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Espresso

Espresso

Overview
Espresso is a concentrated beverage brewed by forcing a small amount of nearly boiling water under pressure
Pressure
Pressure is the force per unit area applied in a direction perpendicular to the surface of an object. Gauge pressure is the pressure relative to the local atmospheric or ambient pressure.- Definition :...

 through finely ground coffee
Coffee bean
A coffee bean is a seed of a coffee plant. It is the pit inside the red or purple fruit often referred to as a cherry. Even though they are seeds, they are referred to as 'beans' because of their resemblance to true beans. The fruits - coffee cherries or coffee berries - most commonly contain two...

. Espresso is widely known throughout the world.

Compared to other coffee brewing methods, espresso often has a thicker consistency, a higher concentration of suspended solids, and crema (foam
Foam
-Definition:A foam is a substance that is formed by trapping gas in a liquid or solid in a divided form, i.e. by forming gas regions inside liquid regions, leading to different kinds of dispersed media...

). As a result of the pressurized brewing process, the flavours and chemicals in a typical cup of coffee are very concentrated; so espresso is the base for other drinks, such as a latte
Latte
A latte is a coffee drink made with espresso and steamed milk. Variants include replacing the coffee with another drink base such as masala chai, mate or matcha...

, cappuccino
Cappuccino
A cappuccino is an Italian coffee drink prepared with espresso, hot milk, and steamed-milk foam. The name comes from the Capuchin friars, referring to the colour of their habits.- Definition :...

, macchiato
Caffè macchiato
Caffè macchiato , sometimes called espresso macchiato, is a coffee drink, made out of espresso with a small amount of milk.'Macchiato' simply means 'marked' or 'stained', and in the case of caffè macchiato, this means literally 'espresso stained/marked with milk'. Traditionally it is made with one...

, mocha
Cafe Mocha
A caffè mocha or café mochaAs elsewhere in coffee naming, the Italian caffè and French café are commonly found, as are the hyperforeignisms caffé and cafè, which confuse the accents. Also, in Italian, the correct spelling is Moka, used both for the city and the Moka pot. "Mocha", by contrast, is...

, or americano.

While espresso has more caffeine per unit volume than most beverages, compared on the basis of usual serving sizes, a 30 mL (1 US fluid ounce
Fluid ounce
A fluid ounce is a unit of volume equal to about 28.4 mL in the imperial system or about 29.6 mL in the US system. The fluid ounce is distinct from the ounce, which measures mass...

) shot of espresso has about one third the caffeine
Caffeine
Caffeine is a bitter, white crystalline xanthine alkaloid that acts as a stimulant drug. Caffeine is found in varying quantities in the seeds, leaves, and fruit of some plants, where it acts as a natural pesticide that paralyzes and kills certain insects feeding on the plants...

 of a standard 180 mL (6 US fluid ounce
Fluid ounce
A fluid ounce is a unit of volume equal to about 28.4 mL in the imperial system or about 29.6 mL in the US system. The fluid ounce is distinct from the ounce, which measures mass...

s) cup of drip-brewed coffee, which varies from 80 to 130 mg.


Espresso is made by forcing very hot water under high pressure through finely ground, compacted coffee.
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Encyclopedia
Espresso is a concentrated beverage brewed by forcing a small amount of nearly boiling water under pressure
Pressure
Pressure is the force per unit area applied in a direction perpendicular to the surface of an object. Gauge pressure is the pressure relative to the local atmospheric or ambient pressure.- Definition :...

 through finely ground coffee
Coffee bean
A coffee bean is a seed of a coffee plant. It is the pit inside the red or purple fruit often referred to as a cherry. Even though they are seeds, they are referred to as 'beans' because of their resemblance to true beans. The fruits - coffee cherries or coffee berries - most commonly contain two...

. Espresso is widely known throughout the world.

Compared to other coffee brewing methods, espresso often has a thicker consistency, a higher concentration of suspended solids, and crema (foam
Foam
-Definition:A foam is a substance that is formed by trapping gas in a liquid or solid in a divided form, i.e. by forming gas regions inside liquid regions, leading to different kinds of dispersed media...

). As a result of the pressurized brewing process, the flavours and chemicals in a typical cup of coffee are very concentrated; so espresso is the base for other drinks, such as a latte
Latte
A latte is a coffee drink made with espresso and steamed milk. Variants include replacing the coffee with another drink base such as masala chai, mate or matcha...

, cappuccino
Cappuccino
A cappuccino is an Italian coffee drink prepared with espresso, hot milk, and steamed-milk foam. The name comes from the Capuchin friars, referring to the colour of their habits.- Definition :...

, macchiato
Caffè macchiato
Caffè macchiato , sometimes called espresso macchiato, is a coffee drink, made out of espresso with a small amount of milk.'Macchiato' simply means 'marked' or 'stained', and in the case of caffè macchiato, this means literally 'espresso stained/marked with milk'. Traditionally it is made with one...

, mocha
Cafe Mocha
A caffè mocha or café mochaAs elsewhere in coffee naming, the Italian caffè and French café are commonly found, as are the hyperforeignisms caffé and cafè, which confuse the accents. Also, in Italian, the correct spelling is Moka, used both for the city and the Moka pot. "Mocha", by contrast, is...

, or americano.

