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Espírito Santo

Espírito Santo

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{{for|the Portuguese company|Espírito Santo Financial Group}} '''Espírito Santo''' ({{IPA-pt|isˈpiɾitu ˈsɐ̃tu}}) is one of the [[states of Brazil|states]] of southeastern [[Brazil]], often referred to by the abbreviation "ES". Its capital is [[Vitória, Brazil|Vitória]] and the largest city is [[Vila Velha]]. The name of the state means literally "holy spirit" after the [[Holy Ghost]] of [[Christianity]]. With an extensive coastline (40% of the territory is on the coast), the state has some of the country's main [[port]]s but the [[beach]]es are the best tourist attractions. [[Vitória, Brazil|Vitória]], the capital, is on an island, next to Guarapari, well known by its sands. In the extreme north is the Itaúnas part of the municipality of [[Conceição da Barra, Espírito Santo|Conceição da Barra]], whose sand [[dune]]s and forró are famous. Also on the coast, the typical gastronomy is another attraction with the moquecas capixabas and many fruits from the [[ocean]] and [[seafood]]. In the country of the state are many natural beauties, such as the [[park]]s of Pedra Azul and Alto Caparaó, and the [[Italian people|Italian]] and [[German people|German]] colonies. ==Geography== [[Image:Map of Espirito Santo Geography.PNG|175px|thumb|right|Geography of Espírito Santo.]] With {{convert|46180|km2|sqmi|sp=us}}, it is about the size of Estonia, or half the size of Portugal, and has a variety of habitats including coastal planes, lakes, mountain forest, mangroves and many others. The islands of [[Trindade and Martim Vaz]], {{convert|715|km|mi|sp=us}} East of [[Vitória, Brazil|Vitória]] in the Southern [[Atlantic Ocean]], also belong to Espirito Santo state. ===Rivers=== The main river in the state is the [[Doce River|Doce]]. Other important river basins include the Santa Maria River Basin which is the northern branch of rivers which join the sea at Vitoria, and Jucu River Basin which flows into the sea at roughly the same place, but corresponds to the southern branch (which seems to come out of Vitoria). (See also [[Espirito Santo Municipalities|Espírito Santo Municipalities]]) ===Climate=== Espírito Santo's climate is [[tropical climate|tropical]] along the coast, with dry winters and rainy summers. North of [[Doce River]] it's generally drier and also hot. In the moutaineous regions in the south and south west of the state, the tropical climate is strongly influenced by [[altitude]], and the average temperatures are colder. ===Lakes=== [[Image:Guarapa.jpg|right|thumb|190px|Espirito Santos's beaches in [[Guarapari]].]] One of the most important lake districts in Brazil lies on the banks of the Doce river. The area contains some 26 large lakes, the biggest of which is called [[Juparanã Lake]]. ===Topography=== The state can be divided into two areas: the low lying coastline and the highland area known as ''Serra'' (where one can find the 2,890 m [[Pico da Bandeira]] mountain), which is part of the larger Serra do Caparaó, the Caparaó Highlands. In the map to the right it is in the gray area in the extreme southwest of the state, and is shared with [[Minas Gerais]]. ==Location== [[Image:Map of Espirito Santo with Capital and Neighbour States.PNG|thumb|right|Espírito Santo and its municipalities.]]
