Fars Province

Fars Province

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Fars Province originally spelled Pars (پارس ), is one of the 31 provinces
Provinces of Iran
Iran is subdivided into thirty one provinces , each governed from a local center, usually the largest local city, which is called the capital of that province...

 and known as Cultural Capital of Iran
Iran
Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

. It is in the south of the country and its center is Shiraz
Shiraz, Iran
Shiraz is the sixth most populous city in Iran and is the capital of Fars Province, the city's 2009 population was 1,455,073. Shiraz is located in the southwest of Iran on the Roodkhaneye Khoshk seasonal river...

. It has an area of 122,400 km². In 2006, this province had a population of 4.34 million people, of which 61.2% were registered as urban dwellers, 38.1% villagers, and 0.7% nomad tribes. The etymology of the word "Persian" (Pārs-ian : پارسیان) is derived from the cultural capital of Iran and found in many ancient names associated with Iran.

Fars or Pars is the original homeland of the Persian people
Persian people
The Persian people are part of the Iranian peoples who speak the modern Persian language and closely akin Iranian dialects and languages. The origin of the ethnic Iranian/Persian peoples are traced to the Ancient Iranian peoples, who were part of the ancient Indo-Iranians and themselves part of...

. The native name of the Persian language is Fârsi or Pârsi. Persia and Persian both derive from the Hellenized
Greek language
Greek is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages. Native to the southern Balkans, it has the longest documented history of any Indo-European language, spanning 34 centuries of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the majority of its history;...

 form Persis of the root word Pârs. The Old Persian word was Pârsâ.

Etymology


The word Fars is derived from 𐎱𐎠𐎼𐎿 Pârsa, the Old Persian name for Persia and its capital, Persepolis. Fars is the Arabized version of Pârs, as Arabic
Arabic language
Arabic is a name applied to the descendants of the Classical Arabic language of the 6th century AD, used most prominently in the Quran, the Islamic Holy Book...

 has no [p] phoneme.

Persis




The ancient Persians were present in the region from about the 9th century BC, and became the rulers of a large empire under the Achaemenid dynasty in the 6th century BC. The ruins of Persepolis
Persepolis
Perspolis was the ceremonial capital of the Achaemenid Empire . Persepolis is situated northeast of the modern city of Shiraz in the Fars Province of modern Iran. In contemporary Persian, the site is known as Takht-e Jamshid...

 and Pasargadae
Pasargadae
Pasargadae , the capital of Cyrus the Great and also his last resting place, was a city in ancient Persia, and is today an archaeological site and one of Iran's UNESCO World Heritage Sites.-History:...

, two of the four capitals of the Achaemenid Empire
Achaemenid Empire
The Achaemenid Empire , sometimes known as First Persian Empire and/or Persian Empire, was founded in the 6th century BCE by Cyrus the Great who overthrew the Median confederation...

, are located in Fars.

The Achaemenid Empire was defeated by Alexander III of Macedon in the fourth century BC. Shortly after this the Seleucid Empire
Seleucid Empire
The Seleucid Empire was a Greek-Macedonian state that was created out of the eastern conquests of Alexander the Great. At the height of its power, it included central Anatolia, the Levant, Mesopotamia, Persia, today's Turkmenistan, Pamir and parts of Pakistan.The Seleucid Empire was a major centre...

 was established. However it never extended its power beyond the main trade routes in Fars, and by reign of Antiochus I or possibly later Persis emerged as an independent state that minted its own coins.
The Seleucid Empire was defeated by the Parthians in 238 BC. By 205 BC, Antiochus III had extended his authority into Persis and it ceased to be an independent state.

Babak
Babak
Babak may refer to:* Babak Khorramdin , the leader of Khurramites movement who fought against the Abbasid Caliphate.*Babak *Babak Castle*Shahr-e-Babak in Kerman Province*Babek , Azerbaijan*Babek Rayon, Azerbaijan...

 was the ruler of a small town called Kheir. Babak's efforts in gaining local power at the time escaped the attention of Artabanus IV, the Arsacid Emperor of the time. Babak and his eldest son Shapur managed to expand their power over all of Persis.

