Expo 67

Expo 67

Overview
The 1967 International and Universal Exposition or Expo 67, as it was commonly known, was the general exhibition, Category One World's Fair
World's Fair
World's fair, World fair, Universal Exposition, and World Expo are various large public exhibitions held in different parts of the world. The first Expo was held in The Crystal Palace in Hyde Park, London, United Kingdom, in 1851, under the title "Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All...

 held in Montreal
Montreal
Montreal is a city in Canada. It is the largest city in the province of Quebec, the second-largest city in Canada and the seventh largest in North America...

, Quebec
Quebec
Quebec or is a province in east-central Canada. It is the only Canadian province with a predominantly French-speaking population and the only one whose sole official language is French at the provincial level....

, Canada
Canada
Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, and northward into the Arctic Ocean...

, from April 27 to October 29, 1967. It is considered to be the most successful World's Fair of the 20th century, with the most attendees (50 million visits) to that date and 62 nations participating. It also set the single-day attendance record for a world's fair, with 569,000 visitors on its third day.

Expo 67 was Canada's main celebration during its centennial year
Canadian Centennial
The Canadian Centennial was a year long celebration held in 1967 when Canada celebrated the 100th anniversary of the Canadian Confederation. Celebrations occurred throughout the year but culminated on Dominion Day, July 1. 1967 coins were different from previous years' issues, with animals on each...

.
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Encyclopedia
The 1967 International and Universal Exposition or Expo 67, as it was commonly known, was the general exhibition, Category One World's Fair
World's Fair
World's fair, World fair, Universal Exposition, and World Expo are various large public exhibitions held in different parts of the world. The first Expo was held in The Crystal Palace in Hyde Park, London, United Kingdom, in 1851, under the title "Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All...

 held in Montreal
Montreal
Montreal is a city in Canada. It is the largest city in the province of Quebec, the second-largest city in Canada and the seventh largest in North America...

, Quebec
Quebec
Quebec or is a province in east-central Canada. It is the only Canadian province with a predominantly French-speaking population and the only one whose sole official language is French at the provincial level....

, Canada
Canada
Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, and northward into the Arctic Ocean...

, from April 27 to October 29, 1967. It is considered to be the most successful World's Fair of the 20th century, with the most attendees (50 million visits) to that date and 62 nations participating. It also set the single-day attendance record for a world's fair, with 569,000 visitors on its third day.

Expo 67 was Canada's main celebration during its centennial year
Canadian Centennial
The Canadian Centennial was a year long celebration held in 1967 when Canada celebrated the 100th anniversary of the Canadian Confederation. Celebrations occurred throughout the year but culminated on Dominion Day, July 1. 1967 coins were different from previous years' issues, with animals on each...

. The fair was originally intended to be held in Moscow
Moscow
Moscow is the capital, the most populous city, and the most populous federal subject of Russia. The city is a major political, economic, cultural, scientific, religious, financial, educational, and transportation centre of Russia and the continent...

, to help the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
The Soviet Union , officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics , was a constitutionally socialist state that existed in Eurasia between 1922 and 1991....

 celebrate the 50th anniversary of the Russian Revolution
Russian Revolution of 1917
The Russian Revolution is the collective term for a series of revolutions in Russia in 1917, which destroyed the Tsarist autocracy and led to the creation of the Soviet Union. The Tsar was deposed and replaced by a provisional government in the first revolution of February 1917...

 but, for various reasons, the Soviets decided to cancel, and Canada was awarded it in the fall of 1962.

The project was not originally overwhelmingly supported in Canada. It took the determination of Montreal's mayor, Jean Drapeau
Jean Drapeau
Jean Drapeau, was a Canadian lawyer and politician who served as mayor of Montreal from 1954 to 1957 and 1960 to 1986...

, and a new team of managers to guide it past political, physical and temporal hurdles. Defying a computer analysis that said it could not be done, the fair opened on time. A major factor that contributed to the success of Expo '67 was its relative proximity to, and ease of access from (through newly opened I-87), New York City. Many visitors who had attended the World Fair held in Flushing, NY, only 2 years prior were attracted to the prospect of reliving a similar event in Montreal. US mainstream media attention to the event and its sheer magnitude also contributed to the record attendance numbers.

After Expo 67 ended in October 1967, the site and most of the pavilions lived on as an exhibition called Man and His World, open during the summer months from 1968 until 1981. By that time, most of the buildings, which had not been designed to last beyond the original exhibition, had deteriorated and were dismantled. Today, the islands that hosted the world exhibition are mainly used as parkland and for recreational use, with only a few remaining structures from Expo 67 to show that the event was held there. Many Canadians from that time still regard it as one of the country's finest cultural achievements.

Background



The idea of hosting the 1967 World Exhibition dates back to 1956, but it was in 1958 that Conservative Senator Mark Drouin suggested during his speech at the Brussels Exhibition that Canada should host a World Exhibition to celebrate its centennial. Initially, the exposition was offered to Toronto
Toronto
Toronto is the provincial capital of Ontario and the largest city in Canada. It is located in Southern Ontario on the northwestern shore of Lake Ontario. A relatively modern city, Toronto's history dates back to the late-18th century, when its land was first purchased by the British monarchy from...

 but politicians there rejected the idea. However, Montreal's mayor, Sarto Fournier
Sarto Fournier
Sarto Fournier was a Canadian politician. He served as mayor of Montreal from 1957 to 1960.- Biography :...

, backed the proposal, allowing Canada to make a bid to the Bureau International des Expositions (BIE). At the BIE's May 5, 1960 meeting in Paris
Paris
Paris is the capital and largest city in France, situated on the river Seine, in northern France, at the heart of the Île-de-France region...

, Moscow was awarded the fair after five rounds of voting that eliminated Austria's and then Canada's bids. In April 1962, the Soviets scrapped plans to host the fair because of financial constraints and concerns about travelers bringing western ideas and customs to the Soviet public. Montreal's new mayor, Jean Drapeau
Jean Drapeau
Jean Drapeau, was a Canadian lawyer and politician who served as mayor of Montreal from 1954 to 1957 and 1960 to 1986...

, lobbied the Canadian government to try again for the fair, which they did. On November 13, 1962, the BIE changed the location of the World Exhibition to Canada, and Expo 67 went on to become the fourth-best attended of all BIE-sanctioned world expositions, as of 2010 (after Osaka
Expo '70
was a World's Fair held in Suita, Osaka, Japan between March 15 and September 13, 1970. The theme of the Expo was "Progress and Harmony for Mankind." In Japanese Expo '70 is often referred to as Ōsaka Banpaku...

, Paris
Exposition Universelle (1900)
The Exposition Universelle of 1900 was a world's fair held in Paris, France, from April 15 to November 12, 1900, to celebrate the achievements of the past century and to accelerate development into the next...

and Expo 2010 Shanghai
Expo 2010
Expo 2010, officially Expo 2010 Shanghai China was held on both banks of the Huangpu River in the city of Shanghai, China, from May 1 to October 31, 2010. It was a major World Expo in the tradition of international fairs and expositions, the first since 1992...