While espresso has more caffeine per unit volume than most beverages, compared on the basis of usual serving sizes, a 30 mL (1 US fluid ounce
Fluid ounce
A fluid ounce is a unit of volume equal to about 28.4 mL in the imperial system or about 29.6 mL in the US system. The fluid ounce is distinct from the ounce, which measures mass...

) shot of espresso has about one third the caffeine
Caffeine
Caffeine is a bitter, white crystalline xanthine alkaloid that acts as a stimulant drug. Caffeine is found in varying quantities in the seeds, leaves, and fruit of some plants, where it acts as a natural pesticide that paralyzes and kills certain insects feeding on the plants...

 of a standard 180 mL (6 US fluid ounce
Fluid ounce
A fluid ounce is a unit of volume equal to about 28.4 mL in the imperial system or about 29.6 mL in the US system. The fluid ounce is distinct from the ounce, which measures mass...

s) cup of drip-brewed coffee, which varies from 80 to 130 mg.

Brewing process



Espresso is made by forcing very hot water under high pressure through finely ground, compacted coffee. This process produces an almost syrupy beverage by extracting both solid and dissolved components. It also produces the definitive crema, by emulsifying
Emulsion
An emulsion is a mixture of two or more liquids that are normally immiscible . Emulsions are part of a more general class of two-phase systems of matter called colloids. Although the terms colloid and emulsion are sometimes used interchangeably, emulsion is used when both the dispersed and the...

 the oils in the ground coffee into a colloid
Colloid
A colloid is a substance microscopically dispersed evenly throughout another substance.A colloidal system consists of two separate phases: a dispersed phase and a continuous phase . A colloidal system may be solid, liquid, or gaseous.Many familiar substances are colloids, as shown in the chart below...

, which does not occur in other brewing methods. There is no universal standard defining the process of extracting espresso, but there are several published definitions which attempt to place constraints on the amount and type of ground coffee used, the temperature and pressure of the water, and the rate of extraction. Generally, one uses an espresso machine
Espresso machine
An espresso machine is used to produce the traditional Italian coffee beverage called espresso.-History:The first machine for making espresso was built and patented by Angelo Moriondo of Turin, Italy, who demonstrated a working example at the Turin General Exposition of 1884. He was granted patent no...

 to make espresso. The act of producing a shot of espresso is often termed "pulling" a shot, originating from lever espresso machines, which require pulling down a handle attached to a spring-loaded piston, forcing hot water through the coffee at high pressure. Today, however, it is more common for the pressure to be generated by an electric pump.

Espresso roast


Espresso is a coffee beverage and brewing method, it is not a specific bean, bean blend, or roast level
Coffee roasting
Roasting coffee transforms the chemical and physical properties of green coffee beans into roasted coffee products. The roasting process is what produces the characteristic flavor of coffee by causing the green coffee beans to expand and to change in color, taste, smell, and density...

. Any bean or roasting level can be used to produce authentic espresso. For example, in southern Italy, a darker roast is generally preferred; but farther north, the trend moves toward slightly lighter roasts. Outside of Italy a wide range of roasts are popular.

Baristas



A professional operator of an espresso machine is a barista
Barista
A barista is a person, usually a coffee-house employee, who prepares and serves espresso-based coffee drinks.- Application of the title :...

, the Italian
Italian language
Italian is a Romance language spoken mainly in Europe: Italy, Switzerland, San Marino, Vatican City, by minorities in Malta, Monaco, Croatia, Slovenia, France, Libya, Eritrea, and Somalia, and by immigrant communities in the Americas and Australia...

 word for bartender
Bartender
A bartender is a person who serves beverages behind a counter in a bar, pub, tavern, or similar establishment. A bartender, in short, "tends the bar". The term barkeeper may carry a connotation of being the bar's owner...

.

Popularity


Espresso has risen as a common brewing method in many parts of the world. With the rise of various coffee chains in the 1990s, espresso-based drinks rose in popularity in the United States, with the city of Seattle viewed as one of the origins of modern interest. In addition to the Italian style of coffee, coffee chains typically offer many variations by adding syrups, whipped cream, flavor extracts, soy milk, and various spices to their drinks.

History






Angelo Moriondo’s Italian patent, which was registered in 1884 (No. 33/256), is notable. Ian Bersten, whose history of coffee brewers is cited below, claims to have been the first to discover Moriondo’s patent. Bersten describes the device as “… almost certainly the first Italian bar machine that controlled the supply of steam and water separately through the coffee” and Moriondo as “... certainly one of the earliest discoverers of the expresso [sic] machine, if not the earliest.” Unlike true espresso machines, it was a bulk brewer, and did not brew coffee “expressly” for the individual customer.

Seventeen years later, in 1901, Milanese Luigi Bezzera came up with a number of improvements to the espresso machine. He patented a number of these, the first of which was applied for on the 19th of December 1901. It was titled “Innovations in the machinery to prepare and immediately serve coffee beverage” (Patent No. 153/94, 61707, granted on the 5th of June 1902).

In 1905, the patent was bought by Desiderio Pavoni, who founded the “La Pavoni” company and began to produce the machine industrially (one a day) in a small workshop in Via Parini in Milan
Milan
Milan is the second-largest city in Italy and the capital city of the region of Lombardy and of the province of Milan. The city proper has a population of about 1.3 million, while its urban area, roughly coinciding with its administrative province and the bordering Province of Monza and Brianza ,...