The subsequent events are unclear, due to the sketchy nature of the sources. It is however certain that following the death of Babak
Babak
Babak may refer to:* Babak Khorramdin , the leader of Khurramites movement who fought against the Abbasid Caliphate.*Babak *Babak Castle*Shahr-e-Babak in Kerman Province*Babek , Azerbaijan*Babek Rayon, Azerbaijan...

 around 220, Ardashir
Ardashir I
Ardashir I was the founder of the Sassanid Empire, was ruler of Istakhr , subsequently Fars Province , and finally "King of Kings of Sassanid Empire " with the overthrow of the Parthian Empire...

 who at the time was the governor of Darabgird, got involved in a power struggle of his own with his elder brother Shapur. The sources tell us that in 222, Shapur was killed when the roof of a building collapsed on him.

At this point, Ardashir moved his capital further to the south of Persis and founded a capital at Ardashir-Khwarrah (formerly Gur
Gur
-People:*Mordechai Gur , Israeli politician and the 10th Chief of Staff of the Israeli Defense Forces-Places:*A village in Tibet, see Gur, Tibet*Gur place name in ancient Israel near Megiddo*Guernsey, one of the Channel Islands-Other:...

, modern day Firouzabad
Firouzabad
Firuzabad is a city in and the capital of Firuzabad County, Fars Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 58,210, in 12,888 families.Firuzabad is located south of Shiraz. The town is surrounded by a mud wall and ditch....

).

After establishing his rule over Persis, Ardashir I
Ardashir I
Ardashir I was the founder of the Sassanid Empire, was ruler of Istakhr , subsequently Fars Province , and finally "King of Kings of Sassanid Empire " with the overthrow of the Parthian Empire...

 rapidly extended his territory, demanding fealty from the local princes of Fars, and gaining control over the neighboring provinces of Kerman, Isfahan, Susiana, and Mesene.
Artabanus marched a second time against Ardashir I in 224. Their armies clashed at Hormizdeghan, where Artabanus IV was killed. He was crowned in 226 at Ctesiphon
Ctesiphon
Ctesiphon, the imperial capital of the Parthian Arsacids and of the Persian Sassanids, was one of the great cities of ancient Mesopotamia.The ruins of the city are located on the east bank of the Tigris, across the river from the Hellenistic city of Seleucia...

 as the sole ruler of Persia; bringing the 400-year-old Parthian Empire to an end.

The Sassanids ruled for 425 years, until the Muslim armies conquered the empire. Afterward the Persians started to convert to Islam
Islam
Islam . The most common are and .   : Arabic pronunciation varies regionally. The first vowel ranges from ~~. The second vowel ranges from ~~~...

, this made it a lot easier for the new Muslim empire to continue the expansion of Islam.

Iran


Fars then passed hand to hand through numerous dynasties, leaving behind numerous historical and ancient monuments; each of which has its own values as a world heritage, reflecting the history of the province, Iran
Iran
Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

, and western Asia
Asia
Asia is the world's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the eastern and northern hemispheres. It covers 8.7% of the Earth's total surface area and with approximately 3.879 billion people, it hosts 60% of the world's current human population...

. The ruins of Bishapur
Bishapur
thumb|Irano-Roman floor mosaic detail from the palace of [[Shapur I]] at BishapurBishapur is an ancient city situated south of modern Faliyan, Iran on the ancient road between Persis and Elam. The road linked the Sassanid capitals Istakhr and Ctesiphon...

, Persepolis
Persepolis
Perspolis was the ceremonial capital of the Achaemenid Empire . Persepolis is situated northeast of the modern city of Shiraz in the Fars Province of modern Iran. In contemporary Persian, the site is known as Takht-e Jamshid...

, and Firouzabad
Firouzabad
Firuzabad is a city in and the capital of Firuzabad County, Fars Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 58,210, in 12,888 families.Firuzabad is located south of Shiraz. The town is surrounded by a mud wall and ditch....

 are all reminders of this.

