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Fat Man and Little Boy

Fat Man and Little Boy

Overview
Fat Man and Little Boy is a 1989 film that reenacts the Manhattan Project
Manhattan Project
The Manhattan Project was a research and development program, led by the United States with participation from the United Kingdom and Canada, that produced the first atomic bomb during World War II. From 1942 to 1946, the project was under the direction of Major General Leslie Groves of the US Army...

, the secret Allied endeavor to develop the first nuclear weapon
Nuclear weapon
A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission or a combination of fission and fusion. Both reactions release vast quantities of energy from relatively small amounts of matter. The first fission bomb test released the same amount...

s during World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

. The film is named after the nuclear weapon
Nuclear weapon
A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission or a combination of fission and fusion. Both reactions release vast quantities of energy from relatively small amounts of matter. The first fission bomb test released the same amount...

s known by the code names "Fat Man
Fat Man
"Fat Man" is the codename for the atomic bomb that was detonated over Nagasaki, Japan, by the United States on August 9, 1945. It was the second of the only two nuclear weapons to be used in warfare to date , and its detonation caused the third man-made nuclear explosion. The name also refers more...

" and "Little Boy
Little Boy
"Little Boy" was the codename of the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima on August 6, 1945 by the Boeing B-29 Superfortress Enola Gay, piloted by Colonel Paul Tibbets of the 393rd Bombardment Squadron, Heavy, of the United States Army Air Forces. It was the first atomic bomb to be used as a weapon...

". The code names can be taken for joking references to the project director, stout Gen. Leslie Groves and the slim scientific director, Dr. J. Robert Oppenheimer, but in fact the original nicknames were Fat Man and Thin Man from characters in the works of Dashiell Hammett.
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Encyclopedia
Fat Man and Little Boy is a 1989 film that reenacts the Manhattan Project
Manhattan Project
The Manhattan Project was a research and development program, led by the United States with participation from the United Kingdom and Canada, that produced the first atomic bomb during World War II. From 1942 to 1946, the project was under the direction of Major General Leslie Groves of the US Army...

, the secret Allied endeavor to develop the first nuclear weapon
Nuclear weapon
A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission or a combination of fission and fusion. Both reactions release vast quantities of energy from relatively small amounts of matter. The first fission bomb test released the same amount...

s during World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

. The film is named after the nuclear weapon
Nuclear weapon
A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission or a combination of fission and fusion. Both reactions release vast quantities of energy from relatively small amounts of matter. The first fission bomb test released the same amount...

s known by the code names "Fat Man
Fat Man
"Fat Man" is the codename for the atomic bomb that was detonated over Nagasaki, Japan, by the United States on August 9, 1945. It was the second of the only two nuclear weapons to be used in warfare to date , and its detonation caused the third man-made nuclear explosion. The name also refers more...

" and "Little Boy
Little Boy
"Little Boy" was the codename of the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima on August 6, 1945 by the Boeing B-29 Superfortress Enola Gay, piloted by Colonel Paul Tibbets of the 393rd Bombardment Squadron, Heavy, of the United States Army Air Forces. It was the first atomic bomb to be used as a weapon...

". The code names can be taken for joking references to the project director, stout Gen. Leslie Groves and the slim scientific director, Dr. J. Robert Oppenheimer, but in fact the original nicknames were Fat Man and Thin Man from characters in the works of Dashiell Hammett. The film focuses much attention on the frequently strained relationship between the two men.

The two code names also refer to the shapes of the two bombs although no mention is made of this comparison with the exception of a brief scene showing the two weapons suspended side by side (an unlikely arrangement) against a sunset.

The film was directed by Roland Joffe
Roland Joffé
Roland Joffé is an English-French film director who is known for his Oscar nominated movies, The Killing Fields and The Mission. He began his career in television. His early television credits included episodes of Coronation Street and an adaptation of The Stars Look Down for Granada...

 and written by Joffe and Bruce Robinson
Bruce Robinson
Bruce Robinson is an English director, screenwriter, novelist and actor. He is arguably most famous for writing and directing the cult classic Withnail and I , a film with comic and tragic elements, set in London during the 1960s which drew on his experiences as 'a chronic alcoholic and resting...