)

It was a cultural festival not only celebrating 100 years of Canada but it was also a world class exhibition which featured many nations. Each nation that was represented showed off some part of their culture. Whether it was artwork, sculptures, crown jewels, a technological achievement, each country, province, state or territory that was represented was magnificent. Religions were portrayed, themes such as “Man and the Oceans”, even the United Nations was represented. It was a cultural phenomenon that has maintained its aroma to this day. There are websites that take you through many aspects of it and there are tales of people of all ages who attended it. “When organizers planned this world exposition, they had predicted that only 35 million people would show up. In fact, the enormous success of Expo caught the organizers off guard and much to their surprise, between April 28 and October 29, 1967, over 50 million people from around the world showed up. And much to a visitor's consternation, some of the line-ups just to get into some pavilions would be at least a few hours. In the end, all the Expo pavilions were well worth seeing."

Several sites were proposed as the main Expo grounds. One location that was considered was Mount Royal
Mount Royal
Mount Royal is a mountain in the city of Montreal, immediately west of downtown Montreal, Quebec, Canada, the city to which it gave its name.The mountain is part of the Monteregian Hills situated between the Laurentians and the Appalachians...

 Park, to the north of the downtown core. But it was Drapeau's idea to create new islands in the St. Lawrence river, along with enlarging the existing Île Sainte-Hélène. The choice overcame opposition from Montreal's surrounding municipalities, and also prevented land speculation.

Key people


Expo did not get off to a smooth start; in 1963, many top organizing committee officials resigned. One of the reasons for the resignations was that a computer program predicted that the event could not possibly be constructed in time. Another, more likely, reason for the mass resignations was that on April 22, 1963, the federal Liberal
Liberal Party of Canada
The Liberal Party of Canada , colloquially known as the Grits, is the oldest federally registered party in Canada. In the conventional political spectrum, the party sits between the centre and the centre-left. Historically the Liberal Party has positioned itself to the left of the Conservative...

 government of Prime Minister Lester Pearson took power. This meant that former Prime Minister John Diefenbaker
John Diefenbaker
John George Diefenbaker, PC, CH, QC was the 13th Prime Minister of Canada, serving from June 21, 1957, to April 22, 1963...

's Progressive Conservative
Progressive Conservative Party of Canada
The Progressive Conservative Party of Canada was a Canadian political party with a centre-right stance on economic issues and, after the 1970s, a centrist stance on social issues....

 government appointees to the board of directors of the Canadian Corporation for the 1967 World Exhibition were likely forced to resign.

Pierre Dupuy
Pierre Dupuy (Canadian diplomat)
Pierre Dupuy, was a Canadian diplomat. His most noted achievement was as the Commissioner General of Expo 67.- Early life :Dupuy was born in Montreal, in 1896...

, a diplomat, was named Commissioner General, after Diefenbaker appointee Paul Bienvenu resigned from the post in 1963. One of the main responsibilities of the Commissioner General was to attract other nations to build pavilions at Expo. Dupuy would spend most of 1964 and 1965 soliciting 125 countries, spending more time abroad than in Canada. Dupuy's 'right-hand' man was Robert Fletcher Shaw
Robert Fletcher Shaw
Robert Fletcher Shaw, CC was a Canadian businessman, academic, civil servant and deputy commissioner general of the Universal and International Exhibition of 1967....

, the deputy commissioner general and vice-president of the fair's corporation. He also replaced a Diefenbaker appointee, C.F. Carsley. Shaw was a professional engineer and builder, and he was in charge when Dupuy was away. Dupuy hired Andrew Kniewasser as the general manager. The management group became known as Les Durs - the tough guys - and they were in charge of creating, building and managing Expo. Les Durs consisted of: Jean-Claude Delorme, Legal Counsel and Secretary of the Corporation; Dale Rediker, Director of Finances; Colonel Edward Churchill, Director of Installations; Philippe de Gaspé Beaubien, Director of Operations, dubbed "The Mayor of Expo"; Pierre de Bellefeuille, Director of Exhibitors; and Yves Jasmin, Director of Information, Advertising and Public Relations.

As historian Pierre Berton
Pierre Berton
Pierre Francis de Marigny Berton, was a noted Canadian author of non-fiction, especially Canadiana and Canadian history, and was a well-known television personality and journalist....

 put it, the cooperation between Canada's French and English speaking communities "was the secret of Expo's success — 'the Québécois
Quebec
Quebec or is a province in east-central Canada. It is the only Canadian province with a predominantly French-speaking population and the only one whose sole official language is French at the provincial level....

 flair, the English-Canadian pragmatism.'" However, Berton also points out that this is an over-simplification of national stereotypes. Arguably Expo did, for a short period anyway, bridge the 'Two Solitudes
Two Solitudes (Canadian society)
"Two Solitudes" refers to a perceived lack of communication, and moreover a lack of will for communication between Anglophone and Francophone people in Canada. The term was popularized by Hugh MacLennan's novel Two Solitudes...

.'

Montebello conference produces theme


In May 1963, a group of prominent Canadian thinkers — including Alan Jarvis, director of the National Gallery of Canada
National Gallery of Canada
The National Gallery of Canada , located in the capital city Ottawa, Ontario, is one of Canada's premier art galleries.The Gallery is now housed in a glass and granite building on Sussex Drive with a notable view of the Canadian Parliament buildings on Parliament Hill. The acclaimed structure was...

; novelists Hugh MacLennan
Hugh MacLennan
John Hugh MacLennan, CC, CQ was a Canadian author and professor of English at McGill University. He won five Governor General's Awards and a Royal Bank Award.-Family and childhood:...

 and Gabrielle Roy
Gabrielle Roy
Gabrielle Roy, CC, FRSC was a French Canadian author.- Biography :Born in Saint Boniface , Manitoba, Roy was educated at Saint Joseph's Academy...

; J. Tuzo Wilson, geophysicist; and Claude Robillard, town planner — met for three days at the Seigneury Club
Château Montebello
The Fairmont Le Château Montebello or simply Château Montebello is a hotel and resort complex in Montebello, Quebec, Canada. The setting for the retreat is of forested wildlife sanctuary and 70 lakes on the shore of the Ottawa River, between Ottawa and Montreal.-Construction:In the late 1920s,...

 in Montebello, Quebec
Montebello, Quebec
Montebello is a municipality located in the Papineau Regional County Municipality of Western Quebec . As of the 2001 census, there were 1,039 permanent residents. The village has a total area of , and is located at the eastern edge of Canada's National Capital Region.The village is world famous for...

. The theme, "Man and His World", was based on the 1939 book entitled Terre des Hommes (translated as Wind, Sand and Stars
Wind, Sand and Stars
Wind, Sand and Stars is a memoir by Antoine de Saint Exupéry published in 1939. It was translated from the French by Lewis Galantière, and published in the US in November 1945....

) by Antoine de Saint-Exupéry
Antoine de Saint-Exupéry
Antoine de Saint-Exupéry , officially Antoine Marie Jean-Baptiste Roger, comte de Saint Exupéry , was a French writer, poet and pioneering aviator. He became a laureate of France's highest literary awards, and in 1939 was the winner of the U.S. National Book Award...

