Energy policy of the European Union

Energy policy of the European Union

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Although the European Union
European Union
The European Union is an economic and political union of 27 independent member states which are located primarily in Europe. The EU traces its origins from the European Coal and Steel Community and the European Economic Community , formed by six countries in 1958...

 has legislated in the area of energy policy for many years, and evolved out of the European Coal and Steel Community
European Coal and Steel Community
The European Coal and Steel Community was a six-nation international organisation serving to unify Western Europe during the Cold War and create the foundation for the modern-day developments of the European Union...

, the concept of introducing a mandatory and comprehensive European energy policy was only approved at the meeting of the European Council
European Council
The European Council is an institution of the European Union. It comprises the heads of state or government of the EU member states, along with the President of the European Commission and the President of the European Council, currently Herman Van Rompuy...

 on 27 October 2005 in London.

The EU currently imports 82% of its oil
Petroleum
Petroleum or crude oil is a naturally occurring, flammable liquid consisting of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons of various molecular weights and other liquid organic compounds, that are found in geologic formations beneath the Earth's surface. Petroleum is recovered mostly through oil drilling...

 and 57% of its gas
Natural gas
Natural gas is a naturally occurring gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, typically with 0–20% higher hydrocarbons . It is found associated with other hydrocarbon fuel, in coal beds, as methane clathrates, and is an important fuel source and a major feedstock for fertilizers.Most natural...

, making it the world's leading importer of these fuels. Only 3% of the uranium
Uranium
Uranium is a silvery-white metallic chemical element in the actinide series of the periodic table, with atomic number 92. It is assigned the chemical symbol U. A uranium atom has 92 protons and 92 electrons, of which 6 are valence electrons...

 used in European nuclear reactors was mined
Uranium mining
Uranium mining is the process of extraction of uranium ore from the ground. The worldwide production of uranium in 2009 amounted to 50,572 tonnes, of which 27% was mined in Kazakhstan. Kazakhstan, Canada, and Australia are the top three producers and together account for 63% of world uranium...

 in Europe. Russia, Canada, Australia, Niger and Kazakhstan were the five largest suppliers of nuclear materials to the EU, supplying more than 75% of the total needs in 2009

Proposals


The possible principles of Energy Policy for Europe were elaborated at the Commission's green paper A European Strategy for Sustainable, Competitive and Secure Energy on 8 March 2006. As a result of the decision to develop a common energy policy, the first proposals, Energy for a Changing World were published by the European Commission
European Commission
The European Commission is the executive body of the European Union. The body is responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the Union's treaties and the general day-to-day running of the Union....

, following a consultation process, on 10 January 2007.

It is claimed that they will lead to a 'post-industrial revolution', or a low-carbon economy
Low-carbon economy
A Low-Carbon Economy or Low-Fossil-Fuel Economy is an economy that has a minimal output of greenhouse gas emissions into the environment biosphere, but specifically refers to the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide...

, in the European Union, as well as increased competition in the energy markets, improved security of supply, and improved employment prospects. Although the proposals have been adopted by the European Commission, they require the approval of the European Parliament
European Parliament
The European Parliament is the directly elected parliamentary institution of the European Union . Together with the Council of the European Union and the Commission, it exercises the legislative function of the EU and it has been described as one of the most powerful legislatures in the world...

 but were debated and approved at a meeting of the European Council
European Council
The European Council is an institution of the European Union. It comprises the heads of state or government of the EU member states, along with the President of the European Commission and the President of the European Council, currently Herman Van Rompuy...

 on 8 and 9 March 2007.

Key proposals include:
  • A cut of at least 20% in greenhouse gas
    Greenhouse gas
    A greenhouse gas is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiation within the thermal infrared range. This process is the fundamental cause of the greenhouse effect. The primary greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere are water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone...

     emissions from all primary energy
    Primary energy
    Primary energy is an energy form found in nature that has not been subjected to any conversion or transformation process. It is energy contained in raw fuels, and other forms of energy received as input to a system...

     sources by 2020 (compared to 1990 levels), while pushing for an international agreement to succeed the Kyoto Protocol
    Kyoto Protocol
    The Kyoto Protocol is a protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change , aimed at fighting global warming...