.

Plot


In September 1942, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers General Leslie Groves
Leslie Groves
Lieutenant General Leslie Richard Groves, Jr. was a United States Army Corps of Engineers officer who oversaw the construction of the Pentagon and directed the Manhattan Project that developed the atomic bomb during World War II. As the son of a United States Army chaplain, Groves lived at a...

 (Paul Newman
Paul Newman
Paul Leonard Newman was an American actor, film director, entrepreneur, humanitarian, professional racing driver and auto racing enthusiast...

) who oversaw construction of the Pentagon is assigned to head the ultra-secret Manhattan Project, to beat the Germans in building an atomic bomb.

Groves picks University of California, Berkeley physicist J. Robert Oppenheimer (Dwight Schultz) to head the team at the project. Oppenheimer was familiar with northern New Mexico
New Mexico
New Mexico is a state located in the southwest and western regions of the United States. New Mexico is also usually considered one of the Mountain States. With a population density of 16 per square mile, New Mexico is the sixth-most sparsely inhabited U.S...

 from his boyhood days when his family owned a cabin in the area. For the new research facility, he selects a remote location on top of a mesa adjacent to a valley called Los Alamos Canyon, northwest of Santa Fe
Santa Fe, New Mexico
Santa Fe is the capital of the U.S. state of New Mexico. It is the fourth-largest city in the state and is the seat of . Santa Fe had a population of 67,947 in the 2010 census...

.

The different personalities of the military man Groves and the scientist Oppenheimer often clash in keeping the project on track. Oppenheimer in turn clashes with the other scientists, who debate whether their personal consciences should enter into the project or whether they should remain purely researchers without personal feelings.

Nurse Kathleen Robinson (Laura Dern
Laura Dern
Laura Elizabeth Dern is an American actress, film director and producer. Dern has acted in such films as Smooth Talk , Blue Velvet , Fat Man and Little Boy , Wild at Heart , Jurassic Park and October Sky...

) and the young physicist Michael Merriman (John Cusack
John Cusack
John Paul Cusack is an American film actor and screenwriter. He has appeared in more than 50 films, including The Journey of Natty Gann, Say Anything..., Grosse Point Blank, The Thin Red Line, Stand by Me, Con Air, Being John Malkovich, High Fidelity, Serendipity, Runaway Jury, The Ice Harvest,...

) question what they are doing. Working with little protection from radiation during an experiment, Michael drops a radioactive component during an experiment dubbed Tickling the Dragon's Tail
Demon core
The Demon core was the nickname given to a subcritical mass of plutonium that accidentally went briefly critical in two separate accidents at the Los Alamos laboratory in 1945 and 1946. Each incident resulted in the acute radiation poisoning and subsequent death of a scientist...

 and retrieves it by hand in order to avoid disaster, but is exposed to a terminal dose of radiation. In the base hospital nurse Kathleen can only watch as he develops massive swelling and deformation before dying a miserable death days later.

While the technical problems are being solved, military investigations are undertaken in order to thwart foreign espionage, especially from 'communist sympathizers' who might be associated with socialist organizations. The snooping reveals that Oppenheimer has had a young mistress, Jean Tatlock
Jean Tatlock
Jean Frances Tatlock M.D. , was an American psychiatrist, physician, and a member of the Communist Party. She is most noted for her romantic relationship with Manhattan Project scientific leader J. Robert Oppenheimer....

 (Natasha Richardson
Natasha Richardson
Natasha Jane Richardson was an English actress of stage and screen. A member of the Redgrave family, she was the daughter of actress Vanessa Redgrave and director/producer Tony Richardson and the granddaughter of Michael Redgrave and Rachel Kempson...

), and he is ordered by the military to stop seeing her. After he breaks off their relationship without being able to reveal the secret reasons why, she is unable to cope with the heartache and is later found dead.

