European Council on Foreign Relations

European Council on Foreign Relations

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The European Council on Foreign Relations (ECFR) is the first pan-European
Pan-European identity
Pan-European identity refers to the sense of personal identification with Europe. The most concrete examples of pan-europeanism are the European Union and the older Council of Europe...

 think tank
Think tank
A think tank is an organization that conducts research and engages in advocacy in areas such as social policy, political strategy, economics, military, and technology issues. Most think tanks are non-profit organizations, which some countries such as the United States and Canada provide with tax...

. Launched in October 2007, its objective is to conduct research and promote informed debate across Europe on the development of coherent and effective European values based foreign policy
Foreign policy
A country's foreign policy, also called the foreign relations policy, consists of self-interest strategies chosen by the state to safeguard its national interests and to achieve its goals within international relations milieu. The approaches are strategically employed to interact with other countries...

.

ECFR's founding members include former European prime ministers, business leaders, public intellectuals and activists. It has offices in seven European capitals – Berlin
Berlin
Berlin is the capital city of Germany and is one of the 16 states of Germany. With a population of 3.45 million people, Berlin is Germany's largest city. It is the second most populous city proper and the seventh most populous urban area in the European Union...

, London
London
London is the capital city of :England and the :United Kingdom, the largest metropolitan area in the United Kingdom, and the largest urban zone in the European Union by most measures. Located on the River Thames, London has been a major settlement for two millennia, its history going back to its...

, Madrid
Madrid
Madrid is the capital and largest city of Spain. The population of the city is roughly 3.3 million and the entire population of the Madrid metropolitan area is calculated to be 6.271 million. It is the third largest city in the European Union, after London and Berlin, and its metropolitan...

, Paris
Paris
Paris is the capital and largest city in France, situated on the river Seine, in northern France, at the heart of the Île-de-France region...

, Rome
Rome
Rome is the capital of Italy and the country's largest and most populated city and comune, with over 2.7 million residents in . The city is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, on the Tiber River within the Lazio region of Italy.Rome's history spans two and a half...

, Warsaw
Warsaw
Warsaw is the capital and largest city of Poland. It is located on the Vistula River, roughly from the Baltic Sea and from the Carpathian Mountains. Its population in 2010 was estimated at 1,716,855 residents with a greater metropolitan area of 2,631,902 residents, making Warsaw the 10th most...

 and Sofia
Sofia
Sofia is the capital and largest city of Bulgaria and the 12th largest city in the European Union with a population of 1.27 million people. It is located in western Bulgaria, at the foot of Mount Vitosha and approximately at the centre of the Balkan Peninsula.Prehistoric settlements were excavated...

 – and is led by its Director, Mark Leonard and CEO Dick Oosting. ECFR’s Council brings together over 140 prominent and influential Europeans from 27 countries.

Awards and recognition


ECFR was named "Best New Think Tank in the World" for 2009 and 2010 by the University of Pennsylvania in its annual Global "Go-To Think-Tanks" report. In November 2010, ECFR was named “Best British-based think tank dealing with non-British affairs” at Prospect Magazine
Prospect (magazine)
Prospect is a monthly British general interest magazine, specialising in politics and current affairs. Frequent topics include British, European, and US politics, social issues, art, literature, cinema, science, the media, history, philosophy, and psychology...

’s Think Tank of the Year Award.

In 2011, the academic responsible for compiling the University of Pennsylvania rankings, Dr James G. McGann, wrote in a book on global think tanks: “The fact that ECFR attempts to pursue policy advice and research through a pan-European focus means that it is free from the national restrictions of operating with one particular state framework in mind. In this sense, it is able to prescribe solutions and recommendations that benefit Europe as a whole and perhaps to a much greater extent than if they had done so with only, for example, the interests of Germany or France in mind. A framework that incorporates all the various workings and desires of each of the affected actors is far more likely to be successful from a long-term standpoint than one that attempts to resolve a regional or global issue by pushing for a solution that only benefits or alleviates the concerns of an individual state.”

The Council


ECFR’s Council currently has over 160 members, each serving a renewable three-year term. The membership includes four former presidents of European nations, 12 former prime ministers, seven current and 17 former foreign ministers, five former EU commissioners, three former NATO secretaries general, the Director General of the World Trade Organisation, eight senior UN officials, 33 current or former heads of civil society organisations, 22 current or retired professors, nine current or former heads of banks and 15 current or retired journalists.
The Council meets once a year as a full body. In addition, groups of council members form various geographical and thematic task forces, which provide ECFR staff with advice and feedback on policy ideas and assist with ECFR’s activities within their own countries. The Council is chaired by Martii Ahtisaari, Joschka Fischer
Joschka Fischer
Joseph Martin "Joschka" Fischer is a German politician of the Alliance '90/The Greens. He served as Foreign Minister and Vice Chancellor of Germany in the cabinet of Gerhard Schröder from 1998 to 2005...

 and Mabel van Oranje.
ECFR’s board members are: Martti Ahtisaari
Martti Ahtisaari
Martti Oiva Kalevi Ahtisaari is a Finnish politician, the tenth President of Finland , Nobel Peace Prize laureate and United Nations diplomat and mediator, noted for his international peace work....

, Emma Bonino
Emma Bonino
Emma Bonino is an Italian politician, former Member of the European Parliament and current Member of the Italian Senate. She is a leading member of the Italian Radicals, a political party that supports economic and social libertarianism, and human rights...

, Joschka Fischer, Timothy Garton Ash
Timothy Garton Ash
Timothy Garton Ash is a British historian, author and commentator. He is currently serving as Professor of European Studies at Oxford University. Much of his work has been concerned with the late modern and contemporary history of Central and Eastern Europe...

, Ivan Krastev
Ivan Krastev
Ivan Krastev is the Editor-in-Chief of the Bulgarian Edition of Foreign Policy, and Chairman of the Centre for Liberal Strategies in Sofia, Bulgaria. Since 2004 Mr. Krastev has been the executive director of the International Commission on the Balkans chaired by the former Italian Prime Minister...

, Andrew Puddephatt, Aleksander Smolar, Javier Solana
Javier Solana
Francisco Javier Solana de Madariaga, KOGF is a Spanish physicist and Socialist politician. After serving in the Spanish government under Felipe González and Secretary General of NATO , he was appointed the European Union's High Representative for Common Foreign and Security Policy, Secretary...

 and Mabel van Oranje.