Administrative divisions


Fars is located in the south of Iran
Iran
Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

. It neighbours Bushehr Province
Bushehr Province
Bushehr Province is one of the 31 provinces of Iran. It is in the south of the country, with a long coastline onto the Persian Gulf. Its center is Bandar-e-Bushehr, the provincial capital. The province has nine counties: Bushehr, Dashtestan, Dashti, Dayyer, Deylam, Jam, Kangan, Ganaveh and Tangestan...

 to the west, Hormozgān Province
Hormozgan Province
Hormozgan Province is one of the 31 provinces of Iran. It is in the south of the country, facing Oman. Its area is , and its provincial capital is Bandar Abbas...

 to the south, Kerman and Yazd province
Yazd Province
Yazd Province is one of the 31 provinces of Iran. It is in the centre of the country, and its administrative center is the city of Yazd.The province has an area of 131,575 km², and according to the most recent divisions of the country, is divided into eleven counties: Maybod, Mehreez, Taft,...

s to the east, Isfahan province to the north and Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad Province to the northwest. According to the latest divisions, the province contains the following counties:


Climate and wildlife


There are three distinct climatic regions in the Fars Province. First, the mountainous area of the north and northwest with moderate cold winters and mild summers. Secondly, the central regions, with relatively rainy mild winters, and hot dry summers. The third region located in the south and southeast, has moderate winters with very hot summers. The average temperature of Shiraz is 16.8 °C, ranging between 4.7 °C and 29.2 °C.

The geographical and climatic variation of the province causes varieties of plants; consequently, variation of wildlife has been formed in the province. Additional to the native animals of the province, many kinds of birds migrate to the province every year. Many kinds of ducks, storks and swallows migrate to this province in an annual parade. The main native animals of the province are gazelle, deer, mountain wild goat, ram, ewe and many kinds of birds.

The province of Fars includes many protected wildlife zones. The most important protected zones are:
  • Toot Siah (Black Berry) Hunt Forbidden Zone, which is located at the end of Boanat region.
  • Basiran Hunt Forbidden Zone, which is located 4 kilometers south to Abadeh;
  • Bamu National Park, which is located north-east of Shiraz;
  • Estahban Forest Park ( Parke Jangaly), which is located on the outskirts of Touraj mountain;
  • Hermoodlar Protected Zone, which is located east to larestan.


Arjan Meadow 22 km² (8.5 sq mi) and Lake Parishan
Lake Parishan
Lake Parishan is a lake in Iran. The Lake is in Kazerun, Fars Province and is the largest freshwater lake in the country. It receives only very small amount of water from feeder rivers and the whole lake/wetland is a protected area, as it is considered a globally significant wetland ecosystem....

 40 km² (15.4 sq mi) are designated Wetlands of International Importance under the Ramsar convention
Ramsar Convention
The Ramsar Convention is an international treaty for the conservation and sustainable utilization of wetlands, i.e., to stem the progressive encroachment on and loss of wetlands now and in the future, recognizing the fundamental ecological functions of wetlands and their economic, cultural,...

.

Economy


Agriculture is of great importance in Fars. The major products include cereal (wheat and barley), citrus fruits, dates, sugar beets and cotton.

Fars has major petrochemical facilities, along with an oil refinery, a factory for producing tires, a large electronics industry, and a sugar mill.

Tourism
Tourism in Iran
Tourism attracted 2.3 million people to Iran in 2009. Iran plans to have 20 million tourists annually by 2015 ....

 is also a large industry in the province. UNESCO has designated an area in the province, called Arjan (known as Dasht e Arjan) as a biosphere reserve.

Shiraz, provincial capital of Fars, is the namesake of Shirazi wine
Shirazi wine
Shirazi wine was the wine produced around the city of Shiraz in Persia. Already by the 9th century, the city of Shiraz had established a reputation for producing the finest wine of the Middle East, and was Persia's wine capital. The export of Shirazi wine to India by European merchants in the 17th...