As the project continues in multiple sites across America, technical problems and delays cause tensions and strife. To avoid a single-point-of-failure
Single point of failure
A single point of failure is a part of a system that, if it fails, will stop the entire system from working. They are undesirable in any system with a goal of high availability or reliability, be it a business practice, software application, or other industrial system.-Overview:Systems can be made...

 plan, two separate bomb designs are implemented: a large, heavy plutonium
Plutonium
Plutonium is a transuranic radioactive chemical element with the chemical symbol Pu and atomic number 94. It is an actinide metal of silvery-gray appearance that tarnishes when exposed to air, forming a dull coating when oxidized. The element normally exhibits six allotropes and four oxidation...

 bomb imploded using shaped charge
Shaped charge
A shaped charge is an explosive charge shaped to focus the effect of the explosive's energy. Various types are used to cut and form metal, to initiate nuclear weapons, to penetrate armor, and in the oil and gas industry...

s ("Fat Man
Fat Man
"Fat Man" is the codename for the atomic bomb that was detonated over Nagasaki, Japan, by the United States on August 9, 1945. It was the second of the only two nuclear weapons to be used in warfare to date , and its detonation caused the third man-made nuclear explosion. The name also refers more...

"), and an alternate design for a thin, less heavy uranium
Uranium
Uranium is a silvery-white metallic chemical element in the actinide series of the periodic table, with atomic number 92. It is assigned the chemical symbol U. A uranium atom has 92 protons and 92 electrons, of which 6 are valence electrons...

 bomb triggered in a shotgun design ("Little Boy
Little Boy
"Little Boy" was the codename of the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima on August 6, 1945 by the Boeing B-29 Superfortress Enola Gay, piloted by Colonel Paul Tibbets of the 393rd Bombardment Squadron, Heavy, of the United States Army Air Forces. It was the first atomic bomb to be used as a weapon...

"). The bomb development culminates in a live detonation in south-central New Mexico at the Trinity Site in the Alamogordo Desert (05:29:45 on July 16, 1945), where everyone watches in awe at the spectacle of the first mushroom cloud with roaring winds, miles away.

During Oppenheimer's victory parade through the base camp, Klaus Fuchs
Klaus Fuchs
Klaus Emil Julius Fuchs was a German theoretical physicist and atomic spy who in 1950 was convicted of supplying information from the American, British and Canadian atomic bomb research to the USSR during and shortly after World War II...

 can be seen in the background watching Oppenheimer pass.

In the end, both Fat Man and Little Boy were successful.

Cast



  • Paul Newman
    Paul Newman
    Paul Leonard Newman was an American actor, film director, entrepreneur, humanitarian, professional racing driver and auto racing enthusiast...

     as General Leslie R. Groves
  • Dwight Schultz
    Dwight Schultz
    William Dwight Schultz is an American stage, television, film actor, and voice artist. He is best known for his roles as Captain "Howling Mad" Murdock on the 1980s action show The A-Team, and as Reginald Barclay in Star Trek: The Next Generation, Star Trek: Voyager, and the film Star Trek: First...

     as J. Robert Oppenheimer
  • Bonnie Bedelia
    Bonnie Bedelia
    Bonnie Bedelia Culkin is an American actress best known for her supporting roles in the action film Die Hard and the courtroom drama Presumed Innocent...

     as Kitty Oppenheimer
  • John Cusack
    John Cusack
    John Paul Cusack is an American film actor and screenwriter. He has appeared in more than 50 films, including The Journey of Natty Gann, Say Anything..., Grosse Point Blank, The Thin Red Line, Stand by Me, Con Air, Being John Malkovich, High Fidelity, Serendipity, Runaway Jury, The Ice Harvest,...

     as Michael Merriman
  • Laura Dern
    Laura Dern
    Laura Elizabeth Dern is an American actress, film director and producer. Dern has acted in such films as Smooth Talk , Blue Velvet , Fat Man and Little Boy , Wild at Heart , Jurassic Park and October Sky...

     as Kathleen Robinson
  • Todd Field
    Todd Field
    William Todd Field, known professionally as Todd Field is an American actor and writer/director. He has received three Academy Award nominations.-Background and personal life:...

