Home      Discussion      Topics      Dictionary      Almanac
Signup       Login
Ethnic groups in Pakistan

Ethnic groups in Pakistan

Discussion
Ask a question about 'Ethnic groups in Pakistan'
Start a new discussion about 'Ethnic groups in Pakistan'
Answer questions from other users
Full Discussion Forum
 
Encyclopedia

About 98% of languages spoken in Pakistan
Pakistan
Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

 are Indo-Iranian
Indo-Iranian languages
The Indo-Iranian language group constitutes the easternmost extant branch of the Indo-European family of languages. It consists of three language groups: the Indo-Aryan, Iranian and Nuristani...

 (sub-branches: 75% Indo-Aryan
Indo-Aryan languages
The Indo-Aryan languages constitutes a branch of the Indo-Iranian languages, itself a branch of the Indo-European language family...

 and 20% pure Iranian
Iranian languages
The Iranian languages form a subfamily of the Indo-Iranian languages which in turn is a subgroup of Indo-European language family. They have been and are spoken by Iranian peoples....

), a branch of Indo-European
Indo-European languages
The Indo-European languages are a family of several hundred related languages and dialects, including most major current languages of Europe, the Iranian plateau, and South Asia and also historically predominant in Anatolia...

 family of languages. Most languages of Pakistan are written in the Perso-Arabic script, with significant vocabulary derived from Arabic and Persian
Persian language
Persian is an Iranian language within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European languages. It is primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan and countries which historically came under Persian influence...

. Punjabi
Punjabi language
Punjabi is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by inhabitants of the historical Punjab region . For Sikhs, the Punjabi language stands as the official language in which all ceremonies take place. In Pakistan, Punjabi is the most widely spoken language...

 (Shahmukhi), Seraiki
Saraiki language
Saraiki , transliterated as Sirāikī and sometimes spelled Seraiki and Saraiki, is a standardized written language of Pakistan belonging to the Indo-Aryan languages. It is a language spoken in the heart of Pakistan...

, Sindhi
Sindhi language
Sindhi is the language of the Sindh region of Pakistan that is spoken by the Sindhi people. In India, it is among 22 constitutionally recognized languages, where Sindhis are a sizeable minority. It is spoken by 53,410,910 people in Pakistan, according to the national government's Statistics Division...

, Pashto
Pashto language
Pashto , known as Afghani in Persian and Pathani in Punjabi , is the native language of the indigenous Pashtun people or Afghan people who are found primarily between an area south of the Amu Darya in Afghanistan and...

, Urdu
Urdu
Urdu is a register of the Hindustani language that is identified with Muslims in South Asia. It belongs to the Indo-European family. Urdu is the national language and lingua franca of Pakistan. It is also widely spoken in some regions of India, where it is one of the 22 scheduled languages and an...

, Balochi
Balochi language
Balochi is a Northwestern Iranian language. It is the principal language of the Baloch of Balochistan, Pakistan, eastern Iran and southern Afghanistan. It is also spoken as a second language by some Brahui. It is designated as one of nine official languages of Pakistan.-Vowels:The Balochi vowel...

, Kashmiri
Kashmiri language
Kashmiri is a language from the Dardic sub-group and it is spoken primarily in the Kashmir Valley, in Jammu and Kashmir. There are approximately 5,554,496 speakers in Jammu and Kashmir, according to the Census of 2001. Most of the 105,000 speakers or so in Pakistan are émigrés from the Kashmir...

 (Koshur), etc. are the general languages spoken within Pakistan. The majority of Pakistanis belong to various Indo-Aryan
Indo-Aryans
Indo-Aryan is an ethno-linguistic term referring to the wide collection of peoples united as native speakers of the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-Iranian family of Indo-European languages...

-speaking ethnic groups, while a large minority are various Iranic peoples
Iranian peoples
The Iranian peoples are an Indo-European ethnic-linguistic group, consisting of the speakers of Iranian languages, a major branch of the Indo-European language family, as such forming a branch of Indo-European-speaking peoples...

 and Dardic
Dardic languages
The Dardic languages are a sub-group of the Indo-Aryan languages spoken in northern Pakistan, eastern Afghanistan, and the Indian region of Jammu and Kashmir...

 language groups. In addition, small groups language isolates such as Burusho and Brahui-speaking peoples also live in the country. The major ethnic groups of Pakistan in numerical size include: Punjabis, Pashtuns, Sindhis, Seraikis
Saraiki people
The Saraiki people or Multani people are an ethnic group from the central and south-eastern areas of Pakistan, especially the former princely state of Bahawalpur and the districts of Multan, Lodhran, Vehari, Khanewal, Rahim Yar Khan, Rajanpur, Dera Ghazi Khan, Muzaffargarh,...