Programmes, publications and events


The think tank’s research is broadly divided into three programmes. These are China, Wider Europe and Rule of Law, Democracy and Human Rights. As of early 2011, ECFR is developing Middle East and North Africa programme. ECFR’s fellows regularly also publish policy papers and articles on subjects that fall outside of these parameters, for example on the euro crisis. ECFR also has a major ongoing project entitled Germany in Europe.
ECFR publishes individual policy reports, briefs and memos, which are downloadable for free from the think tank’s website. It also has three regular publications, the annual European Foreign Policy Scorecard, started in 2011; China Analysis (quarterly) and the annual review of the EU and human rights at the UN.
ECFR’s six national offices hold regular events, including seminars, ginger groups and publication launches, including ECFR London’s invitation-only ‘Black Coffee Mornings,’ at which guest speakers have included Louise Arbour, Joseph Nye and George Robertson.

China


This programme explores how the EU could pursue more effective strategies in its relations with China on global issues like energy and climate change; development and human rights; nuclear proliferation and global governance.
The programme publishes China Analysis, a quarterly analytical survey of foreign policy news and debate within China, in conjunction with Asia Centre.

Wider Europe


The Wider Europe programme examines the EU’s relationships with its eastern neighbours, including Russia and Turkey. It examines what can be done to use the prospect of EU membership and economic, military and political cooperation to promote democracy, human rights and the rule of law, resolve frozen conflicts and lessen the threat of energy dependence.

Rule of Law, Democracy and Human Rights


The purpose of this programme is to look at how the EU and its member states can best promote the values of democracy, human rights and justice across the spectrum of Europe's engagement with the world. A central part of the programme’s work is aimed at elaborating a strategy for supporting human rights and democracy in a world where the West no longer enjoys the power and influence that it once did.
The programme publishes an annual review of the EU and human rights at the UN.

Middle East and North Africa


ECFR’s Middle East and North Africa programme is currently under formation. Its central purpose is to look at how Europe can most constructively respond to the revolutions and protests that began in the MENA region in early 2011. To date, ECFR has published three policy memos – one on each of Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia – under the umbrella of the MENA programme, which are based on research visits to these countries. It has also published a briefing on Libya.

Germany in Europe


ECFR’s Germany in Europe project is intended to promote a broad discussion, in Germany and beyond, about the German role in Europe. It is intended to generate ideas about how to reintegrate Germany into the process of developing a globally assertive and responsible Europe. The project is supported by Stiftung Mercator.

The European Foreign Policy Scorecard


ECFR’s European Foreign Policy Scorecard 2010 was published in March 2011, and is the first in an annual series, representing the first systematic attempt to assess European foreign policy performance. The Scorecard grades Europe’s ability to project its influence abroad across 80 policy issues, grouped into six chapters – relations with China, relations with the US, relations with Russia, relations with Wider Europe, multilateral issues and crisis management. The Scorecard was published as a hard copy report and in online form, housed within ECFR’s main website.

Funding


ECFR is a private not-for-profit organisation that relies on donations. It was established with the support of Open Society Foundations, Communitas Foundation and Fundación Para las Relaciones Internacionales y el Diálogo Exterior (FRIDE). Its partners and funders are foundations, corporations, governments and individuals.

Communications


ECFR publishes several comment and analysis pieces per week on foreign policy issues on its website. The site also houses a blog, ‘Whose World Order?’, on which ECFR staff and experts write about the organisation’s work, international affairs and Europe’s place in the world. ECFR also publishes regular podcasts in English and occasional podcasts in French, German, Italian and Spanish. ECFR’s Madrid office has its own Spanish-language blog. ECFR has a Facebook page and Twitter feed, which is @ECFRheadlines.

Board and Council Members


The Council on Foreign Relations meets twice a year to discuss how to advance its objectives through innovative projects with a pan-European focus. The current board of the Council is: Martti Ahtisaari
Martti Ahtisaari
Martti Oiva Kalevi Ahtisaari is a Finnish politician, the tenth President of Finland , Nobel Peace Prize laureate and United Nations diplomat and mediator, noted for his international peace work....

 (co-chair), Emma Bonino
Emma Bonino
Emma Bonino is an Italian politician, former Member of the European Parliament and current Member of the Italian Senate. She is a leading member of the Italian Radicals, a political party that supports economic and social libertarianism, and human rights...

, Joschka Fischer
Joschka Fischer
Joseph Martin "Joschka" Fischer is a German politician of the Alliance '90/The Greens. He served as Foreign Minister and Vice Chancellor of Germany in the cabinet of Gerhard Schröder from 1998 to 2005...

 (co-chair), Karin Forseke
Karin Forseke
Karin Forseke is a Swedish businesswoman and was CEO of the Swedish investment bank D. Carnegie & Co between 2003 and 2006. She became CEO in March 2003, when Lars Bertmar resigned his position as CEO to became Chairman of the company. She resigned in March 2006, being replaced by Stig Vilhelmson...

, Timothy Garton Ash
Timothy Garton Ash
Timothy Garton Ash is a British historian, author and commentator. He is currently serving as Professor of European Studies at Oxford University. Much of his work has been concerned with the late modern and contemporary history of Central and Eastern Europe...

, Ivan Krastev, Andrew Puddephatt, Aleksander Smolar, Javier Solana
Javier Solana
Francisco Javier Solana de Madariaga, KOGF is a Spanish physicist and Socialist politician. After serving in the Spanish government under Felipe González and Secretary General of NATO , he was appointed the European Union's High Representative for Common Foreign and Security Policy, Secretary...

 and Mabel van Oranje (co-chair).

What Council Members have said about ECFR:

"The European Council on Foreign Relations is essential in creating channels for open debate in Europe. ECFR promotes the need for Europe to become an important, unified, courageous, innovative and coherent actor. I regard ECFR as pivotal in promoting this vision in a globalising world."
Martti Ahtisaari
Martti Ahtisaari
Martti Oiva Kalevi Ahtisaari is a Finnish politician, the tenth President of Finland , Nobel Peace Prize laureate and United Nations diplomat and mediator, noted for his international peace work....



"The time has come for Europe to speak with one voice on key issues in our turbulent neighbourhood and an increasingly multi-polar world. ECFR helps us work out what we should say and how we can most effectively say it."
Timothy Garton Ash
Timothy Garton Ash
Timothy Garton Ash is a British historian, author and commentator. He is currently serving as Professor of European Studies at Oxford University. Much of his work has been concerned with the late modern and contemporary history of Central and Eastern Europe...