This Brazilian state is in the east of the southeastern subdivision of [[Brazil]], which also contains the states of [[São Paulo (state)|São Paulo]], [[Minas Gerais]] and [[Rio de Janeiro (state)|Rio de Janeiro]]. It is bordered by the [[Atlantic Ocean]] (E), the state of [[Bahia]] (N), the state of [[Minas Gerais]] (N) and (W), and the state of [[Rio de Janeiro]] (S). Espírito Santo's main cities (outside of the [[Greater Vitória]] region) are [[Cachoeiro de Itapemirim]], [[Colatina]], [[Linhares]], [[São Mateus, Espírito Santo|São Mateus]] and [[Aracruz, Espírito Santo|Aracruz]]. ===Capixabas=== There are doubts as to the origin of the term ''Capixabas'', as those born in Espírito Santo are called. It may derive from the name of a local tribe, from when the [[Portugal|Portuguese]] arrived in the area during the colonial period. A more accepted explanation states that the local [[Indigenous Peoples of the Americas|Amerindians]] gave the name to the inhabitants of Vitória island, which means ''plantation'' or even ''corn plantation'', as plantations of various crops were interspersed with their houses. "Capixaba" is a word from [[Tupi language|Tupi]]. It means "cabelo de milho" (Corn Hair) because when the Portuguese arrived they were blonde so their hair reminded the native people of the golden colour of the corn hair. Originally, the "Capixabas" were the individuals born in [[Vitória]] only. Lately the term spread to those born anywhere in the state of ES, although the precise gentilic is "espiritossantense". ==History== [[Image:View of Morro do Moreno.jpg|thumb|right|View of [[Vila Velha]].]] Espírito Santo was first inhabited by Amerindians, whose different tribes were usually semi-nomadic. The area was colonized by the Portuguese, and subsequently descendants of black slaves, and, later, by European immigrants of various origins. ===Colonial Era=== The area had been granted to [[Vasco Coutinho]] just after the discovery of [[Brazil]] in 1500. He arrived in the district ([[capitania]], in [[Portuguese language|Portuguese]]) of Espírito Santo on May 23, 1535, bringing 60 soldiers, slaves and servants with him. The capital of the district was at first [[Vila Velha]], but because of frequent raids by Amerindians, it was moved to the current capital of [[Vitória, Brazil|Vitória]], founded on September 8, 1551, on an island near [[Vila Velha]]. In 1556, after the arrival of [[missionary|missionaries]], [[Serra (Brazil)|Serra]], [[Nova Almeida, Espírito Santo|Nova Almeida]] and [[Santa Cruz, Espírito Santo|Santa Cruz]] were founded. ===Political history=== [[Image:VitoriaTeatroCG.jpg|thumb|right|Carlos Gomes [[Theatre]], in Vitória.]] [[Image:Guarapari skyline.jpg|thumb|right|[[Guarapari]].]] [[Image:Aula geo sedimentar 050.jpg|thumb|right|Guarapari.]] The district remained under the influence of Coutinho's family for 140 years. It remained a district for 287 years until 1821, when it became a province. With the Brazilian declaration of independence in 1822, the District Directors became known as Provincial Presidents. In the same way the district of Espírito Santo became Espírito Santo Province. During this period in 1860 the Emperor [[Pedro II of Brazil|Pedro II]], who was on good terms with the provincial President, visited the state on one of his tours of Brazil. There are still surviving accounts of what he saw and recorded. In 1889, with the advent of the Brazilian Republic, Espírito Santo finally became a state. After the adoption of a republican system, [[Afonso Cláudio de Freitas Rosa]] became, by appointment, the first [[List of Governors of Espírito Santo|governor of Espírito Santo State]]. He was followed by four other appointed governors ([[José Horácio Costa]], [[Constante Gomes Sodré]], [[Henrique da Silva Coutinho]] and [[Antonio Gomez Aguirre]]) until the inauguration of the first elected governor of Espirito Santo, [[Alfeu Adolfo Monjardim de Andrade e Almeida]], on June 7, 1891. After [[Getúlio Vargas]] took power, the governors were elected by the national congress, and after this, a number of interveners were sent to govern the state. A short period of [[democracy]] returned when Carlos Monteiro Lindenberg was elected by Capixabas. However, after the 1964 military coup interveners were once again chosen by the national assembly. After [[Cristiano Dias Lopes]], [[Arthur Carlos Gerhard Santos]], [[Élcio Álvares]] and