Feudal Lordship

Feudal Lordship

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A feudal lordship is a Scottish
Scotland
Scotland is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. Occupying the northern third of the island of Great Britain, it shares a border with England to the south and is bounded by the North Sea to the east, the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, and the North Channel and Irish Sea to the...

 feudal title that is held in baroneum, which Latin term means that its holder, who is called a feudal lord, is also always a feudal baron. A feudal lordship is an ancient title of nobility
Nobility
Nobility is a social class which possesses more acknowledged privileges or eminence than members of most other classes in a society, membership therein typically being hereditary. The privileges associated with nobility may constitute substantial advantages over or relative to non-nobles, or may be...

 in Scotland. The holder may or may not be a Lord of Regality, which meant that the holder was appointed by the Crown
The Crown
The Crown is a corporation sole that in the Commonwealth realms and any provincial or state sub-divisions thereof represents the legal embodiment of governance, whether executive, legislative, or judicial...

 and had the power of "pit and gallows", meaning the power to authorise the death sentence.

A Scottish feudal lord ranks above a Scottish feudal baron (being a feudal baron of a higher degree), but below a lord of parliament
Lord of Parliament
A Lord of Parliament was the lowest rank of nobility automatically entitled to attend sessions of the pre-Union Parliament of Scotland. Post-Union, it is a member of the lowest rank of the Peerage of Scotland, ranking below a viscount...

 which is a title in the Peerage of Scotland
Peerage of Scotland
The Peerage of Scotland is the division of the British Peerage for those peers created in the Kingdom of Scotland before 1707. With that year's Act of Union, the Kingdom of Scotland and the Kingdom of England were combined into the Kingdom of Great Britain, and a new Peerage of Great Britain was...

, and below a feudal earldom
Feudal earldom
A feudal earldom is a Scottish feudal title that is held en baroneum, which means that its holder, who is called a feudal earl, is also always a feudal baron. A feudal earldom is an ancient title of nobility in Scotland...

, which is a feudal barony of still higher degree than a feudal lordship. There are far fewer feudal lordships than feudal baronies, whilst feudal earldoms are very rare.

While feudal barons originally sat in parliament (along with the lords and higher nobility who made up the Peerage), all of the peerage, originally, was within the feudal system. Later, some of what used to be feudal lordships came to be known as peerages (such as that of The Right Honourable The Lord Forrester) while others were sold, inherited by greater peers, or otherwise disqualified from the modern-day peerage. The feudal rights were gradually emasculated and, with the demise of the Scottish parliament in 1707, the right of feudal barons to sit in parliament ceased altogether, unless, that is, a feudal baron was also a Peer (Peerage rights are dealt with elsewhere).

Feudal lordships were all but abolished by Act of Parliament in 1747, following the Jacobite Uprising. A feudal barony no longer carries any political power as such, although the Abolition of Feudal Tenure etc. (Scotland) Act 2000
Abolition of Feudal Tenure etc. (Scotland) Act 2000
The Abolition of Feudal Tenure etc. Act 2000 was an act of the Scottish Parliament which was passed by the Parliament on 3 May 2000 and received Royal Assent on 9 June 2000....

 has preserved the baronies themselves, and the quality, precedence and heraldic rights pertaining to these baronies.

A peer is invariably addressed as 'Lord Placename' or 'Lord Such-and-so', whilst those holding a feudal lordship are addressed 'Lord of Placename' or 'Baron of Placename' and feudal barons are addressed as 'Baron of Placename' or 'Placename'.

A female feudal baron is usually referred to as 'Lady Placename'. The wife of a Lord receives the courtesy title 'Lady Placename', but the husband of a Lady, who holds a feudal barony in her own right, is just plain Mr. 'Surname'.

Lords of regality, feudal lords, and feudal barons are not to be confused with a manorial lordship
Lord of the Manor
The Lordship of a Manor is recognised today in England and Wales as a form of property and one of three elements of a manor that may exist separately or be combined and may be held in moieties...

.

Order of precedence of Scottish feudal titles


Wallace states that:

"Lordships, Earldoms
Feudal earldom
A feudal earldom is a Scottish feudal title that is held en baroneum, which means that its holder, who is called a feudal earl, is also always a feudal baron. A feudal earldom is an ancient title of nobility in Scotland...

, Marquisates and Dukedoms differ only in name from Baronies" but continues "one whose property was erected into a Lordship ranked before a simple Baron" and "A person to whom an Earldom belonged, would be superior to a person who had no more than a lordship ... One, whose lands were incorporated into a Marquisate, was superior to both ... A man, who owned a fief elevated into a Dukedom, was exhaulted above all three."


The inference in terms of superiority from greater to lesser is thus: Feudal Duke, Feudal Marquis, Feudal Earl, Feudal Lord, Feudal Baron. (Note however that Lord Stair
James Dalrymple, 1st Viscount of Stair
James Dalrymple, 1st Viscount of Stair , Scottish lawyer and statesman, was born at Drummurchie, Barr, South Ayrshire.-Biography:...

 states that Lordships or Earldoms are "but more noble titles of a Barony" .)

Putting Scottish feudal nobility in the context of all Scottish nobility
Nobility
Nobility is a social class which possesses more acknowledged privileges or eminence than members of most other classes in a society, membership therein typically being hereditary. The privileges associated with nobility may constitute substantial advantages over or relative to non-nobles, or may be...