     as Robert Rathbun Wilson
  • Ron Frazier as Peter de Silva
  • John C. McGinley
    John C. McGinley
    John Christopher McGinley is an American actor, most notable for his roles as Perry Cox in Scrubs, Bob Slydell in Office Space, Sergeant Red O'Neill in Oliver Stone's Platoon and Marv in Stone's Wall Street. He has also written and produced for television and film...

     as Capt. Richard Schoenfield, MD
  • Natasha Richardson
    Natasha Richardson
    Natasha Jane Richardson was an English actress of stage and screen. A member of the Redgrave family, she was the daughter of actress Vanessa Redgrave and director/producer Tony Richardson and the granddaughter of Michael Redgrave and Rachel Kempson...

     as Jean Tatlock
    Jean Tatlock
    Jean Frances Tatlock M.D. , was an American psychiatrist, physician, and a member of the Communist Party. She is most noted for her romantic relationship with Manhattan Project scientific leader J. Robert Oppenheimer....

  • Ron Vawter
    Ron Vawter
    Ron Vawter was an American actor and a founding member of the experimental theater company, The Wooster Group....

     as Jamie Latrobe
  • Michael Brockman as William Sterling Parsons
    William Sterling Parsons
    Rear Admiral William Sterling "Deak" Parsons was a naval officer who worked as an ordnance expert on the Manhattan Project during World War II...

  • Del Close
    Del Close
    Del Close was an actor, improviser, writer, and teacher. Considered one of the premier influences on modern improvisational theater, Close had a prolific career, appearing in a number of films and television shows...

     as Dr. Kenneth Whiteside
  • John Considine
    John Considine
    This article is about the writer and actor. For his grandfather, the vaudeville pioneer, see John Considine . For the former Florida state representative, see John J...

     as Robert Tuckson
  • Allan Corduner
    Allan Corduner
    Allan Corduner is an English actor.-Early life:Corduner grew up in a secular Jewish home in North London with his mother, father and a younger brother. His mother had escaped to England from Nazi Germany with her family in 1938...

     as Franz Goethe
  • Joe D'Angerio as Seth Neddermeyer
    Seth Neddermeyer
    Seth Henry Neddermeyer was an American physicist who co-discovered the muon, and later championed the implosion design of the plutonium atomic bomb, at the Manhattan Project....

  • Jon DeVries as Johnny Mount
  • James Eckhouse
    James Eckhouse
    James Hays Eckhouse is an American actor known for playing Jim Walsh on Beverly Hills, 90210 from 1990 to 1995. He also directed three episodes of the show...

     as Robert Harper
  • Mary Pat Gleason
    Mary Pat Gleason
    Mary Pat Gleason is an American film and television actress. From 1983-85 she appeared on The Guiding Light as Jane Hogan.Since the early 1980s she has appeared on such television series as Full House, Murphy Brown, Empty Nest, L.A...

     as Dora Welsh
  • Clark Gregg
    Clark Gregg
    Robert Clark Gregg is an American actor, screenwriter and director. He co-starred as Christine Campbell's ex-husband Richard in the CBS sitcom The New Adventures of Old Christine, which debuted in March 2006 and concluded in May 2010...

     as Douglas Panton
  • Péter Halász
    Péter Halász
    Péter Halász was a Hungarian actor and director. In 1993 he won the Hungarian Film Critics award for Best Actor. As an actor he appeared in The Breed among others. In February, 2006 his terminal liver cancer led to his final performance, which involved lying in an open coffin in a Budapest art...

     as George Kistiakowsky
    George Kistiakowsky
    George Bogdan Kistiakowsky was a Ukrainian-American chemistry professor at Harvard who participated in the Manhattan Project and later served as President Eisenhower's Science Advisor...

  • Gerald Hiken as Leó Szilárd
    Leó Szilárd
    Leó Szilárd was an Austro-Hungarian physicist and inventor who conceived the nuclear chain reaction in 1933, patented the idea of a nuclear reactor with Enrico Fermi, and in late 1939 wrote the letter for Albert Einstein's signature that resulted in the Manhattan Project that built the atomic bomb...