.

The popularity of espresso developed in various ways; a detailed discussion of the spread of espresso is given in , which is a source of various statements below.

In Italy, the rise of espresso consumption was associated with urbanization, espresso bars providing a place for socialization. Further, coffee prices were controlled
Price controls
Price controls are governmental impositions on the prices charged for goods and services in a market, usually intended to maintain the affordability of staple foods and goods, and to prevent price gouging during shortages, or, alternatively, to insure an income for providers of certain goods...

 by local authorities, provided the coffee was consumed standing up, encouraging the "stand at a bar" culture.

In the English-speaking world, espresso became popular, particularly in the form of cappuccino
Cappuccino
A cappuccino is an Italian coffee drink prepared with espresso, hot milk, and steamed-milk foam. The name comes from the Capuchin friars, referring to the colour of their habits.- Definition :...

, due to the tradition of drinking coffee with milk and the exotic appeal of the foam; in the United States, this was more often in the form of latte
Latte
A latte is a coffee drink made with espresso and steamed milk. Variants include replacing the coffee with another drink base such as masala chai, mate or matcha...

s, particularly with flavored syrups added. The latte is claimed to have been invented in the 1950s by Italian American Lino Meiorin of Caffe Mediterraneum
Caffe Mediterraneum
Caffe Mediterraneum, often referred to as Caffe Med or simply the Med, is a famous café located on Telegraph Avenue in Berkeley, California, near the University of California, Berkeley...

 in Berkeley, California
Berkeley, California
Berkeley is a city on the east shore of the San Francisco Bay in Northern California, United States. Its neighbors to the south are the cities of Oakland and Emeryville. To the north is the city of Albany and the unincorporated community of Kensington...

, as a long cappuccino, and was then popularized in Seattle, and then nationally and internationally by Seattle-based Starbucks
Starbucks
Starbucks Corporation is an international coffee and coffeehouse chain based in Seattle, Washington. Starbucks is the largest coffeehouse company in the world, with 17,009 stores in 55 countries, including over 11,000 in the United States, over 1,000 in Canada, over 700 in the United Kingdom, and...

 in the late 1980s and 1990s.

In the United Kingdom, espresso grew in popularity among youth in the 1950s, who felt more welcome in the coffee shops than in public houses (pubs).

Espresso was initially popular, particularly within the Italian diaspora, growing in popularity with tourism to Italy exposing others to espresso, as developed by Eiscafès established by Italians in Germany.

Initially, expatriate Italian espresso bars were downmarket venues, serving the working class Italian diaspora – and thus providing appeal to the alternative subculture / counterculture; this can still be seen in the United States in Italian American neighborhoods, such as Boston's North End, New York's Little Italy, and San Francisco's North Beach. As specialty coffee developed in the 1980s (following earlier developments in the 1970s and even 1960s), an indigenous artisanal coffee culture developed, with espresso instead positioned as an upmarket drink.

Today, coffee culture commentators distinguish large chain, midmarket coffee as "Second Wave Coffee", and upmarket, artisanal coffee as Third Wave Coffee
Third Wave Coffee
The Third Wave of Coffee refers to a current movement to produce high-quality coffee, and consider coffee as an artisanal foodstuff, like wine, rather than a commodity, like wheat...

.

In Northern Europe (particularly Scandinavia) and, to a greater extent, in most of Central Europe
Central Europe
Central Europe or alternatively Middle Europe is a region of the European continent lying between the variously defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe...

, espresso is associated with European identity, as in New Europe
New Europe
New Europe is a rhetorical term used by conservative political analysts in the United States to describe European post-Communist era countries...

. By contrast, in Hungary, espresso is associated with pre-Communist cafe culture.

In the Middle East, espresso is quite popular and becoming more widely available with the openings of Western coffee shop chains. However, the most common type of coffee remains what is popularly called in English "Turkish coffee
Turkish coffee
Turkish coffee is a method of preparing coffee where finely powdered roast coffee beans are boiled in a pot , with sugar according to taste, before being served into a cup where the dregs settle...

" (although it is variously known as "Arabian coffee" or "Greek coffee" in various parts of the world) which is also served short like espresso. Turkish coffee is almost the same measure of ground coffee as an espresso, added to water and brought to a boil. It is quite common that ground cardamom
Cardamom
Cardamom refers to several plants of the genera Elettaria and Amomum in the ginger family Zingiberaceae. Both genera are native to India and Bhutan; they are recognised by their small seed pod, triangular in cross-section and spindle-shaped, with a thin papery outer shell and small black seeds...

 is added to the blend of coffee for added flavor.

Café vs. home preparation


A distinctive feature of espresso, as opposed to brewed coffee, is espresso's association with cafés, due both to the specialized equipment and skill required, thus making the enjoyment of espresso a social experience.

Home espresso machines have increased in popularity with the general rise of interest in espresso. Today, a wide range of home espresso equipment can be found in kitchen and appliance stores, online vendors, and department stores. Initially, espresso machines were not available for home use; development of domestic machines began in the 1970s, and remained expensive and bulky, and required skill to operate. In recent years, the invention of convenient counter-top home espresso makers based on coffee pod
Coffee pod
Coffee pods are pre-packaged ground coffee beans in their own filter. In certain non-English speaking countries, such as Germany and The Netherlands, the word "pad" is used instead of "pod", for semantic reasons....

s (like the E.S.E standard) has increased the quantity of espresso consumed at home.