"The European Union has been a powerful example for integration, prolonged peace, and prosperity in a complex international environment. The international system of the 21st century needs a strong and united EU and ECFR makes an important contribution to this end."
Joschka Fischer
Joschka Fischer
Joseph Martin "Joschka" Fischer is a German politician of the Alliance '90/The Greens. He served as Foreign Minister and Vice Chancellor of Germany in the cabinet of Gerhard Schröder from 1998 to 2005...



The Council has over one hundred members, including former prime ministers, presidents, European commissioners, current and former parliamentarians and ministers, public intellectuals, business leaders, activists and cultural figures from the EU member states and candidate countries.

List of Council Members (correct as of July 2011)
  1. Asger Aamund (Denmark) - President and CEO, A. J. Aamund A/S and Chairman of Bavarian Nordic A/S
  2. Urban Ahlin
    Urban Ahlin
    Urban Christian Ahlin is a Swedish Social Democratic Party politician. He has been a member of the Swedish parliament since 1994, representing the Västra Götaland County East constituency...

    (Sweden) - Deputy Chairman of the Foreign Affairs Committee and foreign policy spokesperson for the Social Democratic Party
  3. Martti Ahtisaari
    Martti Ahtisaari
    Martti Oiva Kalevi Ahtisaari is a Finnish politician, the tenth President of Finland , Nobel Peace Prize laureate and United Nations diplomat and mediator, noted for his international peace work....

    (Finland) - Chairman of the Board, Crisis Management Initiative; former President
  4. Giuliano Amato
    Giuliano Amato
    Giuliano Amato is an Italian politician. He was Prime Minister of Italy twice, first from 1992 to 1993 and then from 2000 to 2001. He was more recently Vice President of the Convention on the Future of Europe that drafted the new European Constitution and headed the Amato Group. He is commonly...

    (Italy) - former Prime Minister and vice President of the European Convention
  5. Gustavo de Aristegui (Spain) - Member of Parliament
  6. Gordon Bajnai (Hungary) - Former Prime Minister
  7. Dora Bakoyannis
    Dora Bakoyannis
    Dora Bakoyannis , born Theodora Mitsotaki , is a Greek politician. From 2006 to 2009 she was Minister of Foreign Affairs of Greece, the highest position ever held by a woman in the Cabinet of Greece; she was also Chairperson-in-Office of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe in...

    (Greece) - MP; former Foreign Minister
  8. Leszek Balcerowicz (Poland) - Professor, Warsaw School of Economics; former Deputy Prime Minister and Finance Minister
  9. Lluís Bassets (Spain) - Deputy Director, El País
  10. Marek Belka
    Marek Belka
    Marek Marian Belka is a Polish professor of Economics, a former Prime Minister and Finance Minister of Poland, former Director of the International Monetary Fund's European Department and current Head of National Bank of Poland.- Biography :...

    (Poland) - Governor, National Bank of Poland; former Prime Minister
  11. Roland Berger
    Roland Berger
    -References:...

    (Germany) - Founder and Honorary Chairman, Roland Berger Strategy Consultants GmbH
  12. Erik Berglöf (Sweden) - Chief Economist, European Bank for Reconstruction and Development
  13. Jan Krzysztof Bielecki
    Jan Krzysztof Bielecki
    Jan Krzysztof Bielecki is a Polish centre politician. He served as Prime Minister of Poland for most of 1991. He is a member of Civic Platform. Chairman of the Council of the Polish Institute of International Affairs....

    (Poland) - Chairman, Prime Minister's Economic Council; former Prime Minister
  14. Carl Bildt
    Carl Bildt
    , Honorary KCMG is a Swedish politician, diplomat and nobleman. Formerly Prime Minister of Sweden from 1991 to 1994 and leader of the liberal conservative Moderate Party from 1986 to 1999, Bildt has served as Swedish Minister for Foreign Affairs since 6 October 2006...

    (Sweden) - Foreign Minister
  15. Henryka Bochniarz (Poland) - President, Polish Confederation of Private Employers - Lewiaton.
  16. Svetoslav Bojilov (Bulgaria) - Founder, Communitas Foundation and President of Venture Equity Bulgaria Ltd
  17. Emma Bonino
    Emma Bonino
    Emma Bonino is an Italian politician, former Member of the European Parliament and current Member of the Italian Senate. She is a leading member of the Italian Radicals, a political party that supports economic and social libertarianism, and human rights...

    (Italy) - Vice President of the Senate; former EU Commissioner
  18. Han ten Broeke
    Han ten Broeke
    Johannes Hermanus ten Broeke is a Dutch politician. As a member of the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy he has been an MP since November 30, 2006...

    (The Netherlands) - Member of Parliament
  19. John Bruton
    John Bruton
    John Gerard Bruton is an Irish politician who served as Taoiseach of Ireland from 1994 to 1997. A minister under two taoisigh, Liam Cosgrave and Garret FitzGerald, Bruton held a number of the top posts in Irish government, including Minister for Finance , and Minister for Industry, Trade,...

    (Ireland) - former European Commission Ambassador to the USA; former Prime Minister (Taoiseach)
  20. Ian Buruma
    Ian Buruma
    Buruma is a nephew of the English film director John Schlesinger, a series of interviews with whom he published in book form.-Works:*The Japanese Tattoo with Donald Richie ISBN 978-0-8348-0228-5...

    (The Netherlands) - Writer and academic
  21. Erhard Busek
    Erhard Busek
    Erhard Busek is a politician from the Christian-conservative People's Party . At present he is Coordinator of the South-Eastern Cooperative Initiative and Chairman of the Institute for Danube Region and Central Europe among other things.Busek was chief of the party and Vice-Chancellor of Austria...

    (Austria) - Chairman of the Institute for the Danube and Central Europe
  22. Jerzy Buzek
    Jerzy Buzek
    Jerzy Karol Buzek is a Polish engineer, academic lecturer and politician who was the ninth post-Cold War Prime Minister of Poland from 1997 to 2001...

    (Poland) - President of the European Parliament; former Prime Minister
  23. Gunilla Carlsson
    Gunilla Carlsson
    Anna Gunilla Carlsson is a Swedish Moderate Party politician, since 2006 Minister for Development Cooperation and a member of the Riksdag and deputy chairman of her party.- Early life :...