. There used to be a lot of wine factories in the city, but due to Islamic law
Islamic law
Islamic law can refer to:*Sharia: The code of conduct enjoined upon Muslims in the Quran*Fiqh: Muslim jurisprudence...

 all wine factories were shut down after the Islamic Revolution in 1979.

Demographics


Due to the geographical characteristics of Fars and its proximity to the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
The Persian Gulf, in Southwest Asia, is an extension of the Indian Ocean located between Iran and the Arabian Peninsula.The Persian Gulf was the focus of the 1980–1988 Iran-Iraq War, in which each side attacked the other's oil tankers...

, Fars has long been a residing area for various Iranian People and Semites who were under the influence of Persian culture. However, the tribes of Fars including Qashqai
Qashqai
Qashqai are the largest group of nomadic pastoralists people of Azeri descent who mainly live in the provinces of Fars, Khuzestan and southern Isfahan on the territory of modern Iran, especially around the city of Shiraz in Fars. They speak the Qashqai language which is a member of the Turkic...

 Turks, Mamasani Lurs
Lurs
Lurs are an Iranic people living mainly in south-western Iran. Their population is estimated at above two million. They occupy Lorestan, Bakhtiari, and Kuh-Gilu-Boir Ahmed. "....

, Khamseh and Kohkiluyeh have kept their native and unique cultures and lifestyles which constitute part of the cultural heritage of Iran
Iran
Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

 attracting many tourists
Tourism in Iran
Tourism attracted 2.3 million people to Iran in 2009. Iran plans to have 20 million tourists annually by 2015 ....

. The province has a population of 4.4 million approximately.

Transportation


Shiraz Airport is the main international airport of the province and the second in the country. The cities of Lar and Lamerd also have airports linking them with Shiraz and Tehran and nearby Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
The Persian Gulf, in Southwest Asia, is an extension of the Indian Ocean located between Iran and the Arabian Peninsula.The Persian Gulf was the focus of the 1980–1988 Iran-Iraq War, in which each side attacked the other's oil tankers...

 countries such as the UAE and Bahrain
Bahrain
' , officially the Kingdom of Bahrain , is a small island state near the western shores of the Persian Gulf. It is ruled by the Al Khalifa royal family. The population in 2010 stood at 1,214,705, including 235,108 non-nationals. Formerly an emirate, Bahrain was declared a kingdom in 2002.Bahrain is...

. Shiraz is along the main route from Tehran
Tehran
Tehran , sometimes spelled Teheran, is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province. With an estimated population of 8,429,807; it is also Iran's largest urban area and city, one of the largest cities in Western Asia, and is the world's 19th largest city.In the 20th century, Tehran was subject to...

 to southern Iran.

Education


The main universities are Shiraz University of Medical Sciences
Shiraz University of Medical Sciences
Shiraz University of Medical Sciences is public medical school located in Shiraz, Iran. It is ranked as one of Iran's top medical schools, with more than 5000 students studying for 83 different degrees, and a staff of nearly 13,000 faculty and personnel...

, Shiraz University
Shiraz University
Shiraz University , formerly known as Pahlavi University, is a public university located in Shiraz, Iran. It is one of the major universities of Iran....

 and Shiraz University of Technology
Shiraz University of Technology
Shiraz University of Technology is the second public university in the Fars Province in higher technological education, basic and applied research. In 2004, the Government offered technical assistance for establishing an institute of higher education in engineering in Shiraz...

.

Notables from Fars


  • Mansur Hallaj
    Mansur Al-Hallaj
    Mansur al-Hallaj was a Persian mystic, revolutionary writer and pious teacher of Sufism most famous for his poetry, accusation of heresy and for his execution at the orders of the Abbasid Caliph Al-Muqtadir after a long, drawn-out investigation.-Early life:Al-Hallaj was born around 858 in Fars...

