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An encoder is a device, circuit, transducer, software program, algorithm or person that converts information from one format or code
A code is a rule for converting a piece of information into another form or representation , not necessarily of the same type....

 to another, for the purposes of standardization, speed, secrecy, security, or saving space by shrinking size.


Software for encoding audio
Comparison of audio codecs
The following tables compare general and technical information for a variety of audio formats and audio compression formats. For listening tests comparing the perceived audio quality of audio formats and codecs, see the article Codec listening test....

, video
Comparison of video codecs
A video codec is software or a device that provides encoding and decoding which may or may not include the use of video compression and/or decompression for digital video....

, text
Character encoding
A character encoding system consists of a code that pairs each character from a given repertoire with something else, such as a sequence of natural numbers, octets or electrical pulses, in order to facilitate the transmission of data through telecommunication networks or storage of text in...

 into standardized formats:
  • A compressor
    Data compression
    In computer science and information theory, data compression, source coding or bit-rate reduction is the process of encoding information using fewer bits than the original representation would use....

     encodes data (e.g., audio/video/images) into a smaller form (See codec
    A codec is a device or computer program capable of encoding or decoding a digital data stream or signal. The word codec is a portmanteau of "compressor-decompressor" or, more commonly, "coder-decoder"...

  • An audio encoder may be capable of capturing, compressing and converting audio
  • A video encoder may be capable of capturing, compressing and converting audio/video
  • An email encoder secures online email addresses from email harvesters
  • A PHTML encoder preserves script code logic in a secure format that is transparent to visitors on a web site
  • A multiplexer
    In electronics, a multiplexer is a device that selects one of several analog or digital input signals and forwards the selected input into a single line. A multiplexer of 2n inputs has n select lines, which are used to select which input line to send to the output...

     combines multiple inputs into one output.

Job positions

  • A Data Entry Encoder may enter data from phone surveys in a coded format into a database.
  • A Data Entry Encoder may enter payment amounts from legal tender documents from financial institutions into a database.
  • A Manual Encoder may manually scan code tags on baggage that were missed by an automated system.


  • A device or person that encodes or encrypts
    In cryptography, encryption is the process of transforming information using an algorithm to make it unreadable to anyone except those possessing special knowledge, usually referred to as a key. The result of the process is encrypted information...

     military messages, such as the ADFGVX Cipher in WWI or the Enigma device in WWII.
  • A Microchip hopping encoder integrated circuit for non-fixed-code secured entry.

Medical encoding software

  • EncoderPro searches ICD-9-CM, CPT
    Current Procedural Terminology
    The Current Procedural Terminology code set is maintained by the American Medical Association through the CPT Editorial Panel. The CPT code set describes medical, surgical, and diagnostic services and is designed to communicate uniform information about medical services and procedures among...

    , and HCPCS
    Healthcare Common Procedure Coding System
    The Healthcare Common Procedure Coding System is a set of health care procedure codes based on the American Medical Association's Current Procedural Terminology .-History:...

     Level II medical codes, to increase accuracy and allow ease of auditing for compliance.


Transducers (such as optical or magnetic encoders) sense position or orientation for use as a reference or active feedback to control position:
  • A rotary encoder
    Rotary encoder
    A rotary encoder, also called a shaft encoder, is an electro-mechanical device that converts the angular position or motion of a shaft or axle to an analog or digital code. The output of incremental encoders provides information about the motion of the shaft which is typically further processed...

     converts rotary position to an analog (e.g., analog quadrature) or digital (e.g., digital quadrature, 32-bit parallel, or USB) electronic signal.
  • A linear encoder
    Linear encoder
    A linear encoder is a sensor, transducer or readhead paired with a scale that encodes position. The sensor reads the scale in order to convert the encoded position into an analog or digital signal, which can then be decoded into position by a digital readout or motion controller.The encoder can be...

     similarly converts linear position to an electronic signal.


  • A device
    Integrated circuit
    An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit is an electronic circuit manufactured by the patterned diffusion of trace elements into the surface of a thin substrate of semiconductor material...

     used to change a signal (such as a bitstream
    A bitstream or bit stream is a time series of bits.A bytestream is a series of bytes, typically of 8 bits each, and can be regarded as a special case of a bitstream....

    ) or data
    The term data refers to qualitative or quantitative attributes of a variable or set of variables. Data are typically the results of measurements and can be the basis of graphs, images, or observations of a set of variables. Data are often viewed as the lowest level of abstraction from which...

     into a code
    A code is a rule for converting a piece of information into another form or representation , not necessarily of the same type....


Electronic circuits

  • A Simple encoder assigns a binary code to an active input line.
  • Priority encoder
    Priority encoder
    A priority encoder is a circuit or algorithm that compresses multiple binary inputs into a smaller number of outputs. The output of a priority encoder is the binary representation of the ordinal number starting from zero of the most significant input bit...

    s establish the priority of competing inputs (such as interrupt requests) by outputting a binary code representing the highest-priority active input.

See also

  • Decoder
    A decoder is a device which does the reverse operation of an encoder, undoing the encoding so that the original information can be retrieved. The same method used to encode is usually just reversed in order to decode...

  • Codec
    A codec is a device or computer program capable of encoding or decoding a digital data stream or signal. The word codec is a portmanteau of "compressor-decompressor" or, more commonly, "coder-decoder"...

  • Endec
    An endec is a device which acts as both an encoder and a decoder on a signal or data stream, either with the same or separate circuitry or algorithm...

  • Line code
    Line code
    In telecommunication, a line code is a code chosen for use within a communications system for baseband transmission purposes...

  • Modulation
    In electronics and telecommunications, modulation is the process of varying one or more properties of a high-frequency periodic waveform, called the carrier signal, with a modulating signal which typically contains information to be transmitted...

  • Redundancy in databases
    Database normalization
    In the design of a relational database management system , the process of organizing data to minimize redundancy is called normalization. The goal of database normalization is to decompose relations with anomalies in order to produce smaller, well-structured relations...

  • Television encoding: NTSC
    NTSC, named for the National Television System Committee, is the analog television system that is used in most of North America, most of South America , Burma, South Korea, Taiwan, Japan, the Philippines, and some Pacific island nations and territories .Most countries using the NTSC standard, as...

    , PAL
    PAL, short for Phase Alternating Line, is an analogue television colour encoding system used in broadcast television systems in many countries. Other common analogue television systems are NTSC and SECAM. This page primarily discusses the PAL colour encoding system...

     and SECAM
    SECAM, also written SÉCAM , is an analog color television system first used in France....

  • Transcoding

External links