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Fatali Khan Khoyski

Fatali Khan Khoyski

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Fatali Khan Khoyski Isgender oglu (December 7, 1875 – June 19, 1920) was an attorney, a member of the Second State Duma of the Russian Empire
State Duma of the Russian Empire
The State Duma of the Russian Empire was a legislative assembly in the late Russian Empire, which met in the Taurida Palace in St. Petersburg. It was convened four times between 1906 and the collapse of the Empire in 1917.-History:...

, Minister of Internal Affairs
Minister of Internal Affairs (Azerbaijan)
The Ministry of Internal Affairs of Azerbaijan is an Azerbaijani government ministry for internal affairs, which is responsible for keeping the order, security and safety of population, officials, buildings and structures in the country...

, Minister of Defense
Minister of Defense (Azerbaijan)
The Ministry of Defense of Azerbaijan is the Azerbaijani government ministry, associated with the Azerbaijani military. The ministry is responsible for keeping Azerbaijan defended against external threats, preserving its territorial integrity, waging war on behalf of Azerbaijan , and the...

 and, later the first Prime Minister
Prime minister
A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. In many systems, the prime minister selects and may dismiss other members of the cabinet, and allocates posts to members within the government. In most systems, the prime...

 of the independent Azerbaijan Democratic Republic
Azerbaijan Democratic Republic
The Azerbaijan Democratic Republic was the first successful attempt to establish a democratic and secular republic in the Muslim world . The ADR was founded on May 28, 1918 after the collapse of the Russian Empire that began with the Russian Revolution of 1917 by Azerbaijani National Council in...

.

Early life


Khoyski was born on December 7, 1875 in Shaki to the noble family of Isgender Khoyski, a colonel
Colonel
Colonel , abbreviated Col or COL, is a military rank of a senior commissioned officer. It or a corresponding rank exists in most armies and in many air forces; the naval equivalent rank is generally "Captain". It is also used in some police forces and other paramilitary rank structures...

 in the Russian Army. The distinguished ancestry of the Khoyski family goes back to the khans of Khoy
Khoy
Khoy is a city in and the capital of Khoy County, West Azerbaijan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 178,708, in 45,090 families....

, which also became the root for this family name. His great grandfather Jafargulu, the Khan of Khoy was defeated by the Iranian Fatali shah and with his 20,000 army retreated to Echmiadzin
Echmiadzin
Mother Cathedral of Holy Etchmiadzin is a 4th century Armenian church in the town of Ejmiatsin, Armenia. It is also the central cathedral of the Mother See of Holy Etchmiadzin of the Armenian Apostolic Church....

. In the 1804-1813 Russo-Persian war, Jafargulu khan sided with Russian Empire
Russian Empire
The Russian Empire was a state that existed from 1721 until the Russian Revolution of 1917. It was the successor to the Tsardom of Russia and the predecessor of the Soviet Union...

 and was therefore rewarded by tsar Alexander I
Alexander I of Russia
Alexander I of Russia , served as Emperor of Russia from 23 March 1801 to 1 December 1825 and the first Russian King of Poland from 1815 to 1825. He was also the first Russian Grand Duke of Finland and Lithuania....

 by being appointed the Khan of Shaki Khanate
Shaki Khanate
Shaki khanate was an Azerbaijani khanate on the territory of modern Azerbaijan between 1743 and 1819 with its capital in the town of Shaki.-History:...

 and his rank was raised to Lieutenant Colonel
Lieutenant colonel
Lieutenant colonel is a rank of commissioned officer in the armies and most marine forces and some air forces of the world, typically ranking above a major and below a colonel. The rank of lieutenant colonel is often shortened to simply "colonel" in conversation and in unofficial correspondence...

.

After receiving his school education at Ganja gymnasium, Fatali Khan studied at the Law Faculty of the Moscow University
Moscow State University
Lomonosov Moscow State University , previously known as Lomonosov University or MSU , is the largest university in Russia. Founded in 1755, it also claims to be one of the oldest university in Russia and to have the tallest educational building in the world. Its current rector is Viktor Sadovnichiy...

, from which he graduated in 1901. After the graduation, Khoyski worked as a court lawyer in Ganja, Sukhumi
Sukhumi
Sukhumi is the capital of Abkhazia, a disputed region on the Black Sea coast. The city suffered heavily during the Georgian-Abkhaz conflict in the early 1990s.-Naming:...

, Batumi
Batumi
Batumi is a seaside city on the Black Sea coast and capital of Adjara, an autonomous republic in southwest Georgia. Sometimes considered Georgia's second capital, with a population of 121,806 , Batumi serves as an important port and a commercial center. It is situated in a subtropical zone, rich in...