     aimed at achieving a 30% cut by all developed nations by 2020.
  • A cut of up to 50% in carbon emissions from primary energy sources by 2050, compared to 1990 levels.
  • A minimum target of 10% for the use of biofuel
    Biofuel
    Biofuel is a type of fuel whose energy is derived from biological carbon fixation. Biofuels include fuels derived from biomass conversion, as well as solid biomass, liquid fuels and various biogases...

    s by 2020.
  • That the energy supply and generation activities of energy companies should be 'unbundled' from their distribution networks to further increase market competition.
  • Improving energy relations with the EU's neighbours, including Russia.
  • The development of a European Strategic Energy Technology Plan to develop technologies in areas including renewable energy, energy conservation
    Energy conservation
    Energy conservation refers to efforts made to reduce energy consumption. Energy conservation can be achieved through increased efficient energy use, in conjunction with decreased energy consumption and/or reduced consumption from conventional energy sources...

    , low-energy buildings, 4th generation nuclear power
    Nuclear power
    Nuclear power is the use of sustained nuclear fission to generate heat and electricity. Nuclear power plants provide about 6% of the world's energy and 13–14% of the world's electricity, with the U.S., France, and Japan together accounting for about 50% of nuclear generated electricity...

    , clean coal
    Clean coal
    Historically used to refer to technologies for reducing emissions of ash, sulfur, and heavy metals from coal combustion; the term is now commonly used to refer to carbon capture and storage technology...

     and carbon capture.
  • Developing an Africa-Europe Energy partnership, to help Africa 'leap-frog' to low-carbon technologies and to help develop the continent as a sustainable energy supplier.


Underlying many of the proposals are to designed to limit global temperature changes to no more than 2 °C above pre-industrial levels, of which 0.8 °C has already taken place and another 0.5–0.7 °C is already committed. 2 °C is usually seen as the upper temperature limit to avoid 'dangerous global warming'.

Approval progress


On 14 February 2007, the European Parliament adopted a non-binding resolution demanding that the key proposal to cut carbon emissions by 20% should be increased to 25%.

The proposals were debated and approved, including the 20% cut in carbon emissions originally proposed, at a meeting of the European Council on 8 and 9 March 2007.

SET Plan


The FP7 research program only reserved a moderate amount of funding for energy research, although energy has recently emerged as one of the key issues of the European Union. A large part of FP7 energy funding is also devoted to fusion
Fusion power
Fusion power is the power generated by nuclear fusion processes. In fusion reactions two light atomic nuclei fuse together to form a heavier nucleus . In doing so they release a comparatively large amount of energy arising from the binding energy due to the strong nuclear force which is manifested...

 research, a technology that will not be able to help meet European climate and energy objectives until beyond 2050. The European Commission tried to redress this shortfall with the SET plan.

The Steering Group on the implementation of the Strategic Energy Technologies Plan (SET Plan) on 26 June 2008 will set the agenda for an EU energy technology policy. It will enhance the coordination of national and European research and innovation efforts to position the EU in the forefront of the low-carbon technologies markets.

The SET plan initiatives:
European Wind
Wind power
Wind power is the conversion of wind energy into a useful form of energy, such as using wind turbines to make electricity, windmills for mechanical power, windpumps for water pumping or drainage, or sails to propel ships....

 Initiative: focus on large turbines and large systems validation and demonstration (relevant to on and off-shore applications).
Solar Europe Initiative: focus on large-scale demonstration for photovoltaics
Photovoltaics
Photovoltaics is a method of generating electrical power by converting solar radiation into direct current electricity using semiconductors that exhibit the photovoltaic effect. Photovoltaic power generation employs solar panels composed of a number of solar cells containing a photovoltaic material...

 and concentrated solar power
Bioenergy
Bioenergy
Bioenergy is renewable energy made available from materials derived from biological sources. Biomass is any organic material which has stored sunlight in the form of chemical energy. As a fuel it may include wood, wood waste, straw, manure, sugarcane, and many other byproducts from a variety of...