The popularity of home espresso making parallels the increase of home coffee roasting
Home roasting coffee
Home roasting is the process of roasting coffee from green coffee beans on a small scale for personal consumption. Home roasting of coffee has been practiced for centuries, and has utilized numerous methods of roasting the beans such as roasting in pans over a fire and hand turning iron drums on a...

. Some amateurs pursue both home roasting coffee
Home roasting coffee
Home roasting is the process of roasting coffee from green coffee beans on a small scale for personal consumption. Home roasting of coffee has been practiced for centuries, and has utilized numerous methods of roasting the beans such as roasting in pans over a fire and hand turning iron drums on a...

 and making espresso.

Etymology and usage of the term


The origin of the term "espresso" is the subject of considerable debate. Although some Anglo-American dictionaries simply refer to "pressed-out", "espresso," much like the English word "express", conveys the senses of "just for you" and "quickly," which can be related to the method of espresso preparation.
The spelling espresso is widely considered correct while expresso appears as a less common variant. Italy uses the term espresso, substituting most x letters in Latin root words with s; x is not considered part of the standard Italian alphabet. Italian people commonly refer to it simply as caffè
Caffè
Caffè is the Italian word for coffee, and may indicate either the Italian way of preparing this beverage at home or espresso, which is prepared instead with electrical steam machines...

(coffee), espresso being the ordinary coffee to order; in Spain, while café expreso is seen as the more "formal" denomination, café solo (alone, without milk) is the usual way to ask for it when at an espresso bar.

In Slovakia and Czechia, espresso is commonly referred to as preso, and is served with milk (either 10%-fat "coffee cream" packaged in small plastic cups, or milk in a tiny bucket in better cafés) on the side by default. Espresso lungo is also still more common than normale (usually referred to as piccolo), let alone ristretto. This is referred to as "presso with milk" (preso s mliekom in Slovak, preso s mlékem in Czech). The practice is slowly changing (especially under the influence of specialty coffee shops and international coffee chains).

Modern espresso, using hot water under pressure, as pioneered by Gaggia
Gaggia
Gaggia is an Italian company that makes coffee machines, especially espresso and cappuccino machines, in addition to small kitchen appliances...

 in the 1940s, was originally called crema caffè, in English "cream coffee", as can be seen on old Gaggia machines, due to the crema. This term is no longer used, though crema caffè and variants (caffè crema, café crema) find occasional use in branding.

Shot variables



The main variables in a shot of espresso are the "size" and "length". This terminology is standardized, but the precise sizes and proportions vary substantially.

Cafés generally have a standardized shot (size and length), such as "triple ristretto", only varying the number of shots in espresso-based drinks such as lattes, but not changing the extraction – changing between a double and a triple requires changing the filter basket size, while changing between ristretto, normale, and lungo require changing the grind, and cannot easily be accommodated in a busy café, as fine tweaking of the grind is a central aspect to consistent quality espresso-making, which is disrupted by major changes, such as ristretto to lungo.

Size


The size can be a single, double, or triple, which corresponds roughly to a 1, 2, and 3 US fluid ounce (approximately 30, 60 or 90ml) standard (normale) shot, and use a proportional amount of ground coffee, roughly 7–8, 14–16, and 21–24 grams; correspondingly sized filter baskets are used. The Italian term doppio is often used for a double, with solo and triplo being more rarely used for singles and triples. The single shot is the traditional shot size, being the maximum that could easily be pulled on a lever machine, while the double is the standard shot today.

Single baskets are sharply tapered or stepped down in diameter to provide comparable depth to the double baskets and, therefore, comparable resistance to water pressure. Most double baskets are gently tapered (the "Faema model"), while others, such as the La Marzocco, have straight sides. Triple baskets are normally straight-sided.

Portafilters will often come with two spouts, usually closely spaced, and a double-size basket – each spout can optionally dispense into a separate cup, yielding two solo-size (but doppio-brewed) shots, or into a single cup (hence the close spacing). True solo shots are rare, with a single shot in a café generally being half of a doppio shot.

In espresso-based drinks, particularly larger milk-based drinks, a drink with three or four shots of espresso will be called a "triple" or "quad", respectively, but this does not mean the shots themselves are triple or quadruple shots. Rather, generally double shots will be used, with one and a half shots used in a triple (split via the two spouts), and two shots used in a quad.

Length


The length of the shot can be ristretto (restricted), normale/standard (normal), or lungo (long): these correspond to a smaller or larger drink with the same amount of ground coffee and same level of extraction. Proportions vary, and the volume (and low density) of crema make volume-based comparisons difficult (precise measurement uses the mass of the drink), but proportions of 1:1, 1:2, and 1:3–4 are common for ristretto, normale, and lungo, corresponding to 1, 2, and 3–4 US fl oz (30 ml, 60 ml, 90–120 ml) for a double shot. Ristretto is the most commonly used of these terms, and double or triple ristrettos are particularly associated with artisanal espresso.