, Muhajirs
Muhajir people
Muhajir [literally – migrants] is a term commonly used especially by Pakistanis to describe the Muslim immigrants who chose to settle in Pakistan and shifted their domicile after partition of British India into Pakistan and India. Some had participated in the movement for creation of Pakistan in...

, Baloch
Baloch people
The Baloch or Baluch are an ethnic group that belong to the larger Iranian peoples. Baluch people mainly inhabit the Balochistan region and Sistan and Baluchestan Province in the southeast corner of the Iranian plateau in Western Asia....

is, Hindkowans
Hindkowans
Hindkowans or known locally as "Chachi's" are an Indo-Aryan ethno-linguistic group native to the Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa and Punjab provinces of Pakistan...

, Chitrali
Chitrali people
The Chitrali or Khow people are an ethnic group of northwestern Pakistan. They are mostly found in the Chitral District and speak Chitrali, also known as Khowar....

s and other smaller groups.

The population comprises several main ethnic groups (2009):
  1. Punjabis
    Punjabi people
    The Punjabi people , ਪੰਜਾਬੀ ), also Panjabi people, are an Indo-Aryan group from South Asia. They are the second largest of the many ethnic groups in South Asia. They originate in the Punjab region, which has been been the location of some of the oldest civilizations in the world including, the...

     (42.15%) 70.7 million
  2. Pashtuns
    Pashtun people
    Pashtuns or Pathans , also known as ethnic Afghans , are an Eastern Iranic ethnic group with populations primarily between the Hindu Kush mountains in Afghanistan and the Indus River in Pakistan...

     (17.42%) 35.2 million
  3. Sindhis
    Sindhi people
    Sindhis are a Sindhi speaking socio-ethnic group of people originating from Sindh, a province Formerly of British India, now in Pakistan. Today Sindhis that live in Pakistan belong to various religious denominations including Islam, Zoroastrianism, Hinduism, Sikhism and Christianity...

     (14.1%) 24.8 million
  4. Seraikis
    Saraiki people
    The Saraiki people or Multani people are an ethnic group from the central and south-eastern areas of Pakistan, especially the former princely state of Bahawalpur and the districts of Multan, Lodhran, Vehari, Khanewal, Rahim Yar Khan, Rajanpur, Dera Ghazi Khan, Muzaffargarh,...

     (10.53%) 14.8 million
  5. Muhajirs (7.57%) 13.3 million
  6. Balochs
    Baloch people
    The Baloch or Baluch are an ethnic group that belong to the larger Iranian peoples. Baluch people mainly inhabit the Balochistan region and Sistan and Baluchestan Province in the southeast corner of the Iranian plateau in Western Asia....

     is (3.57%) 6.3 million
  7. Others (4.66%) 11.1 million


Smaller ethnic groups, such as Kashmiris
Kashmiri people
The Kashmiri people are a Dardic linguistic group living in Kashmir Valley in Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir and parts of the Pakistani territory of Azad Kashmir who speak the Kashmiri language...

, Hindkowans
Hindkowans
Hindkowans or known locally as "Chachi's" are an Indo-Aryan ethno-linguistic group native to the Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa and Punjab provinces of Pakistan...

, Kalash
Kalash
Kalasha or Kalash may refer to:*Kalash people of Chitral, northern Pakistan**Kalasha **Kalash language, also known as Kalasha-mondr**Kalasha Desh, their valleys*Nuristani people of Nuristan, Afghanistan...

, Burusho, Brahui
Brahui people
The Brahui or Brohi are ethnic Baloch group of about 2.2 million people with the majority found in Kalat, Baluchistan, Pakistan, but they are also found in smaller numbers in neighboring Afghanistan and Iran. The Brahuis are almost entirely Sunni Muslims.-Origins:The ethnonym "Brahui" is a very...

, Khowar, Shina
Shina
Shina can refer to:* Shina , a Japanese term for mainland China* Shina , Shina Gado, a character from the Bloody Roar video game series* Shina people, Dardic people of Pakistani Kashmir* Shin of Hindukush...

, and Turwalis are mainly found in the northern parts of the country. The people of the Potohar Plateau in Northern Punjab, (Potoharis) are sometimes listed separately from Punjabis. This would tend to decrease the Punjabs population further.

Pakistan's census does not include the registered 1.7 million Afghan refugees from neighbouring Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Afghanistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located in the centre of Asia, forming South Asia, Central Asia and the Middle East. With a population of about 29 million, it has an area of , making it the 42nd most populous and 41st largest nation in the world...