. In Roy's introduction to the Expo 67 corporation's book, entitled Terre des Hommes/Man and His World, she elucidates the theme:
The organizers also created seventeen theme elements for Man and his World:

  • Du Pont Auditorium of Canada: The philosophy and scientific content of theme exhibits were presented and emphasized in this 372 seat hall.
  • Habitat 67
  • Labyrinth
  • Man and his Health
  • Man in the Community
  • Man the Explorer: Man, his Planet and Space; Man and Life; Man and the Oceans; Man and the Polar Regions
  • Man the Creator: The Gallery of Fine Arts; Contemporary Sculpture; Industrial Design; Photography.
  • Man the Producer: Resources for Man; Man in Control; Progress.
  • Man the Provider

Construction begins


Construction started on August 13, 1963, when Prime Minister Lester B. Pearson
Lester B. Pearson
Lester Bowles "Mike" Pearson, PC, OM, CC, OBE was a Canadian professor, historian, civil servant, statesman, diplomat, and politician, who won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1957 for organizing the United Nations Emergency Force to resolve the Suez Canal Crisis...

  pulled a lever that signalled a front-end loader to dump the first batch of fill to enlarge Île Sainte-Hélène. The 25 million tons of fill needed to construct the islands was coming from the Montreal metro
Montreal Metro
The Montreal Metro is a rubber-tired metro system, and the main form of public transportation underground in the city of Montreal, Quebec, Canada....

's excavations, a public works project that was already under construction before Expo was awarded to Montreal. Expo's initial period of construction mainly centred on enlarging Île Ste-Hélène and creating the artificial island
Artificial island
An artificial island or man-made island is an island or archipelago that has been constructed by people rather than formed by natural means...

 of Île Notre-Dame
Île Notre-Dame
Île Notre-Dame is an artificial island built in 10 months from 15 million tons of rock excavated for the Montreal Metro in 1965. It was created for Expo 67 to celebrate Canada's centennial. The island is part of the city of Montreal and forms part of the Hochelaga Archipelago...

. While construction continued, the land rising out of Montreal harbour was not owned by the Expo Corporation yet. After the final mounds of earth completed the islands, the grounds that would hold the fair were officially transferred from the City of Montreal to the corporation on June 20, 1964. This gave Colonel Churchill only 1042 days to have everything built and functioning for opening day. To get Expo built in time, Churchill used the then new project management tool known as the critical path method
Critical path method
The critical path method is an algorithm for scheduling a set of project activities. It is an important tool for effective project management.-History:...

 (CPM). On April 28, 1967, opening day, everything was ready, with one exception: Habitat 67, which was then displayed as a work in progress.

Building and enlarging the islands, along with the new Concorde Bridge
Concorde Bridge
The Concordia Bridge carries Avenue Pierre-Dupuy across the St. Lawrence River between Cité du Havre , Montreal, and Parc Jean-Drapeau on Saint Helen's Island. A majority of its traffic is motorists driving to the Montreal Casino on Île Notre-Dame, continuing on Pierre Dupuy Avenue across Pont des...

 built to connect them with the site-specific mass transit system known as the Montreal Expo Express
Montreal Expo Express
The Expo Express was a rapid transit system consisting of five stations and a 5.7-kilometre route. Built for Montreal’s Expo 67 and costing around $18 million, the trains carried 1,000 passengers each and ran approximately every five minutes....

, plus a boat pier, cost more than the Saint Lawrence Seaway
Saint Lawrence Seaway
The Saint Lawrence Seaway , , is the common name for a system of locks, canals and channels that permits ocean-going vessels to travel from the Atlantic Ocean to the North American Great Lakes, as far as Lake Superior. Legally it extends from Montreal to Lake Erie, including the Welland Canal...

 project did only five years earlier: this was even before any buildings or infrastructure were constructed. With the initial phase of construction completed, it is easy to see why the budget for the exhibition was going to be larger than anyone expected. In the fall of 1963, Expo's general manager, Andrew Kniewasser, presented the master plan and the preliminary budget of $167 million for construction: it would balloon to over $439 million by 1967. The plan and budget narrowly passed a vote in Pearson's federal cabinet, passing by one vote, and then it was officially submitted on December 23, 1963.

Logo


The logo was designed by Montreal artist Julien Hébert. The basic unit of the logo is an ancient symbol of man. Two of the symbols (pictograms of 'man') are linked as to represent friendship. The icon was repeated in a circular arrangement to represent 'friendship around the world'. The logotype is lower-case bold-face, Optima
Optima
Optima is a humanist sans-serif typeface designed by Hermann Zapf between 1952 and 1955 for the D. Stempel AG foundry, Frankfurt, Germany.-Characteristics:...

 font. It did not enjoy unanimous support from federal politicians, as some of them tried to kill it with a motion in the Canadian House of Commons
Canadian House of Commons
The House of Commons of Canada is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign and the Senate. The House of Commons is a democratically elected body, consisting of 308 members known as Members of Parliament...

.

Theme songs



The official Expo 67 theme song was composed by Stephane Venne
Stéphane Venne
Stéphane Venne is a French-Canadian songwriter and composer. He also worked as head of production for the Canadian arm of Barclay Records and as a radio station executive....

 and was titled: "Hey Friend, Say Friend/Un Jour, Un Jour". Complaints were made about the suitability of the song, as its lyrics mentioned neither Montreal nor Expo 67. The song was selected from an international competition. Over 2,200 entries from 35 countries were made.

However, the song that most Canadians associate with Expo was written by Bobby Gimby
Bobby Gimby
Bobby Gimby, was a Canadian orchestra leader, trumpeter, and singer/songwriter.-Biography:He was born Robert Stead Gimby in Cabri, Saskatchewan where he played in a boys' band. He was a member of the popular radio show The Happy Gang...

, a veteran commercial jingle writer who composed the popular Centennial tune "Ca-na-da
Canada (song)
"Ca-na-da", or "The Centennial Song" was written by Bobby Gimby in 1967 to celebrate Canada's centennial and Expo 67, and was commissioned by the Centennial Commission...

", which went on to sell over 500,000 copies. Gimby earned the name the "Pied Piper of Canada". The music for "Ca-na-da" was arranged by Ben McPeek
Ben McPeek
Benjamin Dewey McPeek was a Canadian composer, arranger, conductor, and pianist. In 1964 he established his own company, Ben McPeek Ltd., which promoted himself as a "jingle" writer for radio and television...

, who also composed the music played in the Canadian Pulp and Paper Industry pavilion. In 1971, Gimby granted all future royalties to the Boy Scouts of Canada
Scouts Canada
Scouts Canada is a Canadian Scouting association that, in affiliation with the French-language Association des Scouts du Canada, is a member of the World Organization of the Scout Movement...

.

The theme song "Something to Sing About
Something to Sing About
"Something to Sing About" is a patriotic song written by folk singer Oscar Brand that sings the praises of the many different regions of Canada...

", used for the Canadian pavilion, was initially written for a 1963 television special.