Ristretto, normale, and lungo are not simply the same shot, stopped at different times – this will result in an underextracted shot (if run too short a time) or an overextracted shot (if run too long a time). Rather, the grind is adjusted (finer for ristretto, coarser for lungo) so the target volume is achieved by the time extraction finishes.

A significantly longer shot, rare in the Anglosphere
Anglosphere
Anglosphere is a neologism which refers to those nations with English as the most common language. The term can be used more specifically to refer to those nations which share certain characteristics within their cultures based on a linguistic heritage, through being former British colonies...

, is the caffè crema
Caffè crema
Caffè crema refers to two different coffee drinks:* An old name for espresso .* A long espresso drink primarily served in southern Switzerland and Austria and northern Italy , along the Italian/Swiss and Italian/Austrian border..As a colorful term it generally means "espresso", while in technical...

, which is longer than a lungo, ranging in size from 4–8 US fl oz (120–240 ml), and brewed in the same way, with a coarser grind.

The method of adding hot water produces a milder version of original flavor, while passing more water through the load of ground coffee will add other flavors to the espresso, which might be unpleasant for some people.

Espresso-based drinks


In addition to being served alone, espresso is frequently blended, notably with milk (either steamed (without significant foam), wet foamed ("microfoam
Microfoam
Microfoam, in coffee jargon, is a term used to describe an ideal standard for steamed milk, used for making espresso-based coffee drinks, particularly those with latte art...

"), or dry foamed) and with hot water. Notable milk-based espresso drinks, in order of size, include: macchiato
Caffè macchiato
Caffè macchiato , sometimes called espresso macchiato, is a coffee drink, made out of espresso with a small amount of milk.'Macchiato' simply means 'marked' or 'stained', and in the case of caffè macchiato, this means literally 'espresso stained/marked with milk'. Traditionally it is made with one...

, cappuccino
Cappuccino
A cappuccino is an Italian coffee drink prepared with espresso, hot milk, and steamed-milk foam. The name comes from the Capuchin friars, referring to the colour of their habits.- Definition :...

, flat white
Flat White
A flat white is a coffee beverage originating from Australia and New Zealand. It is prepared by pouring microfoam over a single shot or double shot of espresso...

, and latte
Latte
A latte is a coffee drink made with espresso and steamed milk. Variants include replacing the coffee with another drink base such as masala chai, mate or matcha...

, while espresso and water drinks especially include the Americano and long black
Long black
A long black is a style of coffee, most commonly found in New Zealand and Australia. It is now becoming available in the UK, predominantly in London....

. Others include the red eye
Red eye (drink)
A red eye is a fortified coffee drink in which espresso is combined with normal drip brew coffee. It is known by various names, some of which refer to different variants.-Variants:...

 and latte macchiato
Latte macchiato
Latte Macchiato is a coffee beverage, which literally means stained milk. This refers to the method of preparation, wherein the steamed "pure" white milk gets "stained" by the addition of espresso.- Related drinks :...

. The cortado
Cortado
A cortado is an espresso "cut" with a small amount of warm milk to reduce the acidity. The ratio of milk to coffee is between 1:1 - 1:2, and the milk is added after the espresso...

, piccolo, and galão
Galão
Galão is a hot drink from Portugal made of espresso and foamed milk. In all similar to café latte or café au lait, it comes in a tall glass with about one quarter coffee, three quarters foamed milk, as opposed to the smaller garoto that is served in a demitasse/espresso smaller china cup. When the...

are made primarily with steamed milk with little or no foam.

In order of size, these may be organized as follows:
  • Traditional macchiato: 35–40 ml, one shot (30 ml) with a small amount of milk (mostly steamed, with slight foam so there is a visible mark)
  • Modern macchiato: 60 ml or 120 ml, one or two shots (30 or 60 ml), with 1:1 milk
  • Cortado: 60 ml, one shot with 1:1 milk, little foam
  • Piccolo: 90 ml, one shot (30 ml) with 1:2 milk, little foam
  • Galão: 120 ml, one shot with 1:3 milk, little foam
  • Flat white: 150 ml, one or two shots (30 or 60 ml), with 1:4 or 2:3 milk
  • Cappuccino: 150–180 ml, one or two shots (30 or 60 ml), traditionally with significant dry foam, today often found with wet foam
  • Latte: 240–600 ml, two or more shots (60 ml), with 1:3–1:9 milk


Some common combinations may be organized graphically as follows:
mixed with
frothed milk hot water
espresso is on top latte macchiato long black
bottom caffè latte caffè americano


Methods of preparation differ between drinks and between baristas. For macchiatos, cappuccino, flat white, and smaller lattes and Americanos, the espresso is brewed into the cup, then the milk or water is poured in. For larger drinks, where a tall glass will not fit under the brew head, the espresso is brewed into a small cup, then poured into the larger cup; for this purpose a demitasse
Demitasse
A demitasse is a small cup used to serve Arabic coffee or espresso. In some languages it is called fincan, fildžan, filxhan or φλιτζάνι . In Spanish, it is called a pocillo....

 or specialized espresso brew pitcher may be used. This "pouring into an existing glass" is a defining characteristic of the latte macchiato and classic renditions of the red eye. Alternatively, a glass with "existing" water may have espresso brewed into it – to preserve the crema – in the long black. Brewing onto milk is not generally done.