Eurico Rezende were chosen this way, open elections were used to choose all leaders from Gerson Camata through to José Inácio Ferreira, who came into office in 1999. ====Economics==== During the first 300 years, the main cash crop was [[sugarcane]], until 1850 when coffee, in high demand by Europeans, overtook it. During the colonial era, there were also periods of "gold rush" when agriculture was neglected, leading to food shortages, but not much gold was found in Espirito Santo. Another factor that impeded expansion was the prohibition of roads opening into Minas Gerais, where it was feared smuggling would be encouraged through Espírito Santo. ==Demographics== [[Image:Vix12.jpg|right|thumb|[[Beach]] of Canto, a rich neighboorhood of [[Vitória, Brazil|Vitória]].]] [[Image:Parque nacional do caparao.jpg|thumb|right|National Park of Caparaó.]] [[Image:Vila Velha.jpg|thumb|right|[[Vila Velha]] is the largest city of the state.]] [[Image:Canaavalley.jpg|right|thumb|Canaã Valley, in Espírito Santo.]] According to the [[IBGE]] of 2008, there were 3,530,000 people residing in the state. The population density was {{convert|72.7|PD/km2|PD/sqmi|sp=us}}. [[Urbanization]]: 82.2% (2006); [[Population growth]]: 2% (1991–2000); [[House]]s: 1,056,000 (2006). The last PNAD (National Research for Sample of Domiciles) census revealed the following numbers: 1,662,000 [[Brown people#Pardos in Brazil|Brown]] ([[Multiracial#Brazil|Multiracial]]) people (48.20%), 1,495,000 [[White Brazilian|White]] people (43.36%), 277,000 [[Afro-Brazilian|Black]] people (8.05%), 8,000 [[Asian Brazilian|Asian]] people (0.24%), 5,000 [[Indigenous peoples in Brazil|Amerindian]] people (0.15%). ===Amerindians=== The pre-colonial Amerindians groups in Espírito Santo were the [[Tupiniquim]], the Temininó, the Aymoré, the [[Puri]] and the [[Botocudo]]. They have largely been absorbed into the Portuguese-Brazilian civilization, few of them still living in reservations following subsistence farming methods and trying to preserve their fragile culture. Especially back in 16th century, a number of towns in Espírito Santo were founded with primarily Amerindian populations converted to Catholicism, such as [[Serra, Espírito Santo|Serra]] and Santa Cruz. Amerindian food has made its way permanently into Capixaba life, featuring the fish-based [[Moqueca|Moqueca Capixaba]] as the state dish, among other local typical seafood dishes. ===Arabs=== Technically from the region that is now Syria and Lebanon, they came to the state fleeing World War I. As at the time were Ottoman Empire Citizens were commonly called 'Turcos'. Established large communities in the southern part of the state. Now their descendents control a good share of the commerce. Generally [[Maronite Christians]]. ===Italians=== 60-75% of the population of Espírito Santo have Italian ancestry, making it the state with the highest percentage of descendants of Italians in Brazil. They founded many towns in the area and have significant influence on Capixaba society. There are still a number of traditional Italian dance groups in the state and Italian culture festivals, such as the one held in the town of [[Venda Nova do Imigrante]]. Italian food is also a large part of Capixaba cuisine, and even industry. Italian cheeses like [[mozzarella]] are produced locally, and pasta is also made there, with Firenze Pastas being a local producer. Small scale farming, which is turning increasingly towards [[Agritourism|agrotourism]], is appealing to its Italian roots to exploit that market. This is another prominent aspect of Capixaba life. ===Portuguese=== The first party of [[Portuguese people|Portuguese]] colonists arrived in the area called Vila Velha on May 23, 1535 along with Vasco Fernandes Coutinho, the first Portuguese "Captain" of Espirito Santo. Later they also settled on Vitoria Island in the Bay of Vitória. ===Rhinean and Bavarian Germans=== A strong local influence, [[Germans]] were among the first colonists to cultivate land away from the coastal zone. The first German settlement, [[Santa Isabel, Espírito Santo|Santa Isabel]], was founded in 1844. Like today's Capixaba Italian community, they still hold on to many aspects of their ancestor's homeland's culture, still having active traditional dance groups and festivals such as the Sommerfest in [[Domingos Martins]]. Testimony to this is the small museum to colonization