The Ontario pavilion also had its own theme song: "A Place to Stand, A Place to Grow
A Place to Stand, A Place to Grow
A Place to Stand, A Place to Grow was an unofficial anthem of the Canadian province of Ontario. The song was written as the signature tune for a movie of the same name that was featured at the Expo 67 Ontario pavilion....

", which has evolved to become an unofficial theme song for the province.

Expo opens


Official opening ceremonies were held on Thursday afternoon, April 27, 1967. The ceremonies were an invitation-only event, held at Place des Nations. Governor General of Canada Roland Michener
Roland Michener
Daniel Roland Michener , commonly known as Roland Michener, was a Canadian lawyer, politician, and diplomat who served as Governor General of Canada, the 20th since Canadian Confederation....

 proclaimed the exhibition open after the Expo flame was ignited by Prime Minister Pearson. On hand were over 7,000 media and invited guests including 53 heads of state. Over 1,000 reporters covered the event, broadcast in NTSC Colour, live via satellite, to a worldwide audience of over 700 million viewers and listeners.

Expo 67 officially opened to the public on the morning of Friday, April 28, 1967, with a space age
Space Age
The Space Age is a time period encompassing the activities related to the Space Race, space exploration, space technology, and the cultural developments influenced by these events. The Space Age is generally considered to have begun with Sputnik...

 style countdown. A capacity crowd at Place d'Accueil participated in the atomic clock-controlled countdown that ended when the exhibition opened precisely at 9:30 a.m. An estimated crowd of between 310,000 and 335,000 visitors showed up for opening day, as opposed to the expected crowd of 200,000. The first person through the Expo gates at Place d'Accueil was Al Carter, a 41-year-old jazz drummer from Chicago
Chicago
Chicago is the largest city in the US state of Illinois. With nearly 2.7 million residents, it is the most populous city in the Midwestern United States and the third most populous in the US, after New York City and Los Angeles...

, who was recognized for his accomplishment by Expo 67's director of operations Philippe de Gaspé Beaubien. Beaubien presented Carter with a gold watch for his feat.

On opening day, there was considerable comment on the uniform of the hostesses from the UK Pavilion. The dresses had been designed to the then new minidress style, popularised a few years earlier by Mary Quant
Mary Quant
Mary Quant OBE FCSD is a British] fashion designer and British fashion icon, who was instrumental in the mod fashion movement. She was one of the designers who took credit for inventing the miniskirt and hot pants. Born in Blackheath, London, to Welsh parents, Quant brought fun and fantasy to...

. By the middle of the summer, nearly every other pavilion had raised the hem of the uniforms of their hostesses. Canadian women were quick to take to the liberated style of the miniskirt
Miniskirt
A miniskirt, sometimes hyphenated as mini-skirt, is a skirt with a hemline well above the knees – generally no longer than below the buttocks; and a minidress is a dress with a similar meaning...

.

Entertainment, Ed Sullivan Show, and VIPs


The World Festival of Art and Entertainment at Expo 67 featured art galleries, opera, ballet and theatre companies, orchestras, jazz groups, famous Canadian pop musicians and other cultural attractions. Many pavilions had music and performance stages, where visitors could find free concerts and shows. Most of the featured entertainment took place in the following venues: La Place des Arts
Place des Arts
right|frame|View of the Place des Arts esplanade. The Musée d'art contemporain is on the left; behind it is the Salle Wilfrid-Pelletier, with the Théâtre Maisonneuve on the rightPlace des Arts is a major performing arts centre in Montreal, Quebec, Canada....

; Expo Theatre; Place des Nations; La Ronde
La Ronde (amusement park)
La Ronde is an amusement park in Montreal, owned and operated by Six Flags. It is the largest in the province of Quebec and the second largest in Canada after Canada's Wonderland, with about 2.5 million guests in 2006...

 and Automotive Stadium
Autostade
The Autostade was a Canadian football stadium in the Victoriatown neighbourhood of Montreal, Quebec that stood at the north-west corner of the Cité du Havre sector of the Expo 67 site...

.

The La Ronde amusement park
La Ronde (amusement park)
La Ronde is an amusement park in Montreal, owned and operated by Six Flags. It is the largest in the province of Quebec and the second largest in Canada after Canada's Wonderland, with about 2.5 million guests in 2006...

 was always intended to be a lasting legacy of the fair. Most of its rides and booths were permanent. When the Expo fairgrounds closed nightly, at around 10:00 p.m., visitors could still be entertained at La Ronde, which closed at 2:30 a.m.
In addition, The Ed Sullivan Show
The Ed Sullivan Show
The Ed Sullivan Show is an American TV variety show that originally ran on CBS from Sunday June 20, 1948 to Sunday June 6, 1971, and was hosted by New York entertainment columnist Ed Sullivan....

was broadcast live on May 7 and May 21 from Expo 67. Stars on the shows included America's The Supremes
The Supremes
The Supremes, an American female singing group, were the premier act of Motown Records during the 1960s.Originally founded as The Primettes in Detroit, Michigan, in 1959, The Supremes' repertoire included doo-wop, pop, soul, Broadway show tunes, psychedelic soul, and disco...

, Britain's Petula Clark
Petula Clark
Petula Clark, CBE is an English singer, actress, and composer whose career has spanned seven decades.Clark's professional career began as an entertainer on BBC Radio during World War II...

 and Australia's The Seekers
The Seekers
The Seekers are an Australian folk-influenced pop music group which were originally formed in 1962. They were the first Australian popular music group to achieve major chart and sales success in the United Kingdom and the United States...

.

The fair was visited by many of the most notable people of the day including Queen Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom
Elizabeth II is the constitutional monarch of 16 sovereign states known as the Commonwealth realms: the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Jamaica, Barbados, the Bahamas, Grenada, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Tuvalu, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Belize,...

, Lyndon Johnson, Princess Grace
Grace Kelly
Grace Patricia Kelly was an American actress who, in April 1956, married Rainier III, Prince of Monaco, to become Princess consort of Monaco, styled as Her Serene Highness The Princess of Monaco, and commonly referred to as Princess Grace.After embarking on an acting career in 1950, at the age of...

, Jacqueline Kennedy, Robert F. Kennedy
Robert F. Kennedy
Robert Francis "Bobby" Kennedy , also referred to by his initials RFK, was an American politician, a Democratic senator from New York, and a noted civil rights activist. An icon of modern American liberalism and member of the Kennedy family, he was a younger brother of President John F...

, Ethiopia
Ethiopia
Ethiopia , officially known as the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, is a country located in the Horn of Africa. It is the second-most populous nation in Africa, with over 82 million inhabitants, and the tenth-largest by area, occupying 1,100,000 km2...

's leader Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie I of Ethiopia
Haile Selassie I , born Tafari Makonnen, was Ethiopia's regent from 1916 to 1930 and Emperor of Ethiopia from 1930 to 1974...

, Charles de Gaulle
Charles de Gaulle
Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle was a French general and statesman who led the Free French Forces during World War II. He later founded the French Fifth Republic in 1958 and served as its first President from 1959 to 1969....