, who are mainly found in the North-West Frontier Province (NWFP)
North-West Frontier Province
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa , formerly known as the North-West Frontier Province and various other names, is one of the four provinces of Pakistan, located in the north-west of the country...

 and Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA)
Federally Administered Tribal Areas
The Federally Administered Tribal Areas are a semi-autonomous tribal region in the northwest of Pakistan, lying between the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Balochistan, and the neighboring country of Afghanistan. The FATA comprise seven Agencies and six FRs...

 areas, with small numbers in the cities of Karachi
Karachi
Karachi is the largest city, main seaport and the main financial centre of Pakistan, as well as the capital of the province of Sindh. The city has an estimated population of 13 to 15 million, while the total metropolitan area has a population of over 18 million...

 and Quetta
Quetta
is the largest city and the provincial capital of the Balochistan Province of Pakistan. Known as the "Fruit Garden of Pakistan" due to the diversity of its plant and animal wildlife, Quetta is home to the Hazarganji Chiltan National Park, which contains some of the rarest species of wildlife in the...

. Around 2 million refugees from Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Bangladesh , officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh is a sovereign state located in South Asia. It is bordered by India on all sides except for a small border with Burma to the far southeast and by the Bay of Bengal to the south...

, Iran
Iran
Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

, Africa
Africa
Africa is the world's second largest and second most populous continent, after Asia. At about 30.2 million km² including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of the Earth's total surface area and 20.4% of the total land area...

, and other places are also found in Pakistan.

Ethnic Groups of Pakistan by region





Punjabis


Punjabis
Punjabi people
The Punjabi people , ਪੰਜਾਬੀ ), also Panjabi people, are an Indo-Aryan group from South Asia. They are the second largest of the many ethnic groups in South Asia. They originate in the Punjab region, which has been been the location of some of the oldest civilizations in the world including, the...

 in Pakistan are multi-ethnical group of people, and can be divided into sub-groups. Punjabis speak the language called Punjabi. Punjabis have many different dialects and that depends in what region of Punjab they are from.

Pashtuns


Pashtuns
Pashtun people
Pashtuns or Pathans , also known as ethnic Afghans , are an Eastern Iranic ethnic group with populations primarily between the Hindu Kush mountains in Afghanistan and the Indus River in Pakistan...

 or Pakhtuns (sometimes Pathans) are Pakistan's second largest ethnic group that are native to the land principally west of the Indus River
Indus River
The Indus River is a major river which flows through Pakistan. It also has courses through China and India.Originating in the Tibetan plateau of western China in the vicinity of Lake Mansarovar in Tibet Autonomous Region, the river runs a course through the Ladakh district of Jammu and Kashmir and...

. They are actively involed in commerce, trade, businesses and virtually dominate the transport industry of Pakistan. They are warlike by nature, and therefore significantly represented in the Police and the Pakistani Armed Forces, moreover, bureaucracy. In recent years, due to increasing education, a large professional class has emerged from within this traditionally tribal ethnic group. Pashtuns are credited with founding several historical empires including the Afghan Empire which encompassed the two nations of Afghanistan and Pakistan and the modern nation state of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Afghanistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located in the centre of Asia, forming South Asia, Central Asia and the Middle East. With a population of about 29 million, it has an area of , making it the 42nd most populous and 41st largest nation in the world...

 that was established by Ahmed Shah Abdali, an ethic pashtun of the Abdali clan who was born on the outskirts of Multan
Multan
Multan , is a city in the Punjab Province of Pakistan and capital of Multan District. It is located in the southern part of the province on the east bank of the Chenab River, more or less in the geographic centre of the country and about from Islamabad, from Lahore and from Karachi...

. Pashtuns are found in all cities of Pakistan. The largest urban population of Pashtuns is interestingly found in the southern coastal city of Karachi
Karachi
Karachi is the largest city, main seaport and the main financial centre of Pakistan, as well as the capital of the province of Sindh. The city has an estimated population of 13 to 15 million, while the total metropolitan area has a population of over 18 million...

 with a fluctuating estimated population of about 3 million, this is then followed by Peshawer, Quetta
Quetta
is the largest city and the provincial capital of the Balochistan Province of Pakistan. Known as the "Fruit Garden of Pakistan" due to the diversity of its plant and animal wildlife, Quetta is home to the Hazarganji Chiltan National Park, which contains some of the rarest species of wildlife in the...