     Persian Mystician, killed in 8th century AC.
  • Salman the Persian
    Salman the Persian
    Salman the Persian or Salman al Farisi was one of Muhammad's companions.During some of his later meetings with the other Sahaba, he was referred to as Abu Abdullah .-Birth place:...

     was born in Kazerun.
  • Saadi
    Saadi (poet)
    Abū-Muḥammad Muṣliḥ al-Dīn bin Abdallāh Shīrāzī better known by his pen-name as Saʿdī or, simply, Saadi, was one of the major Persian poets of the medieval period. He is not only famous in Persian-speaking countries, but he has also been quoted in western sources...

    , writer, poet, born and died in Shiraz.
  • Hafiz Shirazi, poet, born and died in Shiraz.
  • Mulla Sadra
    Mulla Sadra
    Ṣadr ad-Dīn Muḥammad Shīrāzī also called Mulla Sadrā was a Persian Shia Islamic philosopher, theologian and ‘Ālim who led the Iranian cultural renaissance in the 17th century...

     was born in Shiraz.
  • Qotb al-Din Kazeruni was born in Kazerun.
  • Reza Malekzadeh
    Reza Malekzadeh
    Reza Malekzadeh is an Iranian medical scientist and gastroenterologist.-Career:...

     was born in Kazerun.
  • Abdolreza Hajipur was born in Kazerun.
  • Christiane Amanpour
    Christiane Amanpour
    Christiane Amanpour, CBE is anchor of ABC News's This Week and formerly chief international correspondent at CNN, where she worked for 27 years. She is a Board Member at the IWMF .-Early years:...

    's father is originally from Sarvestan, Fars.
  • Sibawayh
    Sibawayh
    Abū Bishr ʻAmr ibn ʻUthmān ibn Qanbar Al-Bishrī , commonly known as Sībawayh , was an influential linguist and grammarian of the Arabic language. He was of Persian origin born ca...

    , one of the founders of Arabic grammar, died in Shiraz.
  • Karim Khan
    Karim Khan
    Karim Khan Zand, , , was a ruler of Iran, and the founder of the Zand Dynasty.He was born to a family of the Zand tribe of Lur or Lak deportees...

    , founder of the Zand dynasty.
  • Lotf Ali Khan
    Lotf Ali Khan
    Lutf or Lotf Ali Khan was the last Shah of Persia of the Zand dynasty.Lotf Ali Khan Zand came to power after a decade of infighting among a succession of violent and inept Zand chiefs following the death in 1779 of the dynasty's founder, Karim Khan Zand...

    , the last ruler of the Zand dynasty.
  • Dolatabadi has been well known as a scholar and author in Iranian Literature for the old and new generation of Iran.
  • Ibn Muqaffa
    Abdullah Ibn al-Muqaffa
    Abū-Muhammad Abd-Allāh Rūzbeh ibn Dādūya/Dādōē , known as Ibn al-Muqaffaʿ , Ibn Muqaffa/Ebn-e Moghaffa , or Rūzbeh pūr-e Dādūya , was a Persian thinker and a Zoroastrian convert to Islam.-Biography:...

    , or Ruzbeh Dadwayh, Persian writer and translator in 8th century AC.
  • Zahra Kazemi
    Zahra Kazemi
    Zahra "Ziba" Kazemi-Ahmadabadi ‎ was an Iranian-Canadian freelance photographer, residing in Montreal, Canada, who died in the custody of Iranian officials following her arrest....

    , photographer, born in Shiraz.
  • Ladan and Laleh Bijani
    Ladan and Laleh Bijani
    Ladan Bijani and Laleh Bijani were Iranian law graduates. They were conjoined twin sisters, joined at the head, who died after their complicated surgical separation...

    , famous conjoined twins, born in Shiraz.
  • Shāh Shuja
    Shah Shuja
    Shāh Shujā was the second son of the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan and empress Mumtaz Mahal.-Governor of Bengal:Emperor Shah Jahan appointed Shah Shuja as the Subahdar or governor of Bengal in 1639. In 1642, Shuja was also given the charge of the province of Orissa. He ruled the provinces for more...

