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Essential medicines

Essential medicines

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Essential medicines, as defined by the World Health Organization
World Health Organization
The World Health Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations that acts as a coordinating authority on international public health. Established on 7 April 1948, with headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland, the agency inherited the mandate and resources of its predecessor, the Health...

 (WHO) are "those drugs that satisfy the health care needs of the majority of the population; they should therefore be available at all times in adequate amounts and in appropriate dosage forms, at a price the community can afford."

The WHO has published a model list of essential medicines. Each country is encouraged to prepare their own lists taking into consideration local priorities. At present over 150 countries have published an official essential medicines list. The WHO List contains a core list and a complementary list.

The core list presents a list of minimum medicine needs for a basic health care system, listing the most efficacious, safe and cost-effective medicines for priority conditions. Priority conditions are selected on the basis of current and estimated future public health relevance, and potential for safe and cost-effective treatment.

The complementary list presents essential medicines for priority diseases, for which specialized diagnostic or monitoring facilities are needed. In case of doubt medicines may also be listed as complementary on the basis of consistent higher costs or less attractive cost-effectiveness in a variety of settings.

The compilation of an essential medicines list enables health authorities, especially in developing countries, to optimize pharmaceutical resources.

The list is important because:
  • It forms the basis of national drugs policy in many countries, both developed and developing (e.g. South Africa, Eritrea).
  • Governments refer to WHO recommendations when making decisions on health spending.

Essential medicines: theory and practice


The original 1977 WHO definition of "essential medicines" was that they were 'of utmost importance, basic, indispensable, and necessary for the healthcare needs of the population'. The concept was mentioned in one of the ten points of the 1978 Alma Ata Declaration
Alma Ata Declaration
The Declaration of Alma-Ata was adopted at the International Conference on Primary Health Care , Almaty , currently in Kazakhstan, 6-12 September 1978. It expressed the need for urgent action by all governments, all health and development workers, and the world community to protect and promote the...

 on primary health care
Primary health care
Primary health care, often abbreviated as “PHC”, has been defined as "essential health care based on practical, scientifically sound and socially acceptable methods and technology made universally accessible to individuals and families in the community through their full participation and at a cost...

.

The difficulty of putting this into practice is reflected in the rather longer and more categorical 2002 definition:

'Essential medicines are those that satisfy the priority health care needs of the population. They are selected with due regard to public health relevance, evidence on efficacy and safety, and comparative cost-effectiveness. Essential medicines are intended to be available within the context of functioning health systems at all times in adequate amounts, in the appropriate dosage forms, with assured quality and adequate information, and at a price the individual and the community can afford. The implementation of the concept of essential medicines is intended to be flexible and adaptable to many different situations; exactly which medicines are regarded as essential remains a national responsibility.'


The "WHO Model List of Essential Medicines" has been updated every two years since 1977. The current version, the 17th, was published in 2011. There is also a "WHO Model List of Essential Medicines for Children", whose third edition was also published in 2011.

Cost-to-benefit ratio


Cost effectiveness is the subject of fierce debate between producers (pharmaceutical companies) and purchasers of drugs (national health services).

Number of drugs


The number of drugs has nearly doubled, from 186 in 1977 to 320 in 2002. The range has increased substantially over the years and now includes antimigraine
Antimigraine
An antimigraine drug is a medication intended to reduce the effects or intensity of migraine headache.Examples are the triptans, including zolmitriptan....

 drugs, antidote
Antidote
An antidote is a substance which can counteract a form of poisoning. The term ultimately derives from the Greek αντιδιδοναι antididonai, "given against"....

s, and antineoplastic drugs.

See also

  • Campaign for Access to Essential Medicines
    Campaign for Access to Essential Medicines
    The Campaign for Access to Essential Medicines is an international campaign started by Médecins Sans Frontières to increase the availability of essential medicines in developing countries. MSF often has difficulties treating patients because the medicines required are too expensive or are no...

  • Universities Allied for Essential Medicines
  • World Health Organization
    World Health Organization
    The World Health Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations that acts as a coordinating authority on international public health. Established on 7 April 1948, with headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland, the agency inherited the mandate and resources of its predecessor, the Health...


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