in Domingos Martins where one can find old photos, artifacts and documents pertaining to that settlement movement.During the same time also the first colonists from Luxembourg arrived in Espirito Santo. ===Pomeranian Germans=== Espírito Santo is home to the biggest community of [[Pomeranian language|Pommersch]]/[[Pomeranian (German dialect group)|Pomeranian]] speakers of the world. More than a century after arriving to Espírito Santo, the [[Pomeranian (German dialect group)|Pomeranian]] continues to be spoken and it remains an important part of Espírito Santo's heritage for many people. To this day they continue centuries old customs within their communities. One of the pillars of which is marriage. ===Spaniards=== Spaniards, especially from the [[Basque Country (historical territory)|Basque Provinces]], settled in Espirito Santo in the times of the [[Iberian Union]] (1580–1640). Their main activity was the hunting of the whales, which were still easily found along Espirito Santo's coast at that time. Highlighting this fact we find that one of Espirito Santo's History's most important heroines, Maria Ortiz, who took part on the resistance against the Dutch invaders in the early 17th century, was of Basque origin. This trend of Spanish immigration ceased after the Portuguese monarchy's restoration (see [[Iberian Union]]), however, a later wave of Spaniard immigrants would arrive in larger numbers in the late 19th century. ===Africans=== The first African slaves in Espirito Santo arrived in Vitoria in 1609, and years of slavery ensued. However, Espirito Santo was still to play a significant part in the Brazilian abolitionist movement in the guise of the Espirito Santo slave rebellion of 1848-1849, which demanded intervention of Imperial troops. Slavery started losing its economical importance in Espirito Santo after that event. ===Tyroleans, Romanians, East-European Gypsies=== It's difficult to pin down the exact numbers of immigrants of each of these groups to Espirito Santo because they usually arrived under a common [[Austria-Hungary|Austrian-Hungarian]] passport, or, in the case of the Tyroleans, under a Swiss passport. An important fact regarding Tyrolean immigration was that these groups were formed by young couples who left [[State of Tyrol|Tyrol]] due to the Austrian laws that imposed difficulties for Tyrolean men to marry before the age of 30 (they were supposed to remain in the Austrian army for a longer time), so large numbers of them started crossing the border to marry in [[Switzerland]], and to leave Europe after the wedding. Tyrolean settlers were both of German and Italian language and concentrated in the region of Santa Leopoldina. [[Romania]]ns and [[Romani people|Roma]] usually arrived under Austrian passports. Large groups of Gypsies settled in Espirito Santo's countryside in the late 19th century, being absorbed by the mainstream of its society later. ==Economy== [[Image:Es ponte.jpg|left|thumb|[[Vitória, Brazil|Vitória]]'s harbour entrance with the tallest bridge in [[Brazil]] and Camburi Beach in the background.]] The [[service sector]] is the largest component of [[GDP]] at 50%, followed by the [[industrial sector]] at 44%. [[Agriculture]] represents 5% of [[GDP]] (2004). Espírito Santo exports: manufacturing of [[iron]] and [[steel]] 35.8%, ore of [[iron]] 25.2%, [[paper]] 17.6%, [[coffee]] 7.7%, [[granite]] 6.5% (2002). Share of the Brazilian economy: Espírito Santo is the first economy of Brazil, And the largest producer of petroleum. The main crops of the state are [[rice]], coffee (one of the most important cash crops in [[Brazil]]), [[Cocoa bean|cacao]], sugarcane, [[beans]], [[fruit]] (mostly [[banana]]s and [[papaya]]s), and [[maize]]. The [[livestock]] industry, important throughout Brazil, is primarily [[cattle]] raised for [[milk]] and [[beef]]. Industry consists mainly of [[canning]], [[forestry]], [[textiles]], [[iron]] and [[steel]] works. The latter two are concentrated around [[Cariacica]] and the "Vale do Rio Doce" ironworks. [[Vitória, Brazil|Vitória]] is an important port for exporting iron and steel. Indeed, it is the biggest steel producer in the world. In [[São Mateus, Espírito Santo|São Mateus]], [[petroleum]] reserves have been found on its continental shelf, and today are being commercially exploited. Tourism plays an ever-increasing role in the state economy. However, most of the visitors