Variations



  • Affogato
    Affogato
    An affogato is a coffee-based beverage. It usually takes the form of a scoop of vanilla gelato or ice cream topped with a shot of hot espresso. Some variations also include a shot of Amaretto or other liqueur....

    (It. "drowned"): Espresso served over gelato
    Gelato
    Gelato is the italian word for ice cream and sorbet. Italians use the word gelato to mean a sweet treat that is served frozen. Indeed, gelato, just like ice cream, is made with Milk, cream, various sugars, flavoring including fresh fruit and nut purees....

    . Traditionally, vanilla is used, but some coffeehouse
    Coffeehouse
    A coffeehouse or coffee shop is an establishment which primarily serves prepared coffee or other hot beverages. It shares some of the characteristics of a bar, and some of the characteristics of a restaurant, but it is different from a cafeteria. As the name suggests, coffeehouses focus on...

    s or customers use any flavor.
  • Americano ("American"): Espresso and hot water, classically using equal parts each, with the water added to the espresso. Americano was created by American G.I.s during World War I
    World War I
    World War I , which was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter, was a major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918...

    , who added hot water to dilute the strong taste of the traditional espresso. It is similar to a long black
    Long black
    A long black is a style of coffee, most commonly found in New Zealand and Australia. It is now becoming available in the UK, predominantly in London....

    , but with opposite order.
  • Antoccino ("priceless"): A single shot of espresso with the same quantity of steamed milk poured above it, served in a demitasse
    Demitasse
    A demitasse is a small cup used to serve Arabic coffee or espresso. In some languages it is called fincan, fildžan, filxhan or φλιτζάνι . In Spanish, it is called a pocillo....

     (espresso cup)
  • Bicerin
    Bicerin
    Bicerin is a traditional hot drink native to Turin, Italy, made of espresso, drinking chocolate and whole milk served layered in a small rounded glass. The word bicerin is Piedmontese for “small glass”. The beverage has been known since the 18th-century and was famously praised by Alexandre Dumas...

    (Pms.
    Piedmontese language
    Piedmontese is a Romance language spoken by over 2 million people in Piedmont, northwest Italy. It is geographically and linguistically included in the Northern Italian group . It is part of the wider western group of Romance languages, including French, Occitan, and Catalan.Many European and...

     "little glass"): Made of layers of espresso, drinking chocolate, and whole milk, invented and served in Turin
    Turin
    Turin is a city and major business and cultural centre in northern Italy, capital of the Piedmont region, located mainly on the left bank of the Po River and surrounded by the Alpine arch. The population of the city proper is 909,193 while the population of the urban area is estimated by Eurostat...

    .
  • Black eye
    Red eye (drink)
    A red eye is a fortified coffee drink in which espresso is combined with normal drip brew coffee. It is known by various names, some of which refer to different variants.-Variants:...

    : A cup of drip coffee with two shots of espresso in it (alternately a red-eye or shot in the dark).
  • Bombón
    Bombon
    Bombon may refer to:*Bombon, Camarines Sur*Bombon, Seine-et-Marne, a commune of Seine-et-Marne, in France*Bombon *Café Bombón, a coffee drink containing espresso and sweetened condensed milk...

    (Sp. "confection"): Espresso served with condensed milk
    Condensed milk
    Condensed milk, also known as sweetened condensed milk, is cow's milk from which water has been removed and to which sugar has been added, yielding a very thick, sweet product which when canned can last for years without refrigeration if unopened. The two terms, condensed milk and sweetened...

    , served in Southeast Asia, Canary Islands, Cook Islands and Mainland Spain
  • Breve
    Caffè breve
    Caffè breve is an American variation of a latte: a milk-based espresso drink using steamed half-and-half instead of milk.-Variations:...

    (It. "brief"): Espresso with half-and-half
  • Bucci
    Bucci
    Bucci is a surname of Italian origin. The name refers to:*Ambrossini Bucci , Italian professional football player*Clemar Bucci , Argentine Formula One driver*Emiliano Bucci , Italian pianist and composer...

    : Espresso served in Key West's Cuban cafes (sugar is always added; but may be added before or after brewing)
  • Café au lait
    Café au lait
    Café au lait is a French coffee drink. The meaning of the term differs between Europe and the United States; in both cases it means some kind of coffee with hot milk added, in contrast to white coffee, which is coffee with room temperature milk or other whitener added.- Europe :In Europe, "café au...

    (Fr. "coffee with milk"): Made by combining equal proportions of strongly brewed drip coffee and hot milk . In the United States, it is usually prepared instead with French press
    French press
    A French press, also known as a press pot, coffee press, coffee plunger, cafetiere or сafetière à piston, is a simple coffee brewing device that was first patented by Italian designer Attilio Calimani in 1929....

     or drip coffee. (Very similar to "latte", see entry for lattes below)
  • Cafè Marocchino: Created in Turin
    Turin
    Turin is a city and major business and cultural centre in northern Italy, capital of the Piedmont region, located mainly on the left bank of the Po River and surrounded by the Alpine arch. The population of the city proper is 909,193 while the population of the urban area is estimated by Eurostat...

    , normally served in a small glass, this is a shot of espresso, a sprinkling of cocoa, frothed whole milk (about two tablespoons to bring to the brim of the glass), then a further sprinkling of cocoa is added on top.
  • Caffè Macchiato
    Caffè macchiato
    Caffè macchiato , sometimes called espresso macchiato, is a coffee drink, made out of espresso with a small amount of milk.'Macchiato' simply means 'marked' or 'stained', and in the case of caffè macchiato, this means literally 'espresso stained/marked with milk'. Traditionally it is made with one...