, Kutaisi
Kutaisi
Kutaisi is Georgia's second largest city and the capital of the western region of Imereti. It is 221 km to the west of Tbilisi.-Geography:...

. Once he was appointed Assistant Prosecutor of Yekaterinodar county court, he began to be involved in socio-political activities.

Russian Empire


Khoyski was elected a deputy to the Second Duma of Russian Empire from Elisabethpol Governorate
Elisabethpol Governorate
Elisabethpol Governorate or Elizavetpol Governorate was one of the guberniyas of the Russian Empire, with its centre in Elisabethpol . Its area was 44,136 sq. kilometres, and it had 878,415 inhabitants by 1897....

. While delivering a speech before the Duma on February 2, 1907, he criticized the Russian colonization policies in Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan , officially the Republic of Azerbaijan is the largest country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia. Located at the crossroads of Western Asia and Eastern Europe, it is bounded by the Caspian Sea to the east, Russia to the north, Georgia to the northwest, Armenia to the west, and Iran to...

 and the Caucasus
Caucasus
The Caucasus, also Caucas or Caucasia , is a geopolitical region at the border of Europe and Asia, and situated between the Black and the Caspian sea...

. Although he was formally registered with Constitutional Democratic Party
Constitutional Democratic party
The Constitutional Democratic Party was a liberal political party in the Russian Empire. Party members were called Kadets, from the abbreviation K-D of the party name...

 (known as the Kadets), he also joined the Muslim fraction in Duma. On March 27, soon after the 1917 February revolution
February Revolution
The February Revolution of 1917 was the first of two revolutions in Russia in 1917. Centered around the then capital Petrograd in March . Its immediate result was the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II, the end of the Romanov dynasty, and the end of the Russian Empire...

 in Russia, Khoyski became a member of the Temporary Executive Committee of Muslim National Councils (MNCs). During the first Musavat summit on October 26-31, 1917, Khoyski spoke in favor of autonomy for Azerbaijan. In December 1917, he was elected a member of the newly created Transcaucasian Sejm
Transcaucasian Commissariat
The Transcaucasian Commissariat was established at Tbilisi on November 11, 1917, as the first government of the independent Transcaucasia and following the Bolshevik seizure of power in St...

 and subsequently appointed the Minister of Justice of an independent Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic
Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic
The Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic , was a short-lived state composed of the modern-day countries of Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia in the South Caucasus.-...

.

Azerbaijan Democratic Republic


On May 28 1918, the republic dissolved and an independent Azerbaijan Democratic Republic
Azerbaijan Democratic Republic
The Azerbaijan Democratic Republic was the first successful attempt to establish a democratic and secular republic in the Muslim world . The ADR was founded on May 28, 1918 after the collapse of the Russian Empire that began with the Russian Revolution of 1917 by Azerbaijani National Council in...

 was proclaimed. It was the first state ever in the Muslim world
Muslim world
The term Muslim world has several meanings. In a religious sense, it refers to those who adhere to the teachings of Islam, referred to as Muslims. In a cultural sense, it refers to Islamic civilization, inclusive of non-Muslims living in that civilization...

 to function and be based on principles of republic
Republic
A republic is a form of government in which the people, or some significant portion of them, have supreme control over the government and where offices of state are elected or chosen by elected people. In modern times, a common simplified definition of a republic is a government where the head of...

 government. Fatali Khan was put in charge of forming the first cabinet of the republic. Khoyski served as the Chairman of Cabinet of Ministers
Prime Minister of Azerbaijan
The Prime Minister of Azerbaijan is the head of government of Azerbaijan. The current prime minister is Artur Rasizade.-Prime Ministers:* Fath Ali Khan Khoyski * Nasib Yusifbeyli...

 and Minister of Internal Affairs
Minister of Internal Affairs (Azerbaijan)
The Ministry of Internal Affairs of Azerbaijan is an Azerbaijani government ministry for internal affairs, which is responsible for keeping the order, security and safety of population, officials, buildings and structures in the country...

. On June 17, 1918 the second government was formed by Khoyski led by Nasib Yusifbeyli
Nasib Yusifbeyli
Nasib Yusif oglu Yusifbeyli or Usubbeyov - Azerbaijani publicist, statesman and major political figure in Azerbaijan Democratic Republic.-Early years:Nasib Yusifbeyli was born in 1881 in Elisavetpol...