, Bing Crosby
Bing Crosby
Harry Lillis "Bing" Crosby was an American singer and actor. Crosby's trademark bass-baritone voice made him one of the best-selling recording artists of the 20th century, with over half a billion records in circulation....

, Harry Belafonte
Harry Belafonte
Harold George "Harry" Belafonte, Jr. is an American singer, songwriter, actor and social activist. He was dubbed the "King of Calypso" for popularizing the Caribbean musical style with an international audience in the 1950s...

, Maurice Chevalier
Maurice Chevalier
Maurice Auguste Chevalier was a French actor, singer, entertainer and a noted Sprechgesang performer. He is perhaps best known for his signature songs, including Louise, Mimi, Valentine, and Thank Heaven for Little Girls and for his films including The Love Parade and The Big Pond...

, Maharishi Mahesh Yogi
Maharishi Mahesh Yogi
Maharishi Mahesh Yogi , born Mahesh Prasad Varma , developed the Transcendental Meditation technique and was the leader and guru of the TM movement, characterised as a new religious movement and also as non-religious...

 and Marlene Dietrich
Marlene Dietrich
Marlene Dietrich was a German-American actress and singer.Dietrich remained popular throughout her long career by continually re-inventing herself, professionally and characteristically. In the Berlin of the 1920s, she acted on the stage and in silent films...

. Musicians like Thelonious Monk
Thelonious Monk
Thelonious Sphere Monk was an American jazz pianist and composer considered "one of the giants of American music". Monk had a unique improvisational style and made numerous contributions to the standard jazz repertoire, including "Epistrophy", "'Round Midnight", "Blue Monk", "Straight, No Chaser"...

, Grateful Dead
Grateful Dead
The Grateful Dead was an American rock band formed in 1965 in the San Francisco Bay Area. The band was known for its unique and eclectic style, which fused elements of rock, folk, bluegrass, blues, reggae, country, improvisational jazz, psychedelia, and space rock, and for live performances of long...

, Tiny Tim
Tiny Tim (musician)
Tiny Tim , , born in Manhattan, was an American singer and ukulele player. He was most famous for his rendition of "Tiptoe Through the Tulips" sung in a distinctive high falsetto/vibrato voice.-Rise to fame:Born to Lebanese parents in 1932, Khaury displayed musical talent at a very young age...

, and Jefferson Airplane
Jefferson Airplane
Jefferson Airplane was an American rock band formed in San Francisco in 1965. A pioneer of the psychedelic rock movement, Jefferson Airplane was the first band from the San Francisco scene to achieve mainstream commercial and critical success....

 entertained the crowds.

Themes


Internationalism was an important theme at Expo 67. This was the first time that Canada and more importantly Québec had opened its doors to such a large number of countries. Expo 67 was not strictly a Canadian event but it was located here for the whole world to see. "When the lights go out for the last time, when the crowds have left the pavilions and the avenues, a World Exhibition begins a new life. Less glittering but more profound, this new life is nourished in the souls of those who visited the Exhibition, and it will blossom into a legend for generations to come."

Expo 67 was a complete sign of modernity in Québec. At the tail end of the Quiet Revolution, it was a perfect way to keep the ideas and success of the revolution continuous through the next decade. This event showed exactly what kind of place Québec was going to be in the future. With the political leaders at the time in favor of changes all over Québec, the province was ready for a complete makeover. Being 7 years after the old, conservative Union Nationale had lost power and a string of liberal leaders took over, Québec had been screaming for a chance to show the world who they were. "The cannonade of fireworks which marked the opening of Expo...may in retrospect turn out to have been one of those rare moments that changed the direction of a nation's history...This is the greatest thing we have ever done as a nation and surely the modernization of Canada -- of its skylines, of its styles, its institutions -- will be dated from this occasion and from this fair.... The more you see of it, the more you're overwhelmed by a feeling that if this is possible, that if this little sub-arctic, self-obsessed country of 20,000,000 people can put on this kind of show, then it can do almost anything."

Problems



Despite its successes, there were problems: Front de libération du Québec
Front de libération du Québec
The Front de libération du Québec was a left-wing Quebecois nationalist and Marxist-Leninist paramilitary group in Quebec, Canada. It was active between 1963 and 1970, and was regarded as a terrorist organization for its violent methods of action...

 militants had initially threatened to disrupt the exhibition, but were inactive during this period. Vietnam war protesters picketed during the opening day, April 28. American President
President of the United States
The President of the United States of America is the head of state and head of government of the United States. The president leads the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces....

 Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon Baines Johnson , often referred to as LBJ, was the 36th President of the United States after his service as the 37th Vice President of the United States...

's visit became a focus of war protesters. The Cuba pavilion attracted threats that it would be destroyed by anti-Castro forces that never materialized. In June, the Arab-Israeli conflict  in the Middle East
Middle East
The Middle East is a region that encompasses Western Asia and Northern Africa. It is often used as a synonym for Near East, in opposition to Far East...

 flared up again in the Six Day War, which resulted in Kuwait
Kuwait
The State of Kuwait is a sovereign Arab state situated in the north-east of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia. It is bordered by Saudi Arabia to the south at Khafji, and Iraq to the north at Basra. It lies on the north-western shore of the Persian Gulf. The name Kuwait is derived from the...

 pulling out of the fair in protest to the way Western nations dealt with the war. The president of France, Charles De Gaulle
Charles de Gaulle
Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle was a French general and statesman who led the Free French Forces during World War II. He later founded the French Fifth Republic in 1958 and served as its first President from 1959 to 1969....

, caused an international incident on July 24 when he addressed thousands at Montreal City Hall by yelling out the now famous words "Vive Montréal... Vive le Québec ...Vive le Québec Libre!
Vive le Québec libre speech
"Vive le Québec libre !" was a controversial phrase in a speech delivered by French president Charles de Gaulle in Montreal on July 24, 1967.De Gaulle was in Canada on an official visit under the pretext of attending Expo 67...

"


In September, the most serious problem turned out to be a 30-day transit strike. By the end of July, estimates predicted that Expo would exceed 60 million visitors, but the strike cut deeply into attendance and revenue figures, just as the fair was cruising to its conclusion. Another major problem, beyond the control of Expo's management, was guest accommodation and lodging. Logexpo was created to direct visitors to accommodations in the Montreal area, which usually meant that visitors would stay at the homes of people they were unfamiliar with, rather than traditional hotels or motels. The Montreal populace opened their homes to thousands of guests. Unfortunately for some visitors, they were sometimes sent to less than respectable establishments where operators took full advantage of the tourist trade. Management of Logexpo was refused to Expo and was managed by a Quebec provincial authority. Still, Expo would get most of the blame for directing visitors to these establishments. But overall, a visit to Expo from outside Montreal was still seen as a bargain.