    (Sweden) - Minister for International Development Cooperation
  24. Manuel Castells
    Manuel Castells
    Manuel Castells is a sociologist especially associated with information society and communication research....

    (Spain) - Professor, Universitat Oberta de Catalunya and University of Southern California
  25. Maria Livanos Cattaui (Greece/Switzerland) - former Secretary General of the International Chamber of Commerce
  26. Ipek Cem Taha (Turkey) - Director of Melak Investments; journalist
  27. Carmen Chacón (Spain) - Minister of Defence
  28. Charles Clarke
    Charles Clarke
    Charles Rodway Clarke is a British Labour Party politician, who was the Member of Parliament for Norwich South from 1997 until 2010, and served as Home Secretary from December 2004 until May 2006.-Early life:...

    (United Kingdom) - Visiting Professor of Politics, University of East Anglia; former Home Secretary
  29. Nicola Clase (Sweden) - Ambassador to the United Kingdom; former State Secretary
  30. Daniel Cohn-Bendit
    Daniel Cohn-Bendit
    Daniel Marc Cohn-Bendit is a Franco-German politician, active in both countries. He was a student leader during the unrest of May 1968 in France and he was also known during that time as Dany le Rouge...

    (Germany) - Member of European Parliament
  31. Robert Cooper (United Kingdom) - Counsellor of the European External Action Service (EEAS)
  32. Gerhard Cromme (Germany) - Chairman of the Supervisory Board of the ThyssenKrupp.
  33. Daniel Daianu
    Daniel Daianu
    Daniel Dăianu is a Romanian economist, professor and politician. He has been a member of the European Parliament since end of 2007, when he was elected on the National Liberal Party's lists....

    (Romania) - Professor of Economics, National School of Political and Administrative Studies; former Finance Minister
  34. Massimo D'Alema
    Massimo D'Alema
    Massimo D'Alema is an Italian politician. He is also a journalist and a former national secretary of the Democratic Party of the Left...

    (Italy) - President, Italianieuropei Foundation; former Prime Minister and Foreign Minister
  35. Marta Dassù (Italy) - Director General International Activities, Aspen Institute Italia
  36. Etienne Davignon
    Étienne Davignon
    Étienne Francois Jacques Davignon, Viscount Davignon is a Belgian politician, businessman, and former vice-president of the European Commission.-Career:...

    (Belgium) - President, Friends of Europe; former Vice President of the European Commission
  37. Ahmet Davutoglu
    Ahmet Davutoglu
    Professor Ahmet Davutoğlu is a Turkish political scientist, an academic and an ambassador. On May 1, 2009, he was named Minister of Foreign Affairs of Turkey after being the chief advisor to the Prime Minister of Republic of Turkey.-Life and career:...

    (Turkey) - Foreign Minister
  38. Aleš Debeljak
    Aleš Debeljak
    Aleš Debeljak , is a Slovenian cultural critic, poet, and essayist.- Biography :Debeljak was born in the Slovenian capital Ljubljana, then part of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. He graduated from comparative literature at the University of Ljubljana in 1985...

    (Slovenia) - Poet and Cultural Critic
  39. Jean-Luc Dehaene
    Jean-Luc Dehaene
    -Early life and political career:He was born in Montpellier, France, when his parents were fleeing German troops. He got into politics through the Algemeen Christelijk Werknemersverbond , a trade union which was closely linked to the Christelijke Volkspartij .In 1981, he became Minister of Social...

    (Belgium) - Member of European Parliament; former Prime Minister
  40. Gianfranco Dell'Alba (Italy) - Director, Confederation of Italian Industry (Confindustria) - Brussels office; former Member of European Parliament
  41. Pavol Demeš (Slovakia) - Senior Transatlantic Fellow, German Marshall Fund of the United States (Bratislava)
  42. Kemal Dervis
    Kemal Dervis
    Kemal Derviş is a Turkish economist and politician, and former head of the United Nations Development Programme. He was honored by the government of Japan for having "contributed to mainstreaming Japan's development assistance policy through the United Nations." In 2005, he was ranked 67th in the...

    (Turkey) - Vice President and Director of Global Economy and Development
  43. Tibor Dessewffy (Hungary) - President, DEMOS Hungary
  44. Hanzade Doğan Boyner (Turkey) - Chair, Doğan Gazetecilik and Doğan Online
  45. Andrew Duff
    Andrew Duff
    Andrew Duff OBE is a Liberal Democrat politician, president of the Union of European Federalists, and a Member of the European Parliament for the East of England region of the UK....

    (United Kingdom) - Member of European Parliament
  46. Mikuláš Dzurinda
    Mikuláš Dzurinda
    Mikuláš Dzurinda is a Slovak politician who was Prime Minister of Slovakia from 30 October 1998 to 4 July 2006. He was a founder and leader of the Slovak Democratic Coalition and the Slovak Democratic and Christian Union...

    (Slovakia) - Foreign Minister
  47. Hans Eichel
    Hans Eichel
    Hans Eichel , German politician , was Minister of Finance from 1999-2005.-Background:He was brought up in Kassel where he did his Abitur in 1961. He then completed a degree in German, philosophy, political science, history and education at the universities of Marburg and Berlin, graduating in 1970...

    (Germany) - former Finance Minister
  48. Rolf Ekeus
    Rolf Ekéus
    Carl Rolf Ekéus is a Swedish diplomat. From 1978 to 1983, he was a representative to the Conference on Disarmament in Geneva, and he has worked on various other disarmament committees and commissions....

    (Sweden) - former Director of the United Nations Special Commission on Iraq
  49. Uffe Ellemann-Jensen
    Uffe Ellemann-Jensen
    Uffe Ellemann-Jensen was Minister for Foreign Affairs of Denmark in the Conservative led Poul Schlüter Administration 1982–1993. He was leader of the Danish Liberal Party, Venstre 1984–1998 and President of the European Liberals 1995–2000...

    (Denmark) - Chairman, Baltic Development Forum; former Foreign Minister
  50. Steven Everts (The Netherlands) - Adviser to the Vice President of the European Commission/EU High Representative for Foreign and Security Policy
  51. Tanja Fajon
    Tanja Fajon
    Tanja Fajon is a Slovenian politician and journalist, currently serving as Member of the European Parliament. She is a member of the Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats....