. He played a significant role in making alliance with the Turkish government, defeating and removing the Centrocaspian Dictatorship
Centrocaspian Dictatorship
The Central-Caspian Dictatorship , or the Centro-Caspian Dictatorship, was a short-lived anti-Soviet client state proclaimed in Baku, the capital of present-day Azerbaijan, during World War I...

 from power in Baku as well as establishing diplomatic ties with other countries as the Foreign Minister. He is also credited for establishing the Azerbaijan State University. During the period of the third government formed by Khoyski, he served as Chairman of the National Council
Azerbaijani National Council
Azerbaijani National Council was the first delegated legislative body of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic from 27 May 1918 to 17 June 1918 and again from 16 November 1918 to 3 December 1918...

 and Minister of Foreign Affairs of Azerbaijan. During his term in office, he succeeded in removing the city names Elisabethpol and restoring the historic name of Ganja
Ganja, Azerbaijan
Ganja is Azerbaijan's second-largest city with a population of around 313,300. It was named Yelizavetpol in the Russian Empire period. The city regained its original name—Ganja—from 1920–1935 during the first part of its incorporation into the Soviet Union. However, its name was changed again and...

 and renaming the Karyagino county to Jabrayil
Jabrayil
Jabrayil is a rayon of Azerbaijan. The region was occupied in 1993 and has been controlled by the breakway Nagorno-Karabakh Republic, as part of its Hadrut Province, since the Nagorno-Karabakh War. According to the last 1989 Soviet census, there were 49,156 people in the rayon. According to...

 province, establishing a multi-party system
Multi-party system
A multi-party system is a system in which multiple political parties have the capacity to gain control of government separately or in coalition, e.g.The Conservative-Liberal Democrat coalition in the United Kingdom formed in 2010. The effective number of parties in a multi-party system is normally...

, printing of Azerbaijani postage stamps
Postage stamps and postal history of Azerbaijan
The postage stamps and postal history of Azerbaijan closely follows the political history of Azerbaijan as it briefly obtained independence in 1918, lost it to the Soviet Union in 1920 and re-acquired it in 1991 after the fall of the Soviet Union....

 and Azerbaijani currency Manat, founding schools and colleges teaching in Azerbaijani
Azerbaijani language
Azerbaijani or Azeri or Torki is a language belonging to the Turkic language family, spoken in southwestern Asia by the Azerbaijani people, primarily in Azerbaijan and northwestern Iran...

. In March 1919, the third government dissolved.

In January, 1920, when the Allied Powers de facto recognized Azerbaijan Democratic Republic,Council of Allied Powers, Georgy Chicherin
Georgy Chicherin
Georgy Vasilyevich Chicherin was a Marxist revolutionary and a Soviet politician. He served as People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs in the Soviet government from March 1918 to 1930.-Childhood and early career:...

, the Soviet Commissar for Foreign Affairs repeatedly mailed Khoyski asking him to open a new front to confront Anton Denikin and his White movement
White movement
The White movement and its military arm the White Army - known as the White Guard or the Whites - was a loose confederation of Anti-Communist forces.The movement comprised one of the politico-military Russian forces who fought...

 to which Fatali Khan gave negative responses saying ADR would not meddle into internal affairs of Russia. In his fourth last correspondence, Chicherin notified Khoyski about the upcoming invasion of the 11th Red Army of Azerbaijan. Khoyski moved his family to Tbilisi
Tbilisi
Tbilisi is the capital and the largest city of Georgia, lying on the banks of the Mt'k'vari River. The name is derived from an early Georgian form T'pilisi and it was officially known as Tiflis until 1936...

 before the Bolshevik Red Army invaded Baku on April 28, 1920.

Death


Fatali-khan Khoyski was assassinated in Tiflis
Tbilisi
Tbilisi is the capital and the largest city of Georgia, lying on the banks of the Mt'k'vari River. The name is derived from an early Georgian form T'pilisi and it was officially known as Tiflis until 1936...

 on June 19, 1920 by Aram Yerganian as part of Operation Nemesis
Operation Nemesis
Operation Nemesis is the Armenian Revolutionary Federation's code-name for a covert operation in early 1920s to assassinate the Turkish planners of the Armenian Genocide. Those involved with the planning and execution of the operation were survivors of the massacres...

 organised by the Armenian Revolutionary Federation
Armenian Revolutionary Federation
The Armenian Revolutionary Federation is an Armenian political party founded in Tiflis in 1890 by Christapor Mikaelian, Stepan Zorian, and Simon Zavarian...

. His burial ceremony was arranged by the Persian consulate in Tiflis.