  • Arthur Holden
    Arthur Holden
    Arthur Holden is a Canadian voice actor, born in Montreal, Quebec. He voices Baba-Miao in Sagwa, the Chinese Siamese Cat, Mr. Ratburn in Arthur, and Mr...

     as Oak Ridge Doctor
  • Ed Lauter
    Ed Lauter
    Edward Lauter is an American actor. He has appeared in numerous movies and was a stand up comic before getting into acting.Lauter was born in Long Beach, Long Island, New York...

     as Whitney Ashbridge
  • Donald MacKechnie as James L. Tuck
  • Madison Mason as Boris Pash
    Boris Pash
    Boris T. Pash was a United States Army officer.-Biography:He was born in San Francisco, California, on June 20, 1900. His father was Rev. Theodore Pashkovsky , a Russian Orthodox priest who had been sent to California by the Church in 1894...

  • Krzysztof Pieczynski as Otto Frisch

  • Don Pugsley as Sgt. Bronston, Groves' Orderly
  • Logan Ramsey
    Logan Ramsey
    Logan Carlisle Ramsey, Jr. was an American character actor of television and film for nearly 50 years. Largely a TV actor, he appeared on, among others: The Edge of Night, Star Trek, Mission: Impossible, Hawaii Five-O, M*A*S*H, Charlie's Angels, Mork and Mindy, Knight Rider and Night...

     as Brehon B. Somervell
    Brehon B. Somervell
    Brehon Burke Somervell was a General in the United States Army and Commanding General of the Army Service Forces in World War II. As such he was responsible for the U.S. Army's logistics...

  • Fred Dalton Thompson
    Fred Dalton Thompson
    Fred Dalton Thompson , is an American politician, actor, attorney, lobbyist, columnist, and radio host. He served as a Republican U.S...

     as Maj. Gen. Melrose Hayden Barry
  • Jim True-Frost
    Jim True-Frost
    Jim True-Frost, born Jim True, is an American stage, television and screen actor. He is most known for his portrayal of Roland "Prez" Pryzbylewski on all five seasons of the HBO program The Wire.-Biography:...

     as Donald Hornig
    Donald Hornig
    Donald Frederick Hornig is an American chemist, explosives expert, teacher and presidential science advisor. He served as president of Brown University, 1970–1976....

  • Barry Yourgrau as Edward Teller
    Edward Teller
    Edward Teller was a Hungarian-American theoretical physicist, known colloquially as "the father of the hydrogen bomb," even though he did not care for the title. Teller made numerous contributions to nuclear and molecular physics, spectroscopy , and surface physics...

  • Marek Alboszta as Scientist
  • Steven Baigelman as Dr. Avenell
  • Frank Benettieri Jr. as Messenger
  • Roger Cubicciotti as Frank Oppenheimer
    Frank Oppenheimer
    Frank Friedman Oppenheimer was an American physicist who worked on the Manhattan Project, was a target of McCarthyism, and was later the founder of the Exploratorium in San Francisco. He was the younger brother of J...

  • Franco Cutietta as Enrico Fermi
    Enrico Fermi
    Enrico Fermi was an Italian-born, naturalized American physicist particularly known for his work on the development of the first nuclear reactor, Chicago Pile-1, and for his contributions to the development of quantum theory, nuclear and particle physics, and statistical mechanics...

  • Robert Peter Gale
    Robert Peter Gale
    Robert Peter Gale is an American physician and medical researcher. Leukemia and other bone marrow disorders have been the central theme of Gale’s basic scientific and clinical research for over 35 years....

     as Dr. Louis Hempelman
  • Wesley Harrison as Peter Oppenheimer
  • Brent Harrison as Peter Oppenheimer
  • Tom McFarlane as Scientist
  • David C. Parnes as Raincoat Man
  • Allen Poirson as Harold McDonald
  • David Politzer as Robert Serber
    Robert Serber
    Robert Serber was an American physicist who participated in the Manhattan Project. He was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; he was the eldest son of David Serber and Rose Frankel. He married Charlotte Leof in 1933. Rose Serber died in 1922; David married Charlotte's cousin Frances Leof in...