 Europe Initiative: focus on 'next generation' biofuels within the context of an overall bio-energy use strategy.
European CO2 capture, transport and storage
Carbon capture and storage
Carbon capture and storage , alternatively referred to as carbon capture and sequestration, is a technology to prevent large quantities of from being released into the atmosphere from the use of fossil fuel in power generation and other industries. It is often regarded as a means of mitigating...

 initiative: focus on the whole system requirements, including efficiency, safety and public acceptance, to prove the viability of zero emission fossil fuel power plants
Zero Emission Fossil Fuel Power Plants
European Technology Platform for Zero Emission Fossil Fuel Power Plants The Zero Emission Fossil Fuel Power Plants is a European Technology Platform initiative to improve the competitive situation of the European Union in the field of greenhouse gas emission.The programme is a joint initiative ...

 at industrial scale.
European electricity grid initiative: focus on the development of the smart electricity system
Smart Power Grid
A smart grid is a digitally enabled electrical grid that gathers, distributes, and acts on information about the behavior of all participants in order to improve the efficiency, reliability, economics, and sustainability of electricity services.Smart grid policy is organized in Europe as Smart...

, including storage, and on the creation of a European centre to implement a research programme for the European transmission network.
Sustainable nuclear fission
Nuclear power
Nuclear power is the use of sustained nuclear fission to generate heat and electricity. Nuclear power plants provide about 6% of the world's energy and 13–14% of the world's electricity, with the U.S., France, and Japan together accounting for about 50% of nuclear generated electricity...

 initiative: focus on the development of Generation IV reactors technologies

In the autumn of 2008, a budget for the SET plan will be decided.

The IEA
International Energy Agency
The International Energy Agency is a Paris-based autonomous intergovernmental organization established in the framework of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development in 1974 in the wake of the 1973 oil crisis...

 raised its concern that demand-side technologies do not feature at all in the six priority areas of the SET Plan.

EERA


The European Energy Research Alliance (EERA) is founded by the leading research institute
Research institute
A research institute is an establishment endowed for doing research. Research institutes may specialize in basic research or may be oriented to applied research...

s in the European Union (EU), to expand and optimise EU energy research capabilities through the sharing of world-class national facilities and the joint realisation of national and European programmes. This new Research Alliance will be a key actor of the EU Strategic Energy Technology Plan (SET Plan) and will contribute to accelerate the development of new low carbon technologies for EU to move toward a low carbon economy.

Energy sources




Under the requirements of the Directive on Electricity Production from Renewable Energy Sources
Directive on Electricity Production from Renewable Energy Sources
The Directive on Electricity Production from Renewable Energy Sources is a European Union directive for promoting renewable energy use in electricity generation. It is officially named 2001/77/EC and popularly known as the RES Directive....

, which entered into force in October 2001, the member states are expected to meet "indicative" targets for renewable energy
Renewable energy
Renewable energy is energy which comes from natural resources such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, and geothermal heat, which are renewable . About 16% of global final energy consumption comes from renewables, with 10% coming from traditional biomass, which is mainly used for heating, and 3.4% from...

 production. Although there is significant variation in national targets, the average is that 22% of electricity should be generated by renewables by 2010 (compared to 13,9% in 1997). The European Commission has proposed in its Renewable Energy Roadmap21 a binding target of increasing the level of renewable energy in the EU's overall mix from less than 7% today to 20% by 2020.

Energy markets


The EU has also promoted electricity market liberalisation
Electricity liberalization
Electricity liberalization refers to the liberalization of electricity markets. As electricity supply is a natural monopoly, this entails complex and costly systems of regulation to enforce a system of competition....

 and security of supply through the 2003 Internal Market in Electricity Directive
Internal Market in Electricity Directive
Internal Market in Electricity Directive is the Directive 2003/54/EC of the European Parliament and the Council of 26 June 2003 concerning common rules for the internal market in electricity and repealing Directive 96/92/EC is based in the Treaty establishing the European Community, and in...

, which replaced early directives in this area. The Directive 2003/54/EC has been replaced by the Directive 2009/72/EC.

The 2004 Gas Security Directive has been intended to improve security of supply in the natural gas sector.

IPEEC


At the Heiligendamm Summit
33rd G8 summit
The 33rd G8 summit took place at Kempinski Grand Hotel in Heiligendamm in the old Duchy of Mecklenburg in the Northern German state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern on the Baltic Coast. The group of eight leaders met together from 6 June to 8 June 2007...

 in June 2007, the G8
G8
The Group of Eight is a forum, created by France in 1975, for the governments of seven major economies: Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. In 1997, the group added Russia, thus becoming the G8...

 acknowledged an EU proposal for an international initiative on energy efficiency tabled in March 2007, and agreed to explore, together with the International Energy Agency, the most effective means to promote energy efficiency internationally. A year later, on 8 June 2008, the G8 countries, China, India, South Korea and the European Community decided to establish the International Partnership for Energy Efficiency Cooperation, at the Energy Ministerial meeting hosted by Japan in the frame of the 2008 G8 Presidency, in Aomori.