, Lahore
Lahore
Lahore is the capital of the Pakistani province of Punjab and the second largest city in the country. With a rich and fabulous history dating back to over a thousand years ago, Lahore is no doubt Pakistan's cultural capital. One of the most densely populated cities in the world, Lahore remains a...

 in descending order. There are more than tripple the number of Pashtuns in Pakistan than they are in Afghanistan, where they are the largest ethnic group in the country(Afghanistan). Pashtuns practice a unique code of conduct referred to as Pashtunwali
Pashtunwali
Pashtunwali or Pakhtunwali is a non-written ethical code and traditional lifestyle which the indigenous Pashtun people from Afghanistan and Pakistan follow. Some in the Indian subcontinent refer to it as "Pathanwali". Its meaning may also be interpreted as "the way of the Pashtuns" or "the code of...

and are known for their tribal structure. They are an indigenous
Indigenous peoples
Indigenous peoples are ethnic groups that are defined as indigenous according to one of the various definitions of the term, there is no universally accepted definition but most of which carry connotations of being the "original inhabitants" of a territory....

 group from the lands that currently make up southern and eastern Afghanistan and west of the Indus River in Pakistan.

Sindhis


Sindhis are ancient people principally inhabiting the province of Sindh
Sindh
Sindh historically referred to as Ba'ab-ul-Islam , is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and historically is home to the Sindhi people. It is also locally known as the "Mehran". Though Muslims form the largest religious group in Sindh, a good number of Christians, Zoroastrians and Hindus can...

, Pakistan
Pakistan
Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

 from where the river Indus (in ancient times revered to as Sindhus) runs and subsequently, from which they derive the name Sindh from. Believed to be the inheritors of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization, Sindhis are heavily influenced by the adjacent Balochi
Baloch people
The Baloch or Baluch are an ethnic group that belong to the larger Iranian peoples. Baluch people mainly inhabit the Balochistan region and Sistan and Baluchestan Province in the southeast corner of the Iranian plateau in Western Asia....

s in Pakistan. Sindh also has considerable Arabic and Persian
Persian people
The Persian people are part of the Iranian peoples who speak the modern Persian language and closely akin Iranian dialects and languages. The origin of the ethnic Iranian/Persian peoples are traced to the Ancient Iranian peoples, who were part of the ancient Indo-Iranians and themselves part of...

 influence. Sindhis can be also be found in the southern part of Punjab, and there is significant Punjabi influence in the Sindhi population. It is estimated 40-45% of Pakistani Sindhis are of Baloch origin. Sindhis also played an influential role in the development of Pakistan, by joining especially government services specifically in Sindh, however a large number of Sindhis cling to agricultural fields, land owning, politics and establishment. The prominent personalities of Pakistan that hail from Sindh are Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, Pir Sahib Pagara, Benazir Bhutto, Muhammed Khan Junijo (late), and current President Asif Ali Zardari.

Balochis


The Baloch
Baloch people
The Baloch or Baluch are an ethnic group that belong to the larger Iranian peoples. Baluch people mainly inhabit the Balochistan region and Sistan and Baluchestan Province in the southeast corner of the Iranian plateau in Western Asia....

, as an Ethnic Group
Ethnic group
An ethnic group is a group of people whose members identify with each other, through a common heritage, often consisting of a common language, a common culture and/or an ideology that stresses common ancestry or endogamy...

, are principally, scattered almost all over Pakistan's Areawise largest: about 44%, and Populationwise, the smallest, about 6%, of Pakistan's National Population; Province: Baluchistan. The Baluchs, sparsely inhabit the south-western and the Central north-eastern parts, of Baluchistan Province. They are too, found in civil services of Pakistan and specially in Balochistan in considerable number.

Eversince Pakistan's Independence, there has been an upsurge in the Baluchs, towards a Settled life, due, new Irrigation Schemes, Roads and Canals Networking, Airports, Education, Health, and Sea Ports, Mining, Housing, offshore Fishing etc. etc. Activities, Introduced, by the Government of Pakistan, in an otherwise totally Backward Area and Society.

But due the opposition of the Conservative Tribals and their Post Partition Educated sardars, with the collusion of Corrupt government officials, the Social and Economic Sector Activities and development of the Province of Baluchistan, has lagged behind the country's other Provinces.

Historically, the Balochs, in very large numbers, have settled in the adjacent provinces of Sindh
Sindh
Sindh historically referred to as Ba'ab-ul-Islam , is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and historically is home to the Sindhi people. It is also locally known as the "Mehran". Though Muslims form the largest religious group in Sindh, a good number of Christians, Zoroastrians and Hindus can...

 and Punjab
Punjab (Pakistan)
Punjab is the most populous province of Pakistan, with approximately 45% of the country's total population. Forming most of the Punjab region, the province is bordered by Kashmir to the north-east, the Indian states of Punjab and Rajasthan to the east, the Pakistani province of Sindh to the...

, where their historical chief, Mir Chakar Khan Rind
Mir Chakar Khan Rind
Mir Chakar Khan Rind or Meer Chaakar Khan Rind or Chakar-i-Azam was a Baloch chieftain in the 15th century...

