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Epitome

Epitome

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Encyclopedia
An epitome is a summary or miniature form; an instance that represents a larger reality, also used as a synonym
Synonym
Synonyms are different words with almost identical or similar meanings. Words that are synonyms are said to be synonymous, and the state of being a synonym is called synonymy. The word comes from Ancient Greek syn and onoma . The words car and automobile are synonyms...

 for embodiment.

Many documents from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek is the stage of the Greek language in the periods spanning the times c. 9th–6th centuries BC, , c. 5th–4th centuries BC , and the c. 3rd century BC – 6th century AD of ancient Greece and the ancient world; being predated in the 2nd millennium BC by Mycenaean Greek...

 and Roman
Ancient Rome
Ancient Rome was a thriving civilization that grew on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 8th century BC. Located along the Mediterranean Sea and centered on the city of Rome, it expanded to one of the largest empires in the ancient world....

 worlds survive now only "in epitome", referring to the practice of some later authors (epitomators) who wrote distilled versions of larger works now lost. Some writers attempted to convey the stance and spirit of the original, while others added further details or anecdotes regarding the general subject. As with all secondary historical sources, a different bias
Bias
Bias is an inclination to present or hold a partial perspective at the expense of alternatives. Bias can come in many forms.-In judgement and decision making:...

 not present in the original may creep in.

Documents surviving in epitome differ from those surviving only as fragments quoted in later works, and those used as unacknowledged sources by later scholars, as they can stand as discrete documents, albeit refracted through the views of another author.

The word is often mispronounced; its correct English pronunciation is ɨˈpɪtəmiː.

Examples


Examples of epitomes providing the only record of now lost works include:
  • John Xiphilinus
    John Xiphilinus
    Joannes Xiphilinus , epitomator of Dio Cassius, lived at Constantinople during the latter half of the 11th century AD. He was a monk and the nephew of Patriarch John VIII of Constantinople, a well-known preacher ....

    's precis of the missing portions of Cassius Dio's Roman History
  • Justin
    Junianus Justinus
    Justin was a Latin historian who lived under the Roman Empire. His name is mentioned only in the title of his own history, and there it is in the genitive, which would be M. Juniani Justini no matter which nomen he bore.Of his personal history nothing is known...

    's abridged version of the Philippic History by Gnaeus Pompeius Trogus
    Gnaeus Pompeius Trogus
    Gnaeus Pompēius Trōgus, known as Pompeius Trogus, Pompey Trogue, or Trogue Pompey, was a 1st century BC Roman historian of the Celtic tribe of the Vocontii in Gallia Narbonensis, flourished during the age of Augustus, nearly contemporary with Livy.His grandfather served in the war against Sertorius...

    , one of the main sources for the life of Alexander the Great
  • The epitome of Book IV of the Pseudo-Apollodorus's Bibliotheca
    Bibliotheca (Pseudo-Apollodorus)
    The Bibliotheca , in three books, provides a comprehensive summary of traditional Greek mythology and heroic legends, "the most valuable mythographical work that has come down from ancient times," Aubrey Diller observed, whose "stultifying purpose" was neatly expressed in the epigram noted by...

    [Library], a comprehensive encyclopedia
    Encyclopedia
    An encyclopedia is a type of reference work, a compendium holding a summary of information from either all branches of knowledge or a particular branch of knowledge....

     of Greek mythology
    Greek mythology
    Greek mythology is the body of myths and legends belonging to the ancient Greeks, concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world, and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. They were a part of religion in ancient Greece...


See also

  • Apotome
    Apotome
    Apotomē is an archaic mathematical term which, according to Webster's 1828 Dictionary, is the difference of two quantities that are commensurable only in power. According to Bailey's 1761 Dictionary it is "an irrational remainder or residual when from a rational line a part is cut off which is...

    , 1. Mathematics: Pythagorean term.
  • Apotome
    Apotome
    Apotomē is an archaic mathematical term which, according to Webster's 1828 Dictionary, is the difference of two quantities that are commensurable only in power. According to Bailey's 1761 Dictionary it is "an irrational remainder or residual when from a rational line a part is cut off which is...

    , 2. Advanced microscopy image generation by optical sectioning and structured illumination, by Carl Zeiss, Inc (ApoTome).
  • Epitome (image processing)
    Epitome (image processing)
    In image processing, an epitome is a condensed digital representation of the essential statistical properties of ordered datasets, such as matrices representing images, audio signals, videos, or genetic sequences...

    , an image processing technique which generates short descriptions of images
  • Epitome de Caesaribus
    Epitome de Caesaribus
    The Epitome de Caesaribus is the name for a Latin historical work, written at the end of the 4th century.It is a brief account of the reigns of the emperors from Augustus to Theodosius the Great. It is attributed to Aurelius Victor, but was written by an anonymous author who was very likely a pagan...