Buildings


Buildings account for around 40% of EU energy requirements and have been the focus of several initiatives. From 4 January 2006, the 2002 Directive on the energy performance of buildings
Directive on the energy performance of buildings
The Directive on the energy performance of buildings is the Directive 2002/91/EC of the European Parliament and Council on energy efficiency of buildings. The Directive came into force on 4 January 2003 and had to be implemented by the EU Member States at the latest on 4 January 2006...

 requires member states to ensure that new buildings, as well as large existing building undergoing refurbishment, meet certain minimum energy requirements. It also requires that all buildings should undergo 'energy certification' prior to sale, and that boiler
Boiler
A boiler is a closed vessel in which water or other fluid is heated. The heated or vaporized fluid exits the boiler for use in various processes or heating applications.-Materials:...

s and air conditioning
Air conditioning
An air conditioner is a home appliance, system, or mechanism designed to dehumidify and extract heat from an area. The cooling is done using a simple refrigeration cycle...

 equipment should be regularly inspected.

As part of the EU's SAVE Programme, aimed at promoting energy efficiency and encouraging energy-saving behaviour, the Boiler Efficiency Directive specifies minimum levels of efficiency for boiler
Boiler
A boiler is a closed vessel in which water or other fluid is heated. The heated or vaporized fluid exits the boiler for use in various processes or heating applications.-Materials:...

s fired with liquid or gaseous fuels.

Transport


Carbon dioxide
Carbon dioxide
Carbon dioxide is a naturally occurring chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom...

 emissions from transport have risen rapidly in recent years, from 21% of the total in 1990 to 28% in 2004.

EU policies include the voluntary ACEA agreement
ACEA agreement
The ACEA agreement refers to a voluntary agreement between the European Automobile Manufacturers Association and the European Commission to limit the amount of carbon dioxide emitted by passenger cars sold in Europe...

, signed in 1998, to cut carbon dioxide emissions for new cars sold in Europe to an average of 140 grams of /km by 2008, a 25% cut from the 1995 level. Because the target was unlikely to be met, the European Commission published new proposals in February 2007, requiring a mandatory limit of 130 grams of /km for new cars by 2012, with 'complementary measures' being proposed to achieve the target of 120 grams of /km that had originally been expected.

In the area of fuels, the 2001 Biofuels Directive
Directive on the Promotion of the use of biofuels and other renewable fuels for transport
The Directive on the Promotion of the use of biofuels and other renewable fuels for transport, officially 2003/30/EC and popularly better known as the biofuels directive is a European Union directive for promoting the use of biofuels for EU transport...

 requires that 5,75% of all transport fossil fuels (petrol and diesel) should be replaced by biofuels by 31 December 2010, with an intermediate target of 2 % by the end of 2005. In February 2007 the European Commission proposed that, from 2011, suppliers will have to reduce carbon emissions per unit of energy by 1% a year from 2010 levels, to result in a cut of 10% by 2020 Stricter fuel standards to combat climate change and reduce air pollution – European Commission press release.

Flights


EU airlines can be charged for their greenhouse gas emissions on flights to and from Europe according to a court ruling in October 2011.

Industry


The European Union Emission Trading Scheme
European Union Emission Trading Scheme
The European Union Emissions Trading Scheme also known as the European Union Emissions Trading System, was the first large emissions trading scheme in the world. It was launched in 2005 to combat climate change and is a major pillar of EU climate policy...

, introduced in 2005 under the 2003 Emission Trading Directive, sets national caps on greenhouse gas
Greenhouse gas
A greenhouse gas is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiation within the thermal infrared range. This process is the fundamental cause of the greenhouse effect. The primary greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere are water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone...

 emissions for power plants and other large point sources.

Consumer goods


A further area of energy policy has been in the area of consumer goods, where energy labels
European Union energy label
EU Directive 92/75/EC established an energy consumption labeling scheme. The directive was implemented by several other directives thus most white goods, light bulb packaging and cars must have an EU Energy Label clearly displayed when offered for sale or rent...

 were introduced to encourage consumers to purchase more energy-efficient appliances.