    (Slovenia) - Member of European Parliament
  52. Gianfranco Fini
    Gianfranco Fini
    Gianfranco Fini is an Italian politician, President of the Italian Chamber of Deputies, leader of the center-right Future and Freedom party, and the former leader of the conservative National Alliance and the post-fascist Italian Social Movement...

    (Italy) - President, Chamber of Deputies; former Foreign Minister
  53. Joschka Fischer
    Joschka Fischer
    Joseph Martin "Joschka" Fischer is a German politician of the Alliance '90/The Greens. He served as Foreign Minister and Vice Chancellor of Germany in the cabinet of Gerhard Schröder from 1998 to 2005...

    (Germany) - former Foreign Minister and vice-Chancellor
  54. Karin Forseke
    Karin Forseke
    Karin Forseke is a Swedish businesswoman and was CEO of the Swedish investment bank D. Carnegie & Co between 2003 and 2006. She became CEO in March 2003, when Lars Bertmar resigned his position as CEO to became Chairman of the company. She resigned in March 2006, being replaced by Stig Vilhelmson...

    (Sweden/USA) - Business leader; former CEO Carnegie Investment Bank
  55. Lykke Friis
    Lykke Friis
    Lykke Friis is a Danish politician for the party Venstre and former Minister for Climate and Energy and equal rights. Prior to this she was prorector at the University of Copenhagen, to which she was appointed for a five-year period starting March 1, 2006...

    (Denmark) - Minister for Climate and Energy
  56. Jaime Gama
    Jaime Gama
    Jaime José de Matos da Gama, GCC, GCIH, GCL, GCMG , is a Portuguese politician.-Background:...

    (Portugal) - Speaker of the Parliament; former Foreign Minister
  57. Timothy Garton Ash
    Timothy Garton Ash
    Timothy Garton Ash is a British historian, author and commentator. He is currently serving as Professor of European Studies at Oxford University. Much of his work has been concerned with the late modern and contemporary history of Central and Eastern Europe...

    (United Kingdom) - Professor of European Studies, Oxford University
  58. Carlos Gaspar (Portugal) Chairman of the Portuguese Institute of International Relations (IPRI)
  59. Anthony Giddens
    Anthony Giddens
    Anthony Giddens, Baron Giddens is a British sociologist who is known for his theory of structuration and his holistic view of modern societies. He is considered to be one of the most prominent modern contributors in the field of sociology, the author of at least 34 books, published in at least 29...

    (United Kingdom) - Emeritus Professor, London School of Economics
  60. Teresa Patricio Gouveia (Portugal) - Trustee to the Board of the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation; former Foreign Minister
  61. Heather Grabbe (United Kingdom) - Executive Director, Open Society Institute, Brussels
  62. Charles Grant (United Kingdom) - Director, Centre for European Reform
  63. Jean-Marie Guéhenno
    Jean-Marie Guéhenno
    Jean-Marie Guéhenno is a former French diplomat. He served as the United Nations' Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations. Guéhenno was appointed to the position in 2000 and retired in August 2008. He is a Senior Fellow at the Brookings Institution and the NYU Center on International...

    (France) - Senior Fellow, Brookings Institution and Center on International Cooperation
    Center on International Cooperation
    The Center on International Cooperation is a foreign policy think tank based at New York University that works to enhance multilateral responses to global problems, including: conflict, humanitarian crises, and recovery; international security challenges, including weapons proliferation and the...

     (New York University); former Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations at the UN
  64. Fernando Andresen Guimarães (Portugal) - Advisor Multilateral Relations, European External Action Service
  65. Karl-Theodor zu Guttenberg
    Karl-Theodor zu Guttenberg
    Karl-Theodor Freiherr zu Guttenberg is a German politician of the Christian Social Union ....

    (Germany) - former Defence Minister
  66. István Gyarmati (Hungary) - President and CEO, International Centre for Democratic Transition
  67. Hans Hækkerup (Denmark) - Chairman, Defence Commission; former Defence Minister
  68. Vaclav Havel
    Václav Havel
    Václav Havel is a Czech playwright, essayist, poet, dissident and politician. He was the tenth and last President of Czechoslovakia and the first President of the Czech Republic . He has written over twenty plays and numerous non-fiction works, translated internationally...

    (Czech Republic) - former President
  69. Steven Heinz (Austria) Co-founder and co-Chair, Lansdowne Partners Ltd
  70. Annette Heuser (Germany) - Executive Director, Bertelsmann Foundation Washington DC
  71. Diego Hidalgo
    Diego Hidalgo Schnur
    Diego Hidalgo Schnur is a Spanish philanthropist, intellectual and businessman. He is the son of Diego Hidalgo y Durán , who was a prominent jurist, author, intellectual and Minister of War under the Second Republic of Spain , and of Gerda Schnur de Hidalgo , also an intellectual who lived in Paris...

    (Spain) - Co-founder of Spanish newspaper El País; President, FRIDE
  72. Jaap de Hoop Scheffer
    Jaap de Hoop Scheffer
    Jakob Gijsbert "Jaap" de Hoop Scheffer is a retired Dutch politician of the Christian Democratic Appeal . He served as the 11th Secretary General of NATO from January 5, 2004 until August 1, 2009....

    (The Netherlands) - former NATO Secretary General
  73. Danuta Hubner
    Danuta Hübner
    Danuta Hübner is a Polish economist, academic, and policy maker. She served as European Commissioner for Regional Policy from 22 November 2004 until 4 July 2009, when she resigned to become a Member of European Parliament for the Civic Platform....

    (Poland) - Member of European Parliament; former Commissioner
  74. Michiel van Hulten (The Netherlands) - Managing Director, Government Relations, Burson-Marsteller Brussels; former Member of European Parliament
  75. Anna Ibrisagic
    Anna Ibrisagic
    Anna Ibrisagic, born 23 May 1967 in Sanski Most, Bosnia and Herzegovina, is a Swedish politician and Member of the European Parliament. She is a member of the Moderate Party, which is part of the European People's Party, and sits on the European Parliament's Committee on Foreign Affairs.She is also...

    (Sweden) - Member of European Parliament
  76. Jaakko Iloniemi (Finland) - former Ambassador; former Executive Director, Crisis Management Initiative
  77. Toomas Ilves (Estonia) - President
  78. Wolfgang Ischinger
    Wolfgang Ischinger
    Wolfgang Friedrich Ischinger is a German diplomat. He was Germany's ambassador to the Court of St. James's from 2006 to May, 2008...