    ', buried in Shiraz.
  • Khwaju Kermani
    Khwaju Kermani
    Khwaju Kermani whose full name is Abu’l-ʿAṭā Kamāl-al-Din Maḥmud b. ʿAli b. Maḥmud Morshedi was a famous Persian poet and Sufi mystic from Persia.-Life:He was born in Kerman, Iran in 24 December 1290....

    , buried in Shiraz.
  • Asghar Shekari was born in Shiraz.
  • Mirza Agha Seyed Ebrahim Estahbanati.
  • Mohammad Bagher Shahid Raabea, A well known leader in the Iranian Constitutional Revolution
    Iranian Constitutional Revolution
    The Persian Constitutional Revolution or Iranian Constitutional Revolution took place between 1905 and 1907...

    .
  • Jamshid Amouzegar
  • Seyyed Zia'eddin Tabatabaee
    Seyyed Zia'eddin Tabatabaee
    Seyyed Zia'eddin Tabatabaee was an Iranian politician and the Prime Minister of Iran from February to May 1921 under Ahmad Shah, the last Shah of the Qajar dynasty....

     was born in Shiraz.
  • Ibn Khafif
    Ibn Khafif
    Mohammad Ibn Khafif known as Sheikh-i Kabir was a mystic and sufi from Iran.He is credited with bringing Sufism to Shiraz.He is buried in Shiraz, Iran. His tomb is a public library today in Shiraz....

    , a 9th century sage, is buried in Shiraz.
  • Sheikh Ruzbehan
    Sheikh Ruzbehan
    Abu Muhammad Sheikh Ruzbehan Baqli was a poet, mystic, and sufi from Fasa.-Life:Ruzbihan Baqli was born in 1128 to a family of Daylami origin in the town of Fasa in Fars . Although Ruzbihan Baqli had religious visions at ages three, seven, and fifteen, he claims that his family was unfamiliar...

  • Nezameddin Faghih, Professor
    Professor
    A professor is a scholarly teacher; the precise meaning of the term varies by country. Literally, professor derives from Latin as a "person who professes" being usually an expert in arts or sciences; a teacher of high rank...

    , Writer
    Writer
    A writer is a person who produces literature, such as novels, short stories, plays, screenplays, poetry, or other literary art. Skilled writers are able to use language to portray ideas and images....

  • Afshin Ghotbi
    Afshin Ghotbi
    Afshin Ghotbi is an Iranian-American football coach and current head coach of the Japanese side Shimizu S-Pulse in J-League.-Early life:Though his family were from Shiraz, Mr. Afshin Ghotbi was born in the country's capital Tehran...

    , Football Manager of Iranian National Team
  • Meulana Shahin Shirazi
    Meulana Shahin Shirazi
    Meulana Shahin Shirazi was a Persian Jewish poet of the 14th century.He put the Pentateuch into Persian verse under the title Musa Nameh, an imitation of the famous Shah nameh in style....

    , Persian Jewish poet and wiseman.
  • Junayd Shirazi
    Junayd Shirazi
    Mo'in al-Din Junayd ibn Mahmud ibn Muhammad Baghnovi Shirazi was a Sufi mystic and poet of Persia from the 14th century.He has two works, namely, a divan, and Shadd al-Izar . The latter work contains the biographies of over three hundred famous persons buried in Shiraz, Iran.-References:* E.G....

  • Mohsen Kadivar
    Mohsen Kadivar
    Mohsen Kadivar is an Iranian philosopher, University lecturer, cleric and activist. A political dissident, Kadivar has been a vocal critic of the doctrine of clerical rule, also known as Velayat-e Faqih , and a strong advocate of democratic and liberal reforms in Iran...