are from neighbouring states, rather than foreign countries. Popular destinations include coastal areas such as [[Guarapari]], [[Jacaraípe, Espírito Santo|Jacaraípe]] and [[Manguinhos, Espírito Santo|Manguinhos]], but mountain retreats such as [[Domingos Martins]] are also popular. [[Guarapari]] is also a local [[tourism|tourist]] destination, known for its curative black sand [[beach]]es. ==Interesting facts== [[Vehicles]]: 850,141 (March 2007); [[Mobile phone]]s: 1.8 million (April 2007); [[Telephone]]s: 800,000 (April 2007); [[Cities]]: 78 (2007) ===Educational institutions=== * [http://www.ufes.br Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo] (UFES) (Federal University of Espírito Santo); * [http://www.cefetes.br Centro Federal de Educação Tecnológica do Espírito Santo] (Cefet-ES); * [http://faesa.br Faculdades Integradas Espírito-santenses] (FAESA) (Faculdades Integradas Espírito-santenses); * [http://www.uvv.br Universidade Vila Velha] (UVV) (Vila Velha University); * [http://www.unesc.br Centro Universitário do Espírito Santo] (Unesc-ES); * and many others. ===National Airport=== [[Eurico de Aguiar Salles Airport]] is located on a land plot of just over {{convert|5.2|e6m2|acre|sp=us}}. Since construction of its first step, finished in 1946, Vitória Airport has undergone several expansions and modernizations, but current demand has surpassed its capacity of 560 thousand passengers a year. The passenger terminal is air conditioned, with a constructed area of nearly {{convert|4000|m2|sqft|sp=us}}, a check-in concourse, 25 check-in counters and boarding and arrival lounges. The recent construction of new aircraft parking boxes on the aprons has improved the airport’s operational efficiency. In 2003 more than 1.2 million passengers used the airport, and in 2004 this rose to some 1.25 million. Vitória is one of the 32 airports in the Infraero network that has a cargo terminal. In May 1999 the first direct international freight connection to the [[United States]] ([[Miami]]) began operating to Vitória, facilitating imports to the state of Espírito Santo. Today there are five such flights a week. A new runway and terminal were due end of 2007 but several budget inconsistencies were found. Federal accounting court then froze all works ''sine die''. ===Notable Structures=== The most notable structures in Espirito Santo are Terceira Ponte ([[Third Bridge]], the Tallest Bridge in Brazil) , and Convento da Penha ([[Penha Convent]]). ===Port=== The [[Port]] of Vitória has the most difficult access for ships of any port in Brazil. The Bay of Vitória is extremely narrow, with stones and mountains making it challenging for freighters and maritiime cruisers to reach the docks. This narrow approach also results in shipping passing closely to population centers. In Vitória, ships pass side by side with cars and pedestrians. The situation of the port in the center of the city also results in schedule complications, with limitations resulting from traffic constraints. Currently the main use of the port is for ship and oil platform repair, as well as for receiving medium-sized shipping. ==Flag== The words in the central bar of the flag, ''Trabalha e Confia'', translate to "Work and Trust [in [[God]]]". This motto is a truncated version of the [[Society of Jesus|Jesuit]] (well spread by the Spanish [[Catholic]] missionaire [[José de Anchieta]]) motto "work as if everything depended on you, and trust as if everything depended on God", and was chosen by [[Jerônimo de Sousa Monteiro|Jerônimo Monteiro]], who governed the state from 1908 to 1912. The flag was designed in 1908, with colours inspired by those of Our Lady of Vitória's (''Nossa Senhora da Vitória'') in Portuguese vestments. It is one of the few flags in the world which uses the colour pink. ==External links== {{sisterlinks|Espírito Santo}} [http://www.es.gov.br Official Website] * [http://www.braziltour.com/site/gb/home/index.php Brazilian Tourism Portal] * [[List of Governors of Espírito Santo|List of Governors of Espírito Santo from 1889 to present day]] [http://www.vitoria-es-brasil.com Brazilian Portal with many Information about Espirito Santo and Brazil] [http://marlonstein.com/fotos/main.php Photos of Espirito Santo] {{Brazil topics}} {{Demographics of Brazil}} {{States_of_Brazil}} {{Municipalities of Espírito Santo}} {{coord missing|Brazil}} {{DEFAULTSORT:Espirito Santo}}