    (Germany) - Chairman, Munich Security Conference; Global Head of Government Affairs Allianz SE
  79. Minna Järvenpää (Finland/US) - International Advocacy Director, Open Society Foundation
  80. Lionel Jospin
    Lionel Jospin
    Lionel Jospin is a French politician, who served as Prime Minister of France from 1997 to 2002.Jospin was the Socialist Party candidate for President of France in the elections of 1995 and 2002. He was narrowly defeated in the final runoff election by Jacques Chirac in 1995...

    (France) - former Prime Minister
  81. Mary Kaldor
    Mary Kaldor
    Mary Kaldor is a British academic, currently Professor of Global Governance at the London School of Economics, where she is also the Director of its Centre for the Study of Global Governance. She has been a key figure in the development of cosmopolitan democracy...

    (United Kingdom) - Professor, London School of Economics
  82. Ibrahim Kalin (Turkey) - Senior Advisor to the Prime Minister of Turkey on foreign policy and public diplomacy
  83. Sylvie Kauffman (France) - Executive Editor of Le Monde
  84. Glenys Kinnock
    Glenys Kinnock
    Glenys Elizabeth Kinnock, Baroness Kinnock and Baroness Kinnock of Holyhead is a British politician....

    (United Kingdom) - Member of the House of Lords; former Member of European Parliament
  85. Olli Kivinen (Finland) - Writer and columnist
  86. Gerald Knaus (Austria) - Chairman of the European Stability Initiative and Carr Center Fellow
  87. Caio Koch-Weser
    Caio Koch-Weser
    Caio Koch-Weser is a German politician, economist, civil servant and business executive. He was Secretary of State in the Federal Ministry of Finance 1999–2005...

    (Germany) - Vice Chairman, Deutsche Bank Group; former State Secretary
  88. Rem Koolhaas
    Rem Koolhaas
    Remment Lucas Koolhaas is a Dutch architect, architectural theorist, urbanist and "Professor in Practice of Architecture and Urban Design" at the Graduate School of Design at Harvard University, USA. Koolhaas studied at the Netherlands Film and Television Academy in Amsterdam, at the Architectural...

    (The Netherlands) - Architect and urbanist; Professor at the Graduate School of Design, Harvard University
  89. Ivan Krastev
    Ivan Krastev
    Ivan Krastev is the Editor-in-Chief of the Bulgarian Edition of Foreign Policy, and Chairman of the Centre for Liberal Strategies in Sofia, Bulgaria. Since 2004 Mr. Krastev has been the executive director of the International Commission on the Balkans chaired by the former Italian Prime Minister...

    (Bulgaria) - Chair of Board, Centre for Liberal Strategies
  90. Aleksander Kwaśniewski
    Aleksander Kwasniewski
    Aleksander Kwaśniewski is a Polish politician who served as the President of Poland from 1995 to 2005. He was born in Białogard, and during communist rule he was active in the Socialist Union of Polish Students and was the Minister for Sport in the communist government in the 1980s...

    (Poland) - former President
  91. Mart Laar
    Mart Laar
    Mart Laar is an Estonian statesman, historian and a founding member of the Foundation for the Investigation of Communist Crimes. He was the Prime Minister of Estonia from 1992 to 1994 and from 1999 to 2002, and is the leader of the conservative party Union of Pro Patria and Res Publica...

    (Estonia) - MP; former Prime Minister
  92. Miroslav Lajčák
    Miroslav Lajcák
    Dr. Miroslav Lajčák is a Slovak diplomat.Lajčák is a law graduate from the Comenius University in Bratislava. He holds a Ph.D. in international relations from the State Institute of International Relations in Moscow and is also a graduate of the George C...

    (Slovakia) - Managing Director for Europe and Central Asia, European External Action Service; former Foreign Minister
  93. Alexander Graf Lambsdorff
    Alexander Graf Lambsdorff
    Alexander Graf Lambsdorff is a German politician and Member of the European Parliament with the Free Democratic Party of Germany, part of the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe and sits on the European Parliament’s Committee on the Internal Market and Consumer Protection.Lambsdorff is a...

    - Member of the European Parliament
  94. Pascal Lamy
    Pascal Lamy
    Pascal Lamy is the Director-General of the World Trade Organization, a French political advisor, a businessman, and a former European Commissioner for Trade...

    (France) - Honorary President, Notre Europe and Director-General of WTO; former EU Commissioner
  95. Mark Leonard (United Kingdom) - Director, European Council on Foreign Relations
  96. Juan Fernando López Aguilar
    Juan Fernando López Aguilar
    Juan Fernando López Aguilar is a Spanish Socialist Workers' Party politician, and former Minister of Justice in the government of José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero. He also represented Las Palmas in the congress between 2000 and 2004....

    ( Spain) - Member of European Parliament; former Minister of Justice
  97. Helena Luczywo (Poland) - Deputy Editor-in-chief, Gazeta Wyborcza
  98. Adam Lury (United Kingdom) - CEO, Menemsha Ltd
  99. Emma Marcegaglia (Italy) - President, Confindustria
  100. David Miliband
    David Miliband
    David Wright Miliband is a British Labour Party politician who has been the Member of Parliament for South Shields since 2001, and was the Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs from 2007 to 2010. He is the elder son of the late Marxist theorist Ralph Miliband...

    (United Kingdom) - Member of Parliament; former Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs
  101. Alain Minc (France) - Head of AM Conseil; former chairman, Le Monde
  102. Nickolay Mladenov (Bulgaria) -Foreign Minister; former Defence Minister; former Member of European Parliament
  103. Dominique Moisi (France) - Senior Adviser, IFRI
  104. Pierre Moscovici
    Pierre Moscovici
    Pierre Moscovici is a French politician, a member of the Departmental Council of Doubs and a Member of the French Parliament. He is a member of the French Socialist Party ; part of the Party of European Socialists...

    (France) - Member of Parliament; former Minister for European Affairs
  105. Nils Muiznieks (Latvia) - Director, Advanced Social and Political Research Institute, University of Latvia
  106. Hildegard Müller (Germany) - Chairwoman, BDEW Bundesverband der Energie- und Wasserwirtschaft
  107. Wolfgang Münchau (Germany) - President, Eurointelligence ASBL
  108. Kalypso Nicolaïdis
    Kalypso Nicolaïdis
    Kalypso Aude Nicolaïdis is Professor of International Relations and Director of the European Studies Centre at Oxford University. She teaches in the areas of European integration, international relations, international political economy, negotiation and game theory and research methods as...