    (It. "stained"): A small amount of milk or, sometimes, its foam is spooned onto the espresso, in Italy it further differentiates between caffè macchiato caldo (warm) and caffè macchiato freddo (cold), depending on the temperature of the milk being added; the cold version is gaining in popularity, as some people are not able to stand the rather hot temperature of caffè macchiato caldo, and therefore have to wait one or two minutes before being able to consume this version of the drink. The caffè macchiato is to be differentiated from the latte macchiato (described above). In France, it is known as a noisette.
  • Caffè Medici: A doppio poured over chocolate syrup and orange (and sometimes lemon) peel, usually topped with whipped cream, the drink originated at Seattle's historic Last Exit on Brooklyn
    Last Exit on Brooklyn
    The Last Exit on Brooklyn was a Seattle University District coffeehouse established in 1967 by Irv Cisski. It opened on June 30, 1967 at 3930 Brooklyn NE near the University of Washington campus in a small light-industrial building leased from the University...

     coffeehouse.
  • Caffè Tobio
    Caffè Tobio
    Caffè Tobio is Espresso with an equal amount of regular coffee. This combination simultaneously helps the flavor of weak coffee and hides bitter inferior espresso. Useful in chain coffee bars....

    : Espresso with an equal amount of American coffee, similar to Americano or long black
  • Cappuccino
    Cappuccino
    A cappuccino is an Italian coffee drink prepared with espresso, hot milk, and steamed-milk foam. The name comes from the Capuchin friars, referring to the colour of their habits.- Definition :...

    : Traditionally, one-third espresso, one-third steamed milk, and one-third microfoam
    Microfoam
    Microfoam, in coffee jargon, is a term used to describe an ideal standard for steamed milk, used for making espresso-based coffee drinks, particularly those with latte art...

    , often in the United States, the cappuccino is made as a cafè latte with much more foam, which is less espresso than the traditional definition would require. Sometimes it is topped upon request with a light dusting of cocoa powder.
  • Carajillo
    Carajillo
    A Carajillo is a Spanish drink combining coffee with brandy or rum. It is typical of Spain and according to folk etymology, its origin dates to the Spanish occupation of Cuba...

    : (Sp. slang for "nothing"): Espresso with a shot of brandy.
  • Con hielo (Sp. "with ice"): Espresso immediately poured over two ice cubes, it is preferred in Madrid during summer.
  • Corretto
    Caffè corretto
    Caffè corretto, an Italian beverage, consists of a shot of espresso "corrected" with a shot of liquor, usually grappa, and sometimes sambuca or brandy. It is also known as an "espresso corretto"...

    (It. "corrected"): coffee with a shot of liquor, usually grappa
    Grappa
    Grappa is an alcoholic beverage, a fragrant, grape-based pomace brandy of Italian origin that contains 35%–60% alcohol by volume...

     or brandy
    Brandy
    Brandy is a spirit produced by distilling wine. Brandy generally contains 35%–60% alcohol by volume and is typically taken as an after-dinner drink...

    . Corretto is also the common Italian word for "spiked (with liquor)".
  • Cortado
    Cortado
    A cortado is an espresso "cut" with a small amount of warm milk to reduce the acidity. The ratio of milk to coffee is between 1:1 - 1:2, and the milk is added after the espresso...

    (Sp./Port. "cut"): Espresso "cut" with a small amount of warm milk
  • Cubano
    Cuban espresso
    Café Cubano is a type of espresso which originated in Cuba after espresso machines were first imported there from Italy...

    (Sp. "Cuban"): Sugar is added to the collection container before brewing for a sweet flavor, different from that if the sugar is added after brewing. Sugar can also be whipped into a small amount of espresso after brewing and then mixed with the rest of the shot. Sometimes called cafe tinto.
  • Doppio
    Doppio
    Doppio in espresso is a double shot, extracted using a double filter basket in the portafilter. This results in 60ml of drink, double the amount of a single shot espresso. More commonly called a standard double, it is a standard in judging the espresso quality in barista competitions...

    : (It. "Double") Double (2 US fluid ounces) shot of espresso.
  • Espresso con panna
    Espresso con panna
    Espresso con panna, which means "espresso with cream" in Italian, is a single or double shot of espresso topped with whipped cream. In the US it may also be called café Vienne and in the UK café Viennois....

    (It. "espresso with cream"): Espresso with whipped cream on top
  • Flat white
    Flat White
    A flat white is a coffee beverage originating from Australia and New Zealand. It is prepared by pouring microfoam over a single shot or double shot of espresso...

    : a coffee drink made of one-third espresso and two thirds steamed milk with little or no foam, very similar to "latte"
  • Frappe
    Frappé coffee
    Frappé coffee is a Greek foam-covered iced coffee drink made from instant coffee . It is very popular in Greece and Cyprus, especially during the summer, but has now spread to other countries...

    : Iced coffee topped with whipped cream and usually chocolate syrup (flavors varies)
  • Frappuccino
    Frappuccino
    Frappuccino is a trademarked line of blended coffee beverages sold by Starbucks. It consists of coffee blended with ice and various other ingredients, usually topped with whipped cream. Frappuccinos are also sold as bottled coffee beverages in stores and from vending machines.-History:Frappuccino...