Expo ends


Expo 67 closed on Sunday afternoon, October 29, 1967. On the final day 221,554 visitors added to the more than 50 million (50,306,648) that attended Expo 67 at a time when Canada's population was only 20 million, setting a per-capita record for World Exhibition attendance that still stands.
Starting at 2:00 p.m., Expo Commissioner General Pierre Dupuy officiated over the medal ceremony, in which participating nations and organizations received gold and silver medallions, as well as the ceremony in which national flags were lowered in the reverse order to which they had been raised, with Canada's flag lowered first and Nigeria
Nigeria
Nigeria , officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a federal constitutional republic comprising 36 states and its Federal Capital Territory, Abuja. The country is located in West Africa and shares land borders with the Republic of Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in...

's lowered last. After Prime Minister Pearson doused the Expo flame, Governor General Michener closed Expo at Place des Nations with the mournful spontaneous farewell: "It is with great regret that I declare that the Universal and International Exhibition of 1967 has come to an official end." All rides and the minirail
Minirail
The Minirail was an automated monorail system at Expo 67 in Montreal. The six-mile-long people mover system was composed of two separate loops. A shorter track, which remains in service, takes riders through the LaRonde amusement park...

 were shut down by 3:50 p.m., and the Expo grounds closed at 4:00 p.m., with the last Expo Express train
Montreal Expo Express
The Expo Express was a rapid transit system consisting of five stations and a 5.7-kilometre route. Built for Montreal’s Expo 67 and costing around $18 million, the trains carried 1,000 passengers each and ran approximately every five minutes....

 leaving for Place d'Accueil at that time. A fireworks display, that went on for an hour, was Expo's concluding event.

Expo performed better financially than expected. Expo was intended to have a deficit, shared between the federal, provincial and municipal levels of government. Significantly better-than-expected attendance revenue reduced the debt to well below the original estimates. The final financial statistics, in 1967 Canadian dollars, were: revenues of $221,239,872, costs of $431,904,683, and a deficit of $210,664,811.

Pavilions


Expo 67 featured 90 pavilions representing Man and His World themes, nations, corporations, and industries including the U.S. pavilion
Biosphere
The biosphere is the global sum of all ecosystems. It can also be called the zone of life on Earth, a closed and self-regulating system...

, a geodesic dome
Geodesic dome
A geodesic dome is a spherical or partial-spherical shell structure or lattice shell based on a network of great circles on the surface of a sphere. The geodesics intersect to form triangular elements that have local triangular rigidity and also distribute the stress across the structure. When...

 designed by Buckminster Fuller
Buckminster Fuller
Richard Buckminster “Bucky” Fuller was an American systems theorist, author, designer, inventor, futurist and second president of Mensa International, the high IQ society....

. Expo 67 also featured the Habitat 67 modular housing complex designed by architect Moshe Safdie
Moshe Safdie
Moshe Safdie, CC, FAIA is an architect, urban designer, educator, theorist, and author. Born in the city of Haifa, then Palestine and now Israel, he moved with his family to Montreal, Canada, when he was 15 years old.-Career:...

, which was later purchased by private individuals and is still occupied.

The most popular pavilion was the Soviet Union's exhibit. It attracted about 13 million visitors. Rounding out the top five pavilions, in terms of attendance were: the Canadian Pavilion
Canadian Pavilion
The Canadian Pavilion at Expo 67 was designed by Toronto architects Rod Robbie, Dick Williams and Colin Vaughan. The pavilion featured an inverted pyramid structure as well as a walk through attraction called the "People Tree." The pavilion had its highest single-day attendance on Canada Day , 1967...

 (11 million visitors), the United States (9 million), France (8.5 million), and Czechoslovakia (8 million).

The participating countries were:
  • Africa: Algeria, Cameroun, Chad, Congo, Ivory Coast, Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Kenya, Madagascar, Morocco, Mauritius, Niger, Rwanda, Senegal, Tanzania, Togo, Tunisia, Uganda, and Upper Volta;
  • Asia: Burma, Ceylon, China (Taiwan), Korea, India, Iran, Israel, Japan, Thailand and the United Arab Republic;
  • Australia;
  • Europe: Austria, Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Finland, France, Federal Republic of Germany, Greece, Iceland, Italy, Monaco, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, the USSR, and Yugoslavia;
  • South America & Caribbean: Barbados, Cuba, Grenade, Guyana, Haiti, Jamaica, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela;
  • North America: Canada, Mexico, and the United States.


Some absent countries were Spain, South Africa (banned from BIE-sanctioned events due to its apartheid policy), the People's Republic of China and many countries of South America.

Legacy


After 1967, the site struggled for years as a standing collection of international pavilions known as "Man and His World." However, as attendance declined, the physical condition of the site deteriorated, and less and less of it was open to the public. In 1975 the Île Notre-Dame section of the site was completely rebuilt around the new rowing
Rowing at the 1976 Summer Olympics
Rowing at the 1976 Summer Olympics in Montreal featured races in 14 events, all held at the rowing basin on Île Notre-Dame. Women's events held at 1000 m debuted ....

 and canoe sprint
Canoeing at the 1976 Summer Olympics
Canoeing at the 1976 Summer Olympics in Montreal, Canada consisted of 11 events, all in canoe sprint, held at the rowing basin on Île Notre-Dame. The canoe slalom events introduced at the previous Games in Munich were not included in the Montreal program though four 500 m events for men were...

 (then flatwater canoeing
Canoe racing
This article discusses canoe sprint and canoe marathon, competitive forms of canoeing and kayaking on more or less flat water. Both sports are governed by the International Canoe Federation ....

) basin for Montreal's 1976 Summer Olympics
1976 Summer Olympics
The 1976 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXI Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event celebrated in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, in 1976. Montreal was awarded the rights to the 1976 Games on May 12, 1970, at the 69th IOC Session in Amsterdam, over the bids of Moscow and...

. Space for the basin, the boathouses, the changing rooms and other buildings was obtained by demolishing many of the former pavilions and cutting in half the area taken by the artificial lake and the canals. In 1976, a fire destroyed the acrylic outer skin of Buckminster Fuller
Buckminster Fuller
Richard Buckminster “Bucky” Fuller was an American systems theorist, author, designer, inventor, futurist and second president of Mensa International, the high IQ society....

's dome. With the site falling into disrepair, it began to resemble ruins of a futuristic city. In the late 1970s, scenes for Robert Altman
Robert Altman
Robert Bernard Altman was an American film director and screenwriter known for making films that are highly naturalistic, but with a stylized perspective. In 2006, the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences recognized his body of work with an Academy Honorary Award.His films MASH , McCabe and...

's post-apocalyptic ice age film Quintet
Quintet (film)
Quintet is a post-apocalyptic science fiction film by Robert Altman produced in 1979. It features among others Paul Newman, Brigitte Fossey, Bibi Andersson, Fernando Rey, Vittorio Gassman and Nina Van Pallandt....

were shot on site, as was the "Greetings from Earth" episode of Battlestar Galactica
Battlestar Galactica (1978 TV series)
Battlestar Galactica is an American science fiction television series, created by Glen A. Larson. It starred Lorne Greene, Richard Hatch and Dirk Benedict and ran for one season in 1978–79. After cancellation, its story was continued in 1980 as Galactica 1980 with Adama, Lieutenant Boomer and...