    (Greece/France) - Professor of International Relations, University of Oxford
  109. Daithi O'Ceallaigh (Ireland) - Director-General, Institute of International and European Affairs
  110. Christine Ockrent
    Christine Ockrent
    Christine Ockrent is a Belgian journalist whose career has principally centered on French television.Daughter of Belgian diplomat Charles Ockrent, she was born in Brussels, Belgium. She graduated from Institut d'Études Politiques de Paris in 1965. She worked for American television and...

    (Belgium) - CEO, Audiovisuel Extérieur de la France
  111. Andrzej Olechowski
    Andrzej Olechowski
    Andrzej Marian Olechowski is a Polish politician. He was one of the co-founders of conservative liberal party Civic Platform in 2001 with Maciej Płażyński and Donald Tusk...

    (Poland) - former Foreign Minister
  112. Dick Oosting (The Netherlands) - CEO, European Council on Foreign Relation; former Europe Director, Amnesty International
  113. Mabel van Oranje (The Netherlands) - CEO, The Elders
  114. Marcelino Oreja Aguirre
    Marcelino Oreja Aguirre
    Marcelino Oreja y Aguirre, 1st Marquis of Oreja is a Spanish lawyer, diplomat and politician.He served as Spanish minister of foreign affairs from 1976 to 1980, during which time he signed the Declaration of Human Rights at the United Nations and was responsible for Spain joining the Council of...

    (Spain) - Member of the Board, Fomento de Construcciones y Contratas; former EU Commissioner
  115. Cem Özdemir
    Cem Özdemir
    Cem Özdemir is a German politician. He is co-chairman of the German political party Alliance '90/The Greens, together with Claudia Roth...

    (Germany) - Leader, Bündnis90/Die Grünen (Green Party)
  116. Ana Palacio
    Ana Palacio
    Ana Isabel de Palacio y del Valle-Lersundi in Madrid, daughter of Luis María de Palacio y de Palacio, 4th Marqués de Matonte, and wife Luisa Mariana del Valle-Lersundi y del Valle, was Spain's Minister for Foreign Affairs in the People's Party government of José María Aznar from July 2002-March...

    (Spain) - former Foreign Minister; former Senior Vice President and General Counsel of the World Bank Group
  117. Simon Panek (Czech Republic) - Chairman, People in Need Foundation
  118. Chris Patten
    Chris Patten
    Christopher Francis Patten, Baron Patten of Barnes, CH, PC , is the last Governor of British Hong Kong, a former British Conservative politician, and the current chairman of the BBC Trust....

    (United Kingdom) - Chancellor of Oxford University and co-chair of the International Crisis Group; former EU Commissioner
  119. Diana Pinto
    Diana Pinto (historian)
    Diana Pinto is an intellectual historian and writer living in Paris.The daughter of Italian Jewish parents, she is married to the French political scientist Dominique Moïsi and a resident of France.- Life :...

    (France) - Historian and author
  120. Jean Pisani-Ferry
    Jean Pisani-Ferry
    Jean Pisani-Ferry is a French economist and public policy expert. He is currently Director of Bruegel, the Brussels-based economic think tank...

    (France) - Director, Bruegel and Professor at Universite Paris-Dauphine
  121. Ruprecht Polenz
    Ruprecht Polenz
    Ruprecht Polenz is a German politician and member of the Christian Democratic Union political party.-Political career:...

    (Germany) - Member of Parliament and Chairman of the Bundestag Foreign Affairs Committee
  122. Lydie Polfer
    Lydie Polfer
    Lydie Polfer is a Luxembourgian politician that has served in a number of capacities, including Deputy Prime Minister, Minister for Foreign Affairs, and Mayor of Luxembourg City, as well as a Member of the European Parliament and a member of the Chamber of Deputies...

    (Luxembourg) - Member of Parliament; former Foreign Minister
  123. Charles Powell
    Charles Powell
    Charles Edwin Powell is an American actor, known for his roles as himself on Popular Mechanics for Kids and as President Harold Bates on 15/Love.-Biography:...

    (Spain/UK) - Deputy Director, Real Instituto Elcano
  124. Andrew Puddephatt (United Kingdom) - Director, Global Partners & Associated Ltd.
  125. Vesna Pusić
    Vesna Pusic
    Vesna Pusić is a member of Croatian Parliament and one of the main speakers of the opposition Croatian People's Party - Liberal Democrats in the Parliament...

    (Croatia) - Member of Parliament, President of the National Committee for Monitoring the EU Accession Negotiations and Professor of Sociology, University of Zagreb
  126. Robert Reibestein (The Netherlands) - Director, McKinsey & Company
  127. George Robertson
    George Robertson, Baron Robertson of Port Ellen
    George Islay MacNeill Robertson, Baron Robertson of Port Ellen, is a British Labour Party politician who was the tenth Secretary General of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation, between October 1999 and early January 2004; he succeeded Javier Solana in that position...

    (United Kingdom) - former Secretary General of NATO
  128. Albert Rohan (Austria) - former Secretary General for Foreign Affairs
  129. Dariusz Rosati
    Dariusz Rosati
    Dariusz Kajetan Rosati is a Polish professor of economics and a politician who is a member of the European Parliament .-Biography:...

    (Poland) - former Foreign Minister
  130. Adam D. Rotfeld (Poland) - Chairman of the UN Secretary General's Advisory Board on Disarmament Matters; former Foreign Minister
  131. Norbert Röttgen (Germany) - Federal Minister for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety
  132. Daniel Sachs (Sweden) - CEO, Proventus
  133. Pasquale Salzano (Italy) - Vice President for International Governmental Affairs, ENI
  134. Stefano Sannino (Italy) - Deputy Director General for Enlargement, European Commission
  135. Marietje Schaake
    Marietje Schaake
    Marietje Schaake is a Dutch politician for the social liberal party Democrats 66. Since July 2009, she has served as a member of the European Parliament. She is a member of the parliament’s Committee on Foreign Affairs , as well as the Committee on Culture, Media and Education...

    (The Netherlands) - Member of the European Parliament
  136. Pierre Schori
    Pierre Schori
    Jean - Pierre Olov Schori is a Swedish diplomat of Swiss heritage. For many years he was international secretary in the Swedish Socialdemocratic Party and a close assistant to the Swedish prime minister Olof Palme...