, including non-feudal (or peerage
Peerage of Scotland
The Peerage of Scotland is the division of the British Peerage for those peers created in the Kingdom of Scotland before 1707. With that year's Act of Union, the Kingdom of Scotland and the Kingdom of England were combined into the Kingdom of Great Britain, and a new Peerage of Great Britain was...

) nobility, the following order of precedence is derived:


 The Sovereign

 Duke

 Marquis

 Earl

 Viscount

 Lord

 Baronet

 Knight

 Feudal Duke

 Feudal Marquis

 Feudal Earl

 Feudal Lord

 Feudal Baron

 Clan Chief/Laird

 Esquire/Gentleman.

List of feudal lordships (created before 1707)


Below is an incomplete list of Scottish feudal lordships created in Scotland before 1707.
LordshipCountyCreatedaIncumbentSucceeded
Abernethy Perthshire
Perthshire
Perthshire, officially the County of Perth , is a registration county in central Scotland. It extends from Strathmore in the east, to the Pass of Drumochter in the north, Rannoch Moor and Ben Lui in the west, and Aberfoyle in the south...

Dr. Mafouz M. Binmafouz 2008
Ardrossan Ayrshire
Ayrshire
Ayrshire is a registration county, and former administrative county in south-west Scotland, United Kingdom, located on the shores of the Firth of Clyde. Its principal towns include Ayr, Kilmarnock and Irvine. The town of Troon on the coast has hosted the British Open Golf Championship twice in the...

1357
Buncle and Preston Berwickshire
Berwickshire
Berwickshire or the County of Berwick is a registration county, a committee area of the Scottish Borders Council, and a lieutenancy area of Scotland, on the border with England. The town after which it is named—Berwick-upon-Tweed—was lost by Scotland to England in 1482...

Olivier Fuchs of Cockburn
Coldingham Berwickshire 1141
Cumbernauld Lanarkshire
Lanarkshire
Lanarkshire or the County of Lanark ) is a Lieutenancy area, registration county and former local government county in the central Lowlands of Scotland...

1314
Dirleton East Lothian
East Lothian
East Lothian is one of the 32 council areas of Scotland, and a lieutenancy Area. It borders the City of Edinburgh, Scottish Borders and Midlothian. Its administrative centre is Haddington, although its largest town is Musselburgh....

1220 |Baron Camilo Agasim-Pereira of Fulwood 2000
Dudhope Angus
Angus
Angus is one of the 32 local government council areas of Scotland, a registration county and a lieutenancy area. The council area borders Aberdeenshire, Perth and Kinross and Dundee City...

1542
Garioch Aberdeenshire
Aberdeenshire
Aberdeenshire is one of the 32 unitary council areas in Scotland and a lieutenancy area.The present day Aberdeenshire council area does not include the City of Aberdeen, now a separate council area, from which its name derives. Together, the modern council area and the city formed historic...

12th century
Hailes
Lordship and Barony of Hailes
The Lordship and Barony of Hailes is a Scottish feudal lordship .Hailes is traditionally believed to have been founded by an Englishman, taken prisoner in the reign of David II of Scotland, who was rewarded with the grant of lands in East Lothian for having on rescued the Earl of Dunbar and March...

East Lothian 20 Dec 1451b
Holydean
Holydean
Holydean is a Scottish feudal Crown Barony and Lordship which lies in Roxburghshire in the neighbourhood of Kelso, in the Borderlands of Scotland, along the River Tweed...

Roxburghshire
Roxburghshire
Roxburghshire or the County of Roxburgh is a registration county of Scotland. It borders Dumfries to the west, Selkirk to the north-west, and Berwick to the north. To the south-east it borders Cumbria and Northumberland in England.It was named after the Royal Burgh of Roxburgh...

1128 Taylor Forrester Moffitt
Jedburgh Forest
Jedburgh
Jedburgh is a town and former royal burgh in the Scottish Borders and historically in Roxburghshire.-Location:Jedburgh lies on the Jed Water, a tributary of the River Teviot, it is only ten miles from the border with England and is dominated by the substantial ruins of Jedburgh Abbey...

Roxburghshire 3 Feb 1602 Richard Bruce Bernadotte Miller 2010
Kilmarnock Ayrshire 1316 Eur Ing David Ayre 2002
Strathdee Aberdeenshire 1563
Urquhart Inverness-shire 1230

a: The creation date is the earliest known date for the Lordship and subject to revision

b: The Barony of Hailes was granted to Adam de Hepburn by Patrick de Dunbar, Earl of March in 1343

See also

  • Peerage of Scotland
    Peerage of Scotland
    The Peerage of Scotland is the division of the British Peerage for those peers created in the Kingdom of Scotland before 1707. With that year's Act of Union, the Kingdom of Scotland and the Kingdom of England were combined into the Kingdom of Great Britain, and a new Peerage of Great Britain was...

  • List of Scottish feudal baronies
  • Order of precedence in Scotland
    Order of precedence in Scotland
    The order of precedence in Scotland was fixed by Royal Warrant in 1905. Amendments were made by further Warrants in 1952, 1958 and most recently in 1999 to coincide with the establishment of the Scottish Parliament and Scottish Government....

  • English Feudal Baronies (list of)
  • List of Marcher lordships (Welsh Marches)
  • Marcher Lord
  • Register of the Great Seal of Scotland;
  • Abolition of Feudal Tenure Act, Scotland;
  • Statutes of 1592;
  • Baronetcy Warrants of Charles I.

External links