External energy relations



Beyond the bounds of the European Union, EU energy policy has included negotiating and developing wider international agreements, such as the Energy Charter Treaty
Energy Charter Treaty
The Energy Charter Treaty is an international agreement which provides a multilateral framework for energy trade, transit and investments...

, the Kyoto Protocol
Kyoto Protocol
The Kyoto Protocol is a protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change , aimed at fighting global warming...

, the post-Kyoto regime and a framework agreement on energy efficiency; extension of the EC energy regulatory framework or principles to neighbours (Energy Community
Energy Community
The Energy Community is a community established between the European Union and a number of third countries in order to extend the EU internal energy market to Southeast Europe and beyond...

, Baku Initiative
Baku Initiative
The Baku Initiative is an international initiative of the European Union. It is a policy dialogue on energy and transport cooperation between the European Union and the littoral states of the Black Sea, Caspian Sea and their neighbours, undertaken as part of the INOGATE energy and TRACECA...

, Euromed energy cooperation) and the emission trading scheme to global partners; the promotion of research and the use of renewable energy.

The EU-Russia energy cooperation will be based on a new comprehensive framework agreement within the post-Partnership and Cooperation Agreement (PCA), which will be negotiated in 2007. The energy cooperation with other third energy producer and transit countries is facilitated with different tools, such as the PCAs, the existing and foreseen Memorandums of Understanding on Energy Cooperation (with Ukraine, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan and Algeria), the Association Agreements with Mediterranean countries, the European Neighbourhood Policy
European Neighbourhood Policy
The European Neighbourhood Policy is a foreign relations instrument of the European Union which seeks to tie those countries to the east and south of the EU into the EU...

 Action Plans; Euromed energy cooperation; the Baku initiative; and the EU-Norway energy dialogue. For the cooperation with African countries, a comprehensive Africa-Europe Energy partnership would be launched at the highest level, with the integration of Europe's Energy and Development Policies.

For ensuring efficient follow-up and coherence in pursuing the initiatives and processes, for sharing information in case of an external energy crisis, and for assisting the EU’s early response and reactions in case of energy security threats, the network of energy correspondents in the Member States was established in early 2007. After the Russian-Ukrainian Gas Crisis of 2009 the EU decided that the existing external measures regarding gas supply security should be supplemented by internal provisions for emergency prevention and response, such as enhancing gas storage and network capacity or the development of the technical prerequisites for reverse flow in transit pipelines.

Research and development


The European Union is also active in the areas of energy research, development and promotion, via initiatives such as CEPHEUS
CEPHEUS
CEPHEUS was a research project that assessed and validated the German Passivhaus energy efficient building standard on a European scale...

 (ultra-low energy housing), and programs under the umbrella titles of SAVE (energy saving) ALTENER (new and renewable energy sources), STEER
Steer
Steer, Steers or Steering may mean:* Steering, mechanism used to turn a vehicle* Steer or bullock, castrated male cattle* "Steer" , song by Missy Higgins* George Steer, British journalist and soldier* Steers, South African fast food chain...

 (transport) and COOPENER (developing countries). Through Fusion for Energy
Fusion for Energy
The European Union's Joint Undertaking for ITER and the Development of Fusion Energy or Fusion for Energy is a European Union organisation known as a Joint Undertaking created under the Euratom Treaty by decision of the Council of the European Union...

, the EU is participating in the ITER
ITER
ITER is an international nuclear fusion research and engineering project, which is currently building the world's largest and most advanced experimental tokamak nuclear fusion reactor at Cadarache in the south of France...

 project.

Public opinion


In a poll carried out for the European Commission in October and November 2005, 47% of the citizens questioned in the 27 countries of the EU (including the 2 states that joined in 2007) were in favour of taking decisions on key energy policy issues at a European level. 37% favoured national decisions and 8% that they be tackled locally.

A similar survey of 29 220 people in March and May 2006 indicated that the balance had changed in favour of national decisions in these areas (42% in favour), with 39% backing EU policy making and 12% preferring local decisions. There was significant national variation with this, with 55% in favour in the Netherlands, but only 15% in Finland.

