Emission standard

Emission standard

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Encyclopedia
Emission standards are requirements that set specific limits to the amount of pollutants
Air pollution
Air pollution is the introduction of chemicals, particulate matter, or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or cause damage to the natural environment or built environment, into the atmosphere....

 that can be released into the environment. Many emissions standards focus on regulating pollutants released by automobile
Motor vehicle emissions
Motor vehicle emissions are composed of the by-products that comes out of the exhaust systems or other emissions such as gasoline evaporation...

s (motor cars) and other powered vehicle
Vehicle
A vehicle is a device that is designed or used to transport people or cargo. Most often vehicles are manufactured, such as bicycles, cars, motorcycles, trains, ships, boats, and aircraft....

s but they can also regulate emissions from industry
Industry
Industry refers to the production of an economic good or service within an economy.-Industrial sectors:There are four key industrial