, lies buried in Sahiwal
Sahiwal
Sahiwal is a city in Punjab, Pakistan. It is the administrative centre of Sahiwal District and Sahiwal Division. Sahiwal is approximately 180 km from the major city Lahore and is the city between Lahore and Multan...

, earlier known as District Montgomery
Montgomery
-In France:* Sainte-Foy-de-Montgommery, a commune in département Calvados, Normandy* Saint-Germain-de-Montgommery, idem* Colleville-Montgomery, idem-In Pakistan:...

, in Central Punjab.

Baluchs also inhabit, as a minority
Minority group
A minority is a sociological group within a demographic. The demographic could be based on many factors from ethnicity, gender, wealth, power, etc. The term extends to numerous situations, and civilizations within history, despite the misnomer of minorities associated with a numerical statistic...

, the Iranian Baluchistan, hence, an Ethnic Minority inhabiting south-eastern Iran
Iran
Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

.

Balochs are also settled; as Baloch/Arab Assimilated, Groups, in the whole of Middle-east, notably, in Oman
Oman
Oman , officially called the Sultanate of Oman , is an Arab state in southwest Asia on the southeast coast of the Arabian Peninsula. It is bordered by the United Arab Emirates to the northwest, Saudi Arabia to the west, and Yemen to the southwest. The coast is formed by the Arabian Sea on the...

, the Yemen, and the UAE. These Arabised Baluchs are mostly descendents of the Baluchs, who were sold as slaves, and thus, forced to migrate, as prized labourers, during the 18th, 19th and early 20th centuries A.D. to Oman. With the Abolishion of Slavery, they are now free Citizens of the Countries, they had "Settled" in.

The Arabised Baluchs, are now believed to represent almost 30% of the local population of Oman, just like the almost 50% 'Watanees' of UAE, belonging to the Assimilated Arab Iranians Groups, and comprising the ruling families; the Arabic and Persian Speaking Watanees of the Arab Emirates.

The Baluch, mainly because of the utter Barrenness of their Terrain, and poverty, had often Immigrated in the past, sometimes willingly and at other times, unwillingly. Such Migrations perhaps includes, a Willing Migration to the Central Asian region (Merv
Merv
Merv , formerly Achaemenid Satrapy of Margiana, and later Alexandria and Antiochia in Margiana , was a major oasis-city in Central Asia, on the historical Silk Road, located near today's Mary in Turkmenistan. Several cities have existed on this site, which is significant for the interchange of...

, in Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan , formerly also known as Turkmenia is one of the Turkic states in Central Asia. Until 1991, it was a constituent republic of the Soviet Union, the Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic . Turkmenistan is one of the six independent Turkic states...

, and to southern Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Afghanistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located in the centre of Asia, forming South Asia, Central Asia and the Middle East. With a population of about 29 million, it has an area of , making it the 42nd most populous and 41st largest nation in the world...

.

The People of Pakistani Balochistan, speak many ethnic languages, Balochi
Balochi language
Balochi is a Northwestern Iranian language. It is the principal language of the Baloch of Balochistan, Pakistan, eastern Iran and southern Afghanistan. It is also spoken as a second language by some Brahui. It is designated as one of nine official languages of Pakistan.-Vowels:The Balochi vowel...

, Brahui, Pushto, Sindhi
Sindhi language
Sindhi is the language of the Sindh region of Pakistan that is spoken by the Sindhi people. In India, it is among 22 constitutionally recognized languages, where Sindhis are a sizeable minority. It is spoken by 53,410,910 people in Pakistan, according to the national government's Statistics Division...

, Mekrani, Persian
Persian language
Persian is an Iranian language within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European languages. It is primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan and countries which historically came under Persian influence...

, and Turkoman Dialects. Besides these, the Tajiks, speak Central Asian versions of Persian Dialet, the Punjabis, who settled in Baluchistan, well over a century ago, and the Urdu speaking Mohajirs
Muhajir people
Muhajir [literally – migrants] is a term commonly used especially by Pakistanis to describe the Muslim immigrants who chose to settle in Pakistan and shifted their domicile after partition of British India into Pakistan and India. Some had participated in the movement for creation of Pakistan in...

, who migrated to Baluchistan, over half a century ago and settled in Baluchistan, as the Seraiki speaking people of Jacobabad and Sibbi etc. All these Baluchistanis, speak their Native and the Local Tribal Languages.

Records, show, that almost the entire Administrative Machinery of Baluchistan's Princely States, such as Kalat, Lasbela, Mekran and Kharan... and the British's Political offices at Quetta, and Sibbi and elsewhere, their Revenue and Railways, were all being managed, as early as the 19th century, by an assortment of no-locals, managing with a Local Levi's based System for Conducting the Affairs of Baluchistan, they did so while serving their Baluch, and Brahvi etc. Sardars, or their British Colononialist Masters.