    (Sweden) - Chair of Olof Palme Memorial Fund; former Director General, FRIDE; former SRSG to Cote d´Ivoire
  137. Wolfgang Schüssel
    Wolfgang Schüssel
    Wolfgang Schüssel is an Austrian People's Party politician. He was Chancellor of Austria for two consecutive terms from February 2000 to January 2007...

    (Austria) - Member of Parliament; former Chancellor
  138. Karel Schwarzenberg
    Karel Schwarzenberg
    Karel Schwarzenberg or Karel, Prince of Schwarzenberg , 7...

    (Czech Republic) - Member of Parliament; former Minister of Foreign Affairs
  139. Giuseppe Scognamiglio (Italy) - Head of Institutional and International Relations, UniCredit
  140. Narcís Serra (Spain) - Chair of CIDOB Foundation; former Vice President
  141. Radoslaw Sikorski
    Radoslaw Sikorski
    Radosław Tomasz Sikorski , is a Polish politician and journalist. He served as Deputy Minister of National Defense in Jan Olszewski's Cabinet and Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs in Jerzy Buzek's Cabinet. He was also Minister of National Defense in Jarosław Kaczyński's Cabinet...

    (Poland) - Foreign Minister
  142. Aleksander Smolar (Poland) - Chairman of the Board, Stefan Batory Foundation
  143. Javier Solana
    Javier Solana
    Francisco Javier Solana de Madariaga, KOGF is a Spanish physicist and Socialist politician. After serving in the Spanish government under Felipe González and Secretary General of NATO , he was appointed the European Union's High Representative for Common Foreign and Security Policy, Secretary...

    (Spain) - former EU High Representative for the Common Foreign and Security Policy & Secretary-General of the Council of the EU; former Secretary General of NATO
  144. George Soros
    George Soros
    George Soros is a Hungarian-American business magnate, investor, philosopher, and philanthropist. He is the chairman of Soros Fund Management. Soros supports progressive-liberal causes...

    (Hungary/USA) - Founder and Chairman, Open Society Institute
  145. Goran Stefanovski
    Goran Stefanovski
    Goran Stefanovski is a leading Macedonian dramatist and scriptwriter, now based in Canterbury, Kent in the UK...

    (Macedonia) - Playwright and Academic
  146. Rory Stewart
    Rory Stewart
    Roderick 'Rory' James Nugent Stewart OBE FRSL MP DUniv is a British academic, author, and Conservative politician. Since May 2010, he has been the Member of Parliament for Penrith and the Border, in the county of Cumbria, North West England.- Overview :Stewart was a senior coalition official in a...

    (United Kingdom) - Member of Parliament
  147. Alexander Stubb
    Alexander Stubb
    Cai-Göran Alexander Stubb is a Finnish politician and Minister for Foreign Affairs from 4 April 2008 to 22 June 2011...

    (Finland) - Minister for Foreign Trade and European Affairs; former Foreign Minister
  148. Michael Stürmer
    Michael Stürmer
    Michael Stürmer is a right-wing German historian best known for his role in the Historikerstreit of the 1980s, for his geographical interpretation of German history and for an admiring 2008 biography of the Russian leader Vladimir Putin .Born in Kassel, Germany, Stürmer received his education in...

    (Germany) - Chief Correspondent, Die Welt
  149. Paweł Świeboda (Poland) - President, Demos-EUROPA, Centre for European Strategy
  150. Ion Sturza
    Ion Sturza
    Ion Sturza is a Moldovan politician and businessman who served as Prime Minister of Moldova between 19 February 1999 and 9 November 1999.- Education and early career :...

    (Romania) - President, Fribourg Investments Ltd.; former Prime Minister
  151. Teija Tiilikainen (Finland) - Director at the Finnish Institute for International Relations
  152. Loukas Tsoukalis (Greece) - Professor, University of Athens and President, ELIAMEP
  153. Erkki Tuomioja
    Erkki Tuomioja
    Erkki Sakari Tuomioja is the Finnish Minister for Foreign Affairs. He is currently a member of the Finnish Parliament.Tuomioja is a member of the Social Democratic Party of Finland, although his political views are thought to be more to the left than the party line. He is also a member of ATTAC...

    (Finland) - Foreign Minister
  154. Daniel Valtchev (Bulgaria) - former Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Education
  155. Vaira Vike-Freiberga
    Vaira Vike-Freiberga
    Vaira Vīķe-Freiberga was the sixth President of Latvia, the first female President of Latvia and the first female leader in eastern Europe. She was elected President of Latvia in 1999 and re-elected in 2003.Dr...

    (Latvia) - former President
  156. Antonio Vitorino
    António Vitorino
    António Vitorino is a Portuguese politician and member of the Socialist Party .-Career:Vitorino graduated in law from the University of Lisbon. A lawyer by training, he was first elected to Parliament in 1980...

    (Portugal) - Lawyer; former EU Commissioner
  157. Andre Wilkens (Germany) - Director Mercator Centre Berlin and Director Strategy, Mercator Haus
  158. Shirley Williams (United Kingdom) - Professor Emeritus, Kennedy School of Government; former Leader of the Liberal Democrats in the House of Lords
  159. Carlos Alonso Zaldívar (Spain) - Ambassador to Brazil
  160. Samuel Žbogar
    Samuel Žbogar
    Samuel Žbogar is a Slovenian diplomat and politician. He currently serves as Minister of Foreign Affairs of Slovenia.He was born in Postojna, but spent his youth in Nova Gorica, where he finished the local grammar school, where he was a school mate of the current Prime Minister of Slovenia Borut...

    (Slovenia) - Foreign Minister

See also

  • List of think tanks
  • List of think tanks in the United Kingdom
  • Common Foreign and Security Policy
    Common Foreign and Security Policy
    The Common Foreign and Security Policy is the organised, agreed foreign policy of the European Union for mainly security and defence diplomacy and actions. CFSP deals only with a specific part of the EU's external relations, which domains include mainly Trade and Commercial Policy and other areas...

  • Enlargement of the European Union
    Enlargement of the European Union
    The Enlargement of the European Union is the process of expanding the European Union through the accession of new member states. This process began with the Inner Six, who founded the European Coal and Steel Community in 1952...

  • European Neighbourhood Policy
    European Neighbourhood Policy
    The European Neighbourhood Policy is a foreign relations instrument of the European Union which seeks to tie those countries to the east and south of the EU into the EU...


External links