, which portrayed it as the ruins of a city left behind after a biological attack. The music video for the song Ghost Town by Cheap Trick
Cheap Trick
Cheap Trick is an American rock band from Rockford, Illinois, formed in 1973. The band consists of members Robin Zander , Rick Nielsen , Tom Petersson , and Bun E...

 was also shot on this site. Some of the footage showing the United Kingdom pavilion was reused in Buck Rogers
Buck Rogers in the 25th Century (TV series)
Buck Rogers in the 25th Century is an American science fiction adventure television series produced by Universal Studios. The series ran for two seasons between 1979–1981, and the feature-length pilot episode for the series was released as a theatrical film several months before the series aired....

. Minor thematic exhibitions were held at the Atlantic pavilion and Quebec pavilion, until the Montreal Casino was built. The remaining original exhibits of the site closed for good in 1982.

After the Man and his World exhibition was discontinued, the former site for Expo 67 on Île Sainte-Hélène and Île Notre-Dame
Île Notre-Dame
Île Notre-Dame is an artificial island built in 10 months from 15 million tons of rock excavated for the Montreal Metro in 1965. It was created for Expo 67 to celebrate Canada's centennial. The island is part of the city of Montreal and forms part of the Hochelaga Archipelago...

 has been incorporated into a municipal park run by the city of Montreal. In the year 2000, the park was renamed from Parc des Îles to Parc Jean-Drapeau
Parc Jean-Drapeau
Parc Jean-Drapeau is situated to the east of downtown Montreal, Quebec, Canada, in the Saint Lawrence River. It comprises two islands, Saint Helen's Island and the artificial island Île Notre-Dame....

, after the mayor that brought the exhibition to Montreal. In 2006, the corporation that runs the park also changed its name from the Société du parc des Îles to the Société du parc Jean-Drapeau. Two prominent buildings remaining in use on the Expo grounds are the surviving metal-lattice skeleton of the Buckminster Fuller dome (now enclosing an environmental sciences museum called Biosphère
Biosphere
The biosphere is the global sum of all ecosystems. It can also be called the zone of life on Earth, a closed and self-regulating system...

) and the Habitat 67 residences. Also, the French and Quebec pavilions now form the Montreal Casino
Montreal Casino
The Casino de Montréal is a casino located on the Île Notre-Dame in Montreal, Quebec. It is the largest casino in Canada, and one of the largest casinos in the world. The casino is open twenty-four hours a day, seven days a week to patrons aged 18 and older. It opened October 9, 1993.-Features:The...

. La Toundra Hall is part of the surviving structural remains of the Canadian pavilion. It is now a restaurant and special events hall. Another part of the pavilion now serves as the administration building of Parc Jean-Drapeau
Parc Jean-Drapeau
Parc Jean-Drapeau is situated to the east of downtown Montreal, Quebec, Canada, in the Saint Lawrence River. It comprises two islands, Saint Helen's Island and the artificial island Île Notre-Dame....

. Katimavik's distinctive inverted pyramid and much of the rest of the Canadian pavilion were dismantled during the 1970s. The Jamaican pavilion was recently rebuilt, and Place des Nations, where the opening and closing ceremonies were held, also survives. A part of the Korean pavilion remains as a shelter for the bus route that connects the Montreal Casino with the island's metro station. Additionally, the former Tunisian Pavilion exists as a City of Montreal/Parc Jean Drapeau administration and logistics center. It is within the vicinity of the Cosmos Bridge, which connects Île Sainte-Hélène to Île Notre-Dame. The bridge linked the two islands and at either end were the American and Soviet Pavilions respectively. Other remaining structures include sculptures, lampposts and landscaping. The Montreal Metro
Montreal Metro
The Montreal Metro is a rubber-tired metro system, and the main form of public transportation underground in the city of Montreal, Quebec, Canada....

 subway still has at least one "Man and His World" logo on a station's wall. La Ronde survives and is expanding. In 2001 it was leased to the New York amusement park company Six Flags
Six Flags
Six Flags Entertainment Corp. is the world's largest amusement park corporation based on quantity of properties and the fifth most popular in terms of attendance. The company maintains 14 properties located throughout North America, including theme parks, thrill parks, water parks and family...

.
The Alcan Aquarium built for the Expo remained in operation for a couple of decades until its closure in 1991. The Expo parking lot was converted into Victoria STOLport
Victoria STOLport
Victoria STOLport was a Short Take-Off and Landing aerodrome near downtown Montreal during the mid 1970s. The STOLport had been constructed on the former parking lot for Expo 67...

, a short-take off airport for several years.

Another attraction on today's Île Notre-Dame site is the Circuit Gilles Villeneuve
Circuit Gilles Villeneuve
The Circuit Gilles Villeneuve is a motor racing circuit, venue for the Formula One Canadian Grand Prix, NASCAR Canadian Tire Series, NASCAR Nationwide Series and Grand-Am Rolex Sports Car Series....

 race track that was used for the Canadian Grand Prix
Canadian Grand Prix
The Canadian Grand Prix , abbreviated as gpc, is an annual auto race held in Canada starting in 1961. It has been part of the Formula One World Championship since 1967...

. The Olympic basin is used today by many local rowing clubs. A recently built beach on the shores of the remaining artificial lake, has been very popular during the summer months. There are many acres of parkland and cycle paths on both Île Sainte-Hélène and the western tip of Île Notre-Dame. In previous years the site has been used for a number of events such as a BIE sponsored international botanical festival, Les floralies. The young trees and shrubs planted for Expo 67 are now mature. The plants introduced during the botanical events have flourished also. In the warmest weeks of the summer the two islands are cool, leafy havens compared to the overheated city. In the winter, brave Montrealers skate on the frozen Olympic basin, whipped by the glacial winds coming from the Saint Lawrence River
Saint Lawrence River
The Saint Lawrence is a large river flowing approximately from southwest to northeast in the middle latitudes of North America, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean. It is the primary drainage conveyor of the Great Lakes Basin...

.

In a political and cultural context, Expo 67 was seen as a landmark moment in Canadian history. As the Montreal Star
Montreal Star
The Montreal Star was an English-language Canadian newspaper published in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. It folded in 1979 following an eight-month pressmen's strike....

described it: "the most staggering Canadian achievement since this vast land was finally linked by a transcontinental railway". In 1969, as a salute to the cultural impact the exhibition had on the city, Montreal's new Major League baseball
Baseball
Baseball is a bat-and-ball sport played between two teams of nine players each. The aim is to score runs by hitting a thrown ball with a bat and touching a series of four bases arranged at the corners of a ninety-foot diamond...

 team, the Expos
Montreal Expos
The Montreal Expos were a Major League Baseball team located in Montreal, Quebec from 1969 through 2004, holding the first MLB franchise awarded outside the United States. After the 2004 season, MLB moved the Expos to Washington, D.C. and renamed them the Nationals.Named after the Expo 67 World's...

, was named after the event. 1967 was also the year that invited Expo guest Charles De Gaulle
Charles de Gaulle
Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle was a French general and statesman who led the Free French Forces during World War II. He later founded the French Fifth Republic in 1958 and served as its first President from 1959 to 1969....