Among other smaller groups inhabiting Baluchistan, are the Kurds, who still use the Kurd suffix to their names, and the Parsis, and Muslim Iranians, such as the Bakhtiaris, who still speak pure Persian.

According, to some recent studies, the Balochs are supposed to hail from Iranic people, and are also closely related to the Kurdish
Kurdish people
The Kurdish people, or Kurds , are an Iranian people native to the Middle East, mostly inhabiting a region known as Kurdistan, which includes adjacent parts of Iran, Iraq, Syria, and Turkey...

, spread all over the Middle-East (Northern Iraq
Iraq
Iraq ; officially the Republic of Iraq is a country in Western Asia spanning most of the northwestern end of the Zagros mountain range, the eastern part of the Syrian Desert and the northern part of the Arabian Desert....

, Syria
Syria
Syria , officially the Syrian Arab Republic , is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the West, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest....

, Iran
Iran
Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

 and Turkey
Turkey
Turkey , known officially as the Republic of Turkey , is a Eurasian country located in Western Asia and in East Thrace in Southeastern Europe...

).

The Larger of Baluch and Brahvi Tribes, are the Marris, Bugtis, and Mengals. There are also a large number of other; smaller, area-specific and Local, sub-brances of the Larger Tribes. The number of purely Baluch and Brahvi Tribals remains under 2.2 million (2009), and the rest of Baluchistan's total population, of 11.6 million; around 10 million, are of the above mentioned Ethnic Groups, inhabiting Pakistan's Province of Baluchistan.

Muhajirs


Muhajirs are a multi-ethnic group of the Muslims immigrated after the partition from South-eastern part of undivided India sub-continent
South Asia
South Asia, also known as Southern Asia, is the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan countries and, for some authorities , also includes the adjoining countries to the west and the east...

 to North-western part of the same region (renamed Pakistan
Pakistan
Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

. Muhajirs also referred as the Urdu speaking diaspora; are not an ethnic group and when we refer to Muhajirs we usually mean the group of Muhajirs who mostly migrated to Sindh from South-eastern part of sub-continent which is now called India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

. Although some have settled in other parts of Pakistan
Pakistan
Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

 including Lahore
Lahore
Lahore is the capital of the Pakistani province of Punjab and the second largest city in the country. With a rich and fabulous history dating back to over a thousand years ago, Lahore is no doubt Pakistan's cultural capital. One of the most densely populated cities in the world, Lahore remains a...

 and Multan
Multan
Multan , is a city in the Punjab Province of Pakistan and capital of Multan District. It is located in the southern part of the province on the east bank of the Chenab River, more or less in the geographic centre of the country and about from Islamabad, from Lahore and from Karachi...

 the vast majority tended to settle in Karachi
Karachi
Karachi is the largest city, main seaport and the main financial centre of Pakistan, as well as the capital of the province of Sindh. The city has an estimated population of 13 to 15 million, while the total metropolitan area has a population of over 18 million...

, as the major portion of establishment consisted mostly of Muhajirs in the initiating years of Pakistan. The uniting factor in Muhajirs is their language, Urdu
Urdu
Urdu is a register of the Hindustani language that is identified with Muslims in South Asia. It belongs to the Indo-European family. Urdu is the national language and lingua franca of Pakistan. It is also widely spoken in some regions of India, where it is one of the 22 scheduled languages and an...

, and this is why they in Pakistan
Pakistan
Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

 are often referred to as Urdu-speaking people, Urdu
Urdu
Urdu is a register of the Hindustani language that is identified with Muslims in South Asia. It belongs to the Indo-European family. Urdu is the national language and lingua franca of Pakistan. It is also widely spoken in some regions of India, where it is one of the 22 scheduled languages and an...

 is also the national language of Pakistan. Muhajirs emigrated in this region of the sub-continent only because they opted for it to be their ideological Homeland on the basis of Two-nation theory
Two-Nation Theory
The Two-Nation Theory proposed by Allama Iqbal is the ideology that the primary identity of Muslims in the Indian subcontinent is their religion, rather than their language or ethnicity, and therefore Indian Hindus and Muslims are two distinct nationalities, regardless of ethnic or other...

. After the partition of South Asia in 1947 by the then British Government through Indian Independence Act 1947
Indian Independence Act 1947
The Indian Independence Act 1947 was as an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that partitioned British India into the two new independent dominions of India and Pakistan...