  • Ata'ollah Mohajerani
    Ata'ollah Mohajerani
    Ata'ollah Mohajerani , , is an Iranian historian, politician, journalist, and author. Ata`ollah Mohajerani served as Minister of Culture and Islamic Guidance of Iran under reformist President Mohammad Khatami until 2000 when he was resigned from office for alleged permissiveness."-Overview:Dr...

     was a representative of Shiraz in the Majlis.
  • Saeed Emami
    Saeed Emami
    Saeed Emami was the Iranian deputy minister of intelligence under Ali Fallahian, and an intelligence officer under Ghorbanali Dorri-Najafabadi. The Islamic government accused him of having independently organized the assassinations of dissidents shortly after he allegedly committing...

  • Gholam Reza Azhari
  • Siyyid Mírzá 'Alí-Muhammad, the Báb
    Báb
    Siyyid `Alí Muḥammad Shírází was the founder of Bábism, and one of three central figures of the Bahá'í Faith. He was a merchant from Shíráz, Persia, who at the age of twenty-four claimed to be the promised Qá'im . After his declaration he took the title of Báb meaning "Gate"...

  • Mohammad Hashem Pesaran
    Mohammad Hashem Pesaran
    Professor Mohammad Hashem Pesaran is a British-Iranian economist.He received his BSc in Economics at the University of Salford and his PhD in Economics at Cambridge University....

    , Iranian the most honored economist
  • Firouz Naderi
    Firouz Naderi
    Firouz Naderi is an Iranian-American scientist and currently the Director for Solar System Exploration at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory...

    , an Iranian-American
    Iranian-American
    Iranian-Americans are Americans of Iranian ancestry or people possessing Iranian and American dual citizenship.Iranian-Americans are amongst the most highly educated groups in the United States...

     scientist and the Associate Director of NASA
    NASA
    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is the agency of the United States government that is responsible for the nation's civilian space program and for aeronautics and aerospace research...

    's Jet Propulsion Laboratory
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory is a federally funded research and development center and NASA field center located in the San Gabriel Valley area of Los Angeles County, California, United States. The facility is headquartered in the city of Pasadena on the border of La Cañada Flintridge and Pasadena...

     (JPL), responsible for Project Formulation and Strategy. He was born in Kazerun
    Kazerun
    Kazerun is a city in and the capital of Kazerun County, Fars Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 84,594, in 20,810 families....

    .
  • Ebrahim Golestan
    Ebrahim Golestan
    Ebrahim Golestan is an Iranian filmmaker and literary figure with a career spanning half a century...

    , filmmaker and literary figure
  • Kaveh Golestan
    Kaveh Golestan
    Kāveh Golestān Taghavi Shirazi , was an Iranian photojournalist and artist. Golestan was educated at Millfield School in Somerset, England....

    , photojournalist and artist.
  • Habibollah Peyman
    Habibollah Peyman
    Dr. Habibollah Peyman is an Iranian politician. He is the founder and the leader of an Islamist Socialist political party, named Jonbesh Moslamanan Mobarez, which is banned by the religious government of Iran. He is also one of the leaders of the influential Iranian opposition political alliance,...

    , Iranian politician
  • Mohsen Safaei Farahani
    Mohsen Safaei Farahani
    -Career:He is a member of Mosharekat Party, the main reformist party in Iran under President Khatami. He was a Majlis representative from Tehran from 1999 to 2003. He was also the President of the Iranian Football Federation from 1998 to 2002.-IFF Transitory Board:...

    , Iranian politician
  • Simin Daneshvar
    Simin Daneshvar
    Simin Dāneshvar is an Iranian academic, novelist, fiction writer and translator of literary works from English, German, Italian and Russian into Persian. Daneshvar has a number of firsts to her credit. In 1948, her collection of Persian short stories was the first by an Iranian woman to be...

    , academic, renowned novelist, fiction writer and translator
  • Majid Tavakoli
    Majid Tavakoli
    Majid Tavakoli is a prominent student leader and political prisoner in Iran. He is a member of the Islamic Students' Association at Tehran's Amirkabir University of Technology, where he studied shipbuilding...

    , prominent student leader in Iran
    Iran
    Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...


External links