  • Bill Rubenstein as N.Y. Times Reporter
  • Ken Strausbaugh as Observation Officer
  • Walter Sullivan as Secretary of War Henry Stimson
  • Brian Wandell as Dennis Talmudge
  • John Williams as Mack Stoddard
  • Walter Edmiston (voice)
  • Matthew Faison (voice)
  • Stan Jones
    Stan Jones (actor)
    Gordon Stan Jones , sometimes credited as G. Stanley Jones, Staley Jones or Stanley Jones, was a Canadian film and television actor.-Career:...

     (voice)
  • Alan Oppenheimer
    Alan Oppenheimer
    Alan Oppenheimer is an American character actor and voice actor. He has performed numerous roles on live-action television since the 1960s, and has had an active career doing voice work in cartoons since the 1970s.-Early life:...

     (voice)


Basis


Most of the characters were real people and most of the events real happenings, with some theatrical license used in the film.

The character of Michael Merriman (John Cusack) is a fictional composite of several people and is put into the film to provide a moral compass as the "common man". Part of the character is loosely based on the popular young scientist Louis Slotin
Louis Slotin
Louis Alexander Slotin was a Canadian physicist and chemist who took part in the Manhattan Project, the secret US program during World War II that developed the atomic bomb....

. Contrary to Merriman's death in the movie, Slotin's accident and death occurred after the dropping of the two bombs on Japan, and his early death was feared by some as karma after the event; see their respective articles. A very similar mishap happened less than two weeks after the Nagasaki bomb, claiming the life of Harry Daghlian. Both incidents occurred with the same plutonium core, which became known as the Demon core
Demon core
The Demon core was the nickname given to a subcritical mass of plutonium that accidentally went briefly critical in two separate accidents at the Los Alamos laboratory in 1945 and 1946. Each incident resulted in the acute radiation poisoning and subsequent death of a scientist...

.

Even before Oppenheimer was chosen to be the lead scientist of the Manhattan Project, he was under surveillance by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), and once selected, the surveillance was intense; every single phone call was recorded and every contact with another person noted. After he was picked to head the laboratory, he only met with Tatlock one time, in mid-June 1943, where she told him that she still loved him and wanted to be with him. After spending that night together, he never saw her again. She committed suicide six months after their meeting.

Production


Filming took place in the fall of 1988 mainly outside Durango, Mexico
Durango, Durango
-Climate:The city of Durango has a semi-arid climate, classified as Bsk in the Koppen system. The climate is temperate in the western portion , with the average annual temperature being 15 °C and consisting of an average annual rainfall of 1,600 millimeters. In the eastern region, the average...

, where the Los Alamos research facility was re-created. The re-creation of the Los Alamos laboratory entailed 35 buildings and cost over US$
United States dollar
The United States dollar , also referred to as the American dollar, is the official currency of the United States of America. It is divided into 100 smaller units called cents or pennies....

2 million to construct in 1988.

Response


The highly dramatic film includes a closely aligned, romantic musical score created by long-time composer Ennio Morricone
Ennio Morricone
Ennio Morricone, Grand Officer OMRI, , is an Italian composer and conductor, who wrote music to more than 500 motion pictures and television series, in a career lasting over 50 years. His scores have been included in over 20 award-winning films as well as several symphonic and choral pieces...

. Never previously released in any format, the entire score and extra music were released in 2011 by La-La Land Records, through Screen Archives Entertainment's website. The definitive, 2-CD treatment, some of it never before been heard, has several cues and portions of others that were dropped from the final cut of the film. Produced by Dan Goldwasser and mastered by Mike Matessino, the CD release includes source cues and alternate takes, as well as exclusive, in-depth liner notes by film music writer Daniel Schweiger. It was limited to an edition of 3,000 copies.

The film has been criticized for distortion for dramatic effect, and is also cited as an example of miscasting in its choices of Paul Newman for the role of General Groves, and Dwight Schultz for the role of Oppenheimer. The film made under $4 million on its original release.

The film was entered into the 40th Berlin International Film Festival
40th Berlin International Film Festival
The 40th annual Berlin International Film Festival was held from February 9 to 20, 1990.-Jury:* Michael Ballhaus * Margaret Ménégoz * Vadim Abdrashitov* Suzana Amaral* Steven Bach* Roberto Benigni* Lívia Gyarmathy...

.