; the Muslims who immigrated to Pakistan were well educated and consisted of journalists, urban intellectuals, professors, bureaucrats, lawyers, teachers, academics and scholers etc. Although there were those that had migrated who were the bourgeoisie consisting of merchants, industrialists or capitalists, a large number of those who immigrated from the rural areas and villages also consisted of labourers and artisans. The eminent business groups that shifted from India to Pakistan were Habib Bank, Muslim Commercial Bank, Orient Airways, among others. Other businesses were established in Pakistan by some of the notable figures as United Bank Limited, Hamdard Pakistan Limited, Schon group. It is also known that besides founding several Governmental organizations like State Bank of Pakistan, they played an influential role in initiating the Atomic Energy Commission, Kanup, and several other institutions. Muhajirs were also found in administration, establishment and politics. Even the first cabinet of Pakistan was dominated by Muhajirs. Current and past Muhajir politicians include Liaquat Ali Khan
Liaquat Ali Khan
For other people with the same or similar name, see Liaqat Ali Nawabzada Liaquat Ali Khan was a Pakistani statesman who became the first Prime Minister of Pakistan, Defence minister and Commonwealth, Kashmir Affairs...

, the first Prime Minister of Pakistan, and Abul Ala Maududi
Abul Ala Maududi
Syed Abul A'ala Maududi , also known as Molana or Shaikh Syed Abul A'ala Mawdudi, was a Sunni Pakistani journalist, theologian, Muslim revivalist leader and political philosopher, and a major 20th century Islamist thinker. He was also a prominent political figure in Pakistan and was the first...

, the founder of Jamaat-e-Islami
Jamaat-e-Islami
This article is about Jamaat-e-Islami Pakistan. For other organizations of similar name see Jamaat-e-Islami The Jamaat-e-Islami , is a Pro-Muslim political party in Pakistan...

.

Saraikis


The Saraiki people or Multani people are a linguistic group and not an ethnic group from the south-eastern areas of Pakistan. The Seraikis maintain that they have a separate language and culture, but their language is often viewed as a dialect of Sindhi or Punjabi depending on what area of saraikis they are. Ethnically they are all the same as the natives of Sindh and Punjab namely that they are Jats and Rajputs. The famous personalities of Pakistan are the Ex-president Sardar Farooque Ahmed Khan Leghari, Ghulam Mustufa Khar.Saraikis are also found in Armed forces, Pakistan's bureaucracy, and business fields.

Hindkowans


Hindkowans
Hindkowans
Hindkowans or known locally as "Chachi's" are an Indo-Aryan ethno-linguistic group native to the Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa and Punjab provinces of Pakistan...

 are believed to be the transitional group of people between Punjabis and Pashtuns. They are also known as Punjabi Pathans. Their traditional homeland are areas around Abbottabad
Abbottabad
Abbottabad is a city located in the Hazara region of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, in Pakistan. The city is situated in the Orash Valley, northeast of the capital Islamabad and east of Peshawar at an altitude of and is the capital of the Abbottabad District...

,Haripur
Haripur
Haripur is a city in Haripur District in the Hazara Division of Hazara, some north of Islamabad and south of Abbottabad, in a hilly plain area at an altitude of . The city is situated on the Karakoram Highway .- History :...

, Mianwali, Dera Ismail Khan and Dera Ghazi Khan, in Punjab and Kohat, Peshawar in the Frontier Province. Peshawar's "City" population is composed of indigenous people who speaks Hindko and Pathans who one or more generation back start migrating to Peshawar.

Ranghar and Meo


The Ranghar
Ranghar
Ranghar are a Muslim ethnic group, which is found in Sindh and Punjab provinces of Pakistan and Haryana and Uttar Pradesh states of India. Ranghar were native to Indian state of Haryana and also found in the Doab region of Uttar Pradesh, as well as Delhi in India...

 and related Meo
Meo
Mayo or Meo or Mewati is a prominent Muslim Rajput tribe from North-Western India. A considerable number of Meos migrated to Pakistan after independence in 1947 and now they are estimated to be over 12 million. In Pakistan, Meos have lost their distinct group identity and cultural traditions and...

 are immigrants from Eastern part of the Punjab
Haryana
Haryana is a state in India. Historically, it has been a part of the Kuru region in North India. The name Haryana is found mentioned in the 12th century AD by the apabhramsha writer Vibudh Shridhar . It is bordered by Punjab and Himachal Pradesh to the north, and by Rajasthan to the west and south...

 and Rajhastan. The Ranghar, though being part of the Punjabi diaspora in the undivided Punjab, speak the different dialect of East punjab with the Punjabi accent and share the common traditions, heritage and culture together with punjabis. They belonged to the Lahore Legislative Council in the pre-partition era. They were forced to leave their homeland along with other punjabis during the riots of East Punjab in consequence of the partition of India
Partition of India
The Partition of India was the partition of British India on the basis of religious demographics that led to the creation of the sovereign states of the Dominion of Pakistan and the Union of India on 14 and 15...