A comprehensive public opinion survey was performed in May and June 2006. The authors propose following conclusions:
  • Energy issues are considered to be important but not at first glance.
  • EU citizens perceive great future promise in the use of renewable energies. Despite majority opposition, nuclear energy also has its place in the future energy mix.
  • Citizens appear to opt for changing the energy structure, enhancing research and development and guaranteeing the stability of the energy field rather than saving energy as the way to meet energy challenges.
  • The possible future consequences of energy issues do not generate deep fears in Europeans’ minds.
  • Europeans appear to be fairly familiar with energy issues, although their knowledge seems somewhat vague.
  • Energy issues touch everybody and it is therefore hard to distinguish clear groups with differing perceptions. Nevertheless, rough distinction between groups of citizens is sketched.

See also


  • CHP Directive
    CHP Directive
    This refers to the Directive on the promotion of cogeneration based on a useful heat demand in the internal energy market and amending Directive 92/62/EEC, officially 2004/8/EC and popularly better known as the 'Combined Heat and Power Directive'...

  • European Atomic Forum
    European Atomic Forum
    The European Atomic Forum is the Brussels-based trade association for the nuclear energy industry in Europe. It says that its "main purpose is to promote the use of nuclear energy in Europe by representing the interests of this important and multi-faceted industrial sector."The current director of...

  • Directorate-General for Energy (European Commission)
    Directorate-General for Energy (European Commission)
    The Directorate-General for Energy , also internally the abbreviation ENER is used, is a Directorate-General of the European Commission...

  • Eco-Design of Energy-Using Products Directive
    Eco-Design of Energy-Using Products Directive
    The European Union's Ecodesign Directive establishes a framework to set mandatory ecological requirements for energy-using and energy-related products sold in all 27 Member States...

  • Electricity in the European Union
  • Energy Charter Treaty
    Energy Charter Treaty
    The Energy Charter Treaty is an international agreement which provides a multilateral framework for energy trade, transit and investments...

  • Energy conservation
    Energy conservation
    Energy conservation refers to efforts made to reduce energy consumption. Energy conservation can be achieved through increased efficient energy use, in conjunction with decreased energy consumption and/or reduced consumption from conventional energy sources...

  • European Climate Change Programme
    European Climate Change Programme
    The European Climate Change Programme was launched in June 2000 by the European Union's European Commission, toward avoiding dangerous climate change....

  • Energy Community
    Energy Community
    The Energy Community is a community established between the European Union and a number of third countries in order to extend the EU internal energy market to Southeast Europe and beyond...

  • European Commissioner for Energy
    European Commissioner for Energy
    The Commissioner for Energy is a member of the European Commission. The current Commissioner is Günther Oettinger .-Responsibilities:The Commissioner holds responsibility for the European Union's energy policy as well as nuclear issues . It was previously a backwater in the Commission but has now...

  • European Common Transport Policy
  • European Pollutant Emission Register
    European Pollutant Emission Register
    The European Pollutant Emission Register is a Pollutant Release and Transfer Register providing access to information on the annual emissions of industrial facilities in the Member States of the European Union , as well as Norway...

     (EPER)
  • European Transport, Telecommunications and Energy Council
  • Global strategic petroleum reserves
    Global strategic petroleum reserves
    Global strategic petroleum reserves refer to crude oil inventories held by the government of a particular country, as well as private industry, for the purpose of providing economic and national security during an energy crisis...

  • Commission Green Paper
  • INOGATE
    INOGATE
    INOGATE is an international energy co-operation programme between the European Union , Turkey and countries of the NIS, with the exceptions of the Baltic States and the Russian Federation. Formally it describes itself as supporting "international cooperation between the European Union, the...

  • Renewable energy in the European Union
    Renewable energy in the European Union
    The countries of the European Union are currently the number two global leaders in the development and application of renewable energy. Promoting the use of renewable energy sources is important both to the reduction of the EU's dependence on foreign energy imports, and in meeting targets to combat...

  • Commission’s Strategic Energy Review
  • Strategic Energy Technology plan
  • 2010–2014 action plan on Energy Policy for Europe
  • Energy Efficiency in Europe
    Energy efficiency in Europe
    The Energy efficiency in Europe study is part of the Odyssee project. It aims to monitor energy efficiency progress and CO2-reduction for the EU-27 countries and Norway and Croatia, understand the energy demand trends for European countries, compare the countries in their relative energy efficiency...


External links


In the media