    : A type of espresso coffee blended with ice and milk, branded exclusively by Starbucks
    Starbucks
    Starbucks Corporation is an international coffee and coffeehouse chain based in Seattle, Washington. Starbucks is the largest coffeehouse company in the world, with 17,009 stores in 55 countries, including over 11,000 in the United States, over 1,000 in Canada, over 700 in the United Kingdom, and...

  • Guillermo
    Guillermo
    Guillermo is the Spanish form of the male given name William. It can refer to:*Guillermo Arduino, Argentine journalist, television presenter and meteorologist at CNN*Guillermo Barros Schelotto, Argentine former football player...

    : Originally, one or two shots of hot espresso, poured over slices of lime it can also be served on ice, sometimes with a touch of milk.
  • Ice brewed: Brewed with chips or cubes of ice added to the basket, which results in more volume and creme. Originated on small, inexpensive espresso machines, the technique is useful on other machines to change depth of flavor and other characteristics.
  • Latte
    Latte
    A latte is a coffee drink made with espresso and steamed milk. Variants include replacing the coffee with another drink base such as masala chai, mate or matcha...

    (It. "milk"): This term is an abbreviation of "caffellatte" (or caffè e latte), coffee and milk. An espresso-based drink with a volume of steamed milk, it is served with either a thin layer of foam or none at all, depending on the shop or customer's preference.
  • Latte macchiato
    Latte macchiato
    Latte Macchiato is a coffee beverage, which literally means stained milk. This refers to the method of preparation, wherein the steamed "pure" white milk gets "stained" by the addition of espresso.- Related drinks :...

    (It. "stained milk"): Essentially an inverted cafè latte, with the espresso poured on top of the milk, the latte macchiato is to be differentiated from the caffè macchiato (described above). In Spain, it is known as manchada, Spanish for stained (milk).
  • Long black
    Long black
    A long black is a style of coffee, most commonly found in New Zealand and Australia. It is now becoming available in the UK, predominantly in London....

    : Similar to an Americano, but with the order reversed, the espresso is added to hot water.
  • Lungo
    Lungo
    Lungo is Italian for 'long', and refers to the coffee beverage made by using an espresso machine to make an espresso with much more water , resulting in a stretched espresso, a lungo....

    (It. "long"): More water (about 1.5x volume) is let through the ground coffee, yielding a weaker taste (40 mL), also known as an in French.
  • Marron
    Café marron
    Café marron or Ramosmania rodriguesii is native to the island of Rodrigues in the Indian Ocean.-History:It was thought Ramosmania rodriguesii was extinct until a single surviving tree was spotted by a schoolboy in 1980, who was shown a drawing of the plant by his teacher. The only image of the...

    (brown): Of Venezuelan etymology, it is an espresso with milk; it varies from marron claro (light brown) with more milk to marron oscuro (dark brown) with less milk.
  • Mocha
    Cafe Mocha
    A caffè mocha or café mochaAs elsewhere in coffee naming, the Italian caffè and French café are commonly found, as are the hyperforeignisms caffé and cafè, which confuse the accents. Also, in Italian, the correct spelling is Moka, used both for the city and the Moka pot. "Mocha", by contrast, is...

    : Normally a latte blended with chocolate, this is not to be confused with the region of Yemen or the coffee associated with that region (which is often seen as 1/2 of the blend mocha java).
  • Normale: A normal length shot, not ristretto or lungo, the term primarily is used to contrast with them.
  • Red eye
    Red eye (drink)
    A red eye is a fortified coffee drink in which espresso is combined with normal drip brew coffee. It is known by various names, some of which refer to different variants.-Variants:...

    : A cup of drip coffee with one shot of espresso in it
  • Ristretto
    Ristretto
    Ristretto is a very "short" shot of espresso coffee. Originally this meant pulling a hand press faster than usual using the same amount of water as a regular shot of espresso. Since the water came in contact with the grinds for a much shorter time the caffeine is extracted in reduced ratio to the...

    (It. "restricted") or espresso corto (It. "short"): With less volume, it yields a stronger, sweeter taste (10–20 mL) (café serré or café court in French).
  • Caffe Shakerato: An espresso with sugar shaken together with ice in a cocktail shaker
  • Shot in the Dark: A cup of drip coffee with one shot of espresso in it. aka Canadiano.
  • Solo (It. "single"): Single (1 US fluid ounce) shot of espresso
  • Triple suicide: A cup of drip coffee with three shot of espresso in it
  • Triplo or triple shot: Triple (3 US fluid ounces) shot of espresso; "triplo" is rare; "triple shot" is more common.
  • Turbo: A serving of brewed or iced coffee with a shot of espresso added, branded by Dunkin' Donuts.
  • Wiener Melange
    Wiener Melange
    A Wiener Melange is "properly" coffee with milk and is similar to a cappuccino but usually made with mild coffee , preferably caramelised...

    (German: "Viennese blend"): coffee with milk, it is similar to a cappuccino, but usually made with milder coffee (e.g. mocha), preferably caramelised.
  • Cafe Zorro: double espresso added to hot water. ratio 1:1

Further reading


External links