchange of the British colonial administrator - the new British new colonial administrator, Arthur Wauchope
    Arthur Grenfell Wauchope
    General Sir Arthur Grenfell Wauchope GCB GCMG CIE DSO was a British soldier and colonial administrator.-Military career:Educated at Repton School, Wauchope was commissioned into the Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders in 1893. He transferred to 2 Bn Black Watch in 1896.He served in World War I as...

    , was pro-Zionist and gave many immigration permits and encouraged the Jewish economy and the Zionist settlement.
  • The economic growth in Israel - the transmission agreement with Germany bringing large amounts of money was a starting point to the recovery of the Israeli economy after the crisis of the late 1920s.
  • The closing of gates to the United States - in 1924 the United States decided to condense the immigration and even during the period of the Fifth Aliyah the US kept its gates closed to the majority of immigrants in spite of knowing the tough situation of the Jews in Europe.
  • The anti-semitism in the world prevailed - many more regimes in mainly European countries adopted a policy of anti-semitism which encouraged the riots, the persecution and the economic and social limitations on Jews.