, on July 24, addressed thousands at Montreal City Hall by yelling out the now famous words: "Vive Montréal... Vive le Québec... Vive le Québec Libre!" (See Vive le Québec libre speech
Vive le Québec libre speech
"Vive le Québec libre !" was a controversial phrase in a speech delivered by French president Charles de Gaulle in Montreal on July 24, 1967.De Gaulle was in Canada on an official visit under the pretext of attending Expo 67...

). De Gaulle was rebutted in Ottawa
Ottawa
Ottawa is the capital of Canada, the second largest city in the Province of Ontario, and the fourth largest city in the country. The city is located on the south bank of the Ottawa River in the eastern portion of Southern Ontario...

 by Prime Minister Lester B. Pearson
Lester B. Pearson
Lester Bowles "Mike" Pearson, PC, OM, CC, OBE was a Canadian professor, historian, civil servant, statesman, diplomat, and politician, who won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1957 for organizing the United Nations Emergency Force to resolve the Suez Canal Crisis...

: "Canadians do not need to be liberated, Canada will remain united and will reject any effort to destroy her unity". In the years that followed, the tensions between the English and French communities would continue. As a contemporary homage to the fair, satirists Bowser and Blue
Bowser and Blue
George Bowser and Rick Blue, better known as Bowser and Blue, are a musical duo from Quebec, Canada who write and perform comedic songs...

 wrote a full-length musical set at Expo 67 called "The Paris of America" which ran for six sold-out weeks at Centaur Theatre in Montreal in April and May 2003. Also, the song "Purple Toupee
Purple Toupee
-Track listing:# "Purple Toupee"# "Hey, Mr. DJ, I Thought You Said We Had A Deal"# "Lady Is A Tramp"# "Birds Fly"The latter three tracks would later be included on Miscellaneous T.- External links :*Purple Toupee EP on This Might Be A Wiki...

" by They Might Be Giants
They Might Be Giants
They Might Be Giants is an American alternative rock band formed in 1982 by John Flansburgh and John Linnell. During TMBG's early years Flansburgh and Linnell were frequently accompanied by a drum machine. In the early 1990s, TMBG became a full band. Currently, the members of TMBG are...

 contains the line "I shouted out 'Free the Expo 67!'" In The Simpsons
The Simpsons
The Simpsons is an American animated sitcom created by Matt Groening for the Fox Broadcasting Company. The series is a satirical parody of a middle class American lifestyle epitomized by its family of the same name, which consists of Homer, Marge, Bart, Lisa and Maggie...

 episode "She Used to Be My Girl
She Used to Be My Girl
"She Used to Be My Girl" is the fourth episode from the sixteenth season of the animated TV series The Simpsons. It features actress Kim Cattrall from Sex and the City. It was the last episode to-date animated by Toonzone Entertainment.-Plot:...

" (2004), when Homer is trying to convince Marge she led a good life, one of the things he mentions is that she has a "TV tray from Expo 67."

Expo 67 was one of the most successful World Exhibitions and is still regarded fondly by Canadians. Some even consider it to be one of the biggest events of the 20th century. 1967 is often referred to as "the last good year" before economic decline, Quebec sovereigntism (seen as negative from a federalist viewpoint), and political apathy became common. In this way, it has much in common with the 1964-65 New York World's Fair
1964 New York World's Fair
The 1964/1965 New York World's Fair was the third major world's fair to be held in New York City. Hailing itself as a "universal and international" exposition, the fair's theme was "Peace Through Understanding," dedicated to "Man's Achievement on a Shrinking Globe in an Expanding Universe";...

. In 2007, a new group, Expo 17
Expo 17
Expo 17 is a Canadian non-profit organization founded in 2005 to promote an international exposition, or world's fair, to celebrate the sesquicentennial of Canada in 2017. In 2007, the organization publicly unveiled a 51-page proposal for a "hybrid" expo, named Expo 17, to be staged on the...

, is looking to bring a smaller-scale – BIE sanctioned
Bureau of International Expositions
The International Exhibitions Bureau is an intergovernmental organization created to supervise international exhibitions falling under the jurisdiction of the Convention Relating to International Exhibitions....

 – exposition to Montreal for the 50th anniversary of Expo 67 and Canada's Sesquicentennial(2017). Expo 17
Expo 17
Expo 17 is a Canadian non-profit organization founded in 2005 to promote an international exposition, or world's fair, to celebrate the sesquicentennial of Canada in 2017. In 2007, the organization publicly unveiled a 51-page proposal for a "hybrid" expo, named Expo 17, to be staged on the...

 hopes a new World's Fair will regenerate the spirit of Canada's landmark centennial project.

See also

  • 1967 in Canada
    1967 in Canada
    1967 is remembered as one of the most notable years in Canada. It was Canada's centenary and celebrations were held throughout the nation. The most prominent event was Expo 67 in Montreal, the most successful World's Fair ever and one of the first events to win international acclaim for the country...

  • 67 X
    67 X
    The 67 X is a Canadian-built automobile that was designed and manufactured by George Barris for Canada's Expo 67, where they were raffled off in a contest. Only 4 of these vehicles were ever made but they included swiveling seats, a sofa, and even a refrigeration unit, with an overall sleek-looking...

  • A Centennial Song
  • Alfa Romeo Montreal
    Alfa Romeo Montreal
    The Alfa Romeo Montreal is a 2+2 coupé automobile produced by the Italian manufacturer Alfa Romeo from 1970 to 1977.-Concept car:The Alfa Romeo Montreal was introduced as a concept car in 1967 at Expo 67, held in Montreal, Canada. Originally, the concept cars were displayed without any model name,...

    , a concept car first shown during Expo 67 and later mass-produced
  • Canadian National Exhibition
    Canadian National Exhibition
    Canadian National Exhibition , also known as The Ex, is an annual event that takes place at Exhibition Place in Toronto, Ontario, Canada during the 18 days leading up to and including Labour Day Monday. With an attendance of approximately 1.3 million visitors each season, it is Canada’s largest...

     and the Pacific National Exhibition
    Pacific National Exhibition
    The Pacific National Exhibition is a non profit organization which hosts an annual 17-day summer fair, seasonal amusement park, and arena in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. It usually begins in mid-to-late August, and ends in early September, usually Labour Day.-History:The exhibition has been...

    , held annually
  • Expo 67 pavilions
  • Expo '86, held in Vancouver in 1986
  • List of world's fairs
  • Ontario Place
    Ontario Place
    Ontario Place is a multiple use entertainment and seasonal waterfront park attraction located in Toronto, Ontario, and owned by the Crown in Right of Ontario. It is administered as an agency of the Ontario Ministry of Tourism and Culture. Located on the shore of Lake Ontario, just south of...

    , a Toronto waterfront park created in the 1970s in a style similar to Expo 67
  • Montreal Biosphère
    Montreal Biosphère
    The Biosphère is a museum in Montreal dedicated to the environment. It is located at Parc Jean-Drapeau, on Île Sainte-Hélène in the former pavilion of the United States for the 1967 World Fair Expo 67.- Expo 67 :...


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