. The renowned nationalities in the Ranghars are Rao, Rana, Abbasi, Behleem and Ghouri. There have been so many famous personalities from Ranghar diaspora in Pakistan that hailed from East Punjab. The most prominent ones among them are Khan Liaquat Ali Khan
Liaquat Ali Khan
For other people with the same or similar name, see Liaqat Ali Nawabzada Liaquat Ali Khan was a Pakistani statesman who became the first Prime Minister of Pakistan, Defence minister and Commonwealth, Kashmir Affairs...

 from Karnal (Ex Prime Minister and founding father of Pakistan), Akhtar Hussain from Gurgaon (Ex-Governor of earst while West Pakistan) General Rao Farman Ali
Rao Farman Ali
Major General Rao Farman Ali Khan was Pakistan Army general during the Indo-Pakistan War of 1971. He took commission in an artillery regiment in 1941 and later commanded the 26 Field Regiment...

, General Rao Umrao Khan, Syed Qasim Mahmood
Syed Qasim Mahmood
Syed Qasim Mahmood Pakistani intellectual and Urdu short story writer, novelist, editor, publisher, translator and for most encyclopedist of Pakistan...

, Rao Sikandar Iqbal
Rao Sikandar Iqbal
-Biography:Born in 1943, Iqbal took his primary education in Quetta, after which he joined the Forman Christian College in Lahore. He held a LLB from Punjab University Law College, and he was the Secretary General of the Students Union of the University ....

 and Rao Abdul Rasheed (Ex I. G. Punjab). Some of them who settled in Karachi; have integrated with Muhajirs. The part of both the Meo and Ranghar communities that settled in Karachi and Hyderabad during initiating days of Pakistan; have adopted dialects of Urdu
Urdu
Urdu is a register of the Hindustani language that is identified with Muslims in South Asia. It belongs to the Indo-European family. Urdu is the national language and lingua franca of Pakistan. It is also widely spoken in some regions of India, where it is one of the 22 scheduled languages and an...

, and now form a sub-group within the Muhajir ethnic group. Meo is an ancient tribe of Indo Pak subcontinent. It is interesting to note that 49% Sindhies DNA and genealogy resembles with Meos.Sindhi Sipahi (Junejo,Samma,Panno,Mangrio and Mahar)are the direct descendents of Meos. Similar is the case with Ranghar and Rajputs. Meos and Ranghars almost belongs to the same stocks of Kshatriya. In undivided Punjab Ch. Yasin Hussain was the prominent figure among the Meos. He was elected MLA many times from Gurgaon Constituency Haryana/Punjab. Ch. Hanif Khan (Late) was elected MNA from Kasur Pakistan. Sardar Tufail Khan was elected MNA from Kasur. Rao Shafat Ahmad Khan was MNA from Pattoki. Ch. Abdul Ghafor Minister for Food Punjab also belongs to Meo/Ranghar tribe. All the Meos come of major stocks of Kshatriya i.e. Tanwar, Kachwaha, Rathores, Jadoo, Bda Gujars, Nirban Chuahan etc.

Hazara


The Hazara people, spread over Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Afghanistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located in the centre of Asia, forming South Asia, Central Asia and the Middle East. With a population of about 29 million, it has an area of , making it the 42nd most populous and 41st largest nation in the world...

 and Pakistan
Pakistan
Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

, are a Persian-speaking people residing in Quetta
Quetta
is the largest city and the provincial capital of the Balochistan Province of Pakistan. Known as the "Fruit Garden of Pakistan" due to the diversity of its plant and animal wildlife, Quetta is home to the Hazarganji Chiltan National Park, which contains some of the rarest species of wildlife in the...

 and as refugees in the Islamabad
Islamabad
Islamabad is the capital of Pakistan and the tenth largest city in the country. Located within the Islamabad Capital Territory , the population of the city has grown from 100,000 in 1951 to 1.7 million in 2011...

area. Genetically, the Hazara are primarily a mixture of eastern Eurasian and western Eurasian peoples. The genetic research suggests that they are closely related to the Mongols and the Uygurs. Hazaras are mostly in business and have high education levels. The Pakistani Hazaras estimated population is believed to be more than 550,000.

Tajiks


Tajiks are a Persian-speaking people, with traditional homelands in present-day Afghanistan, Tajikistan, southern Uzbekistan, northern Pakistan and western China. The Pakistani Tajiks are estimated to be over 1 million. Tajiks of Pakistan are often considered similar group of people as Dardic/Chitrali people of Pakistan.

Baltis


The Balti are an ethnic group of Tibetan descent with some Dardic admixture located in Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan and Ladakh. In Pakistan they mainly live in major urban centres of Lahore, Karachi and Islamabad/Rawalpindi. The Balti language belongs to the Tibetan language family and is a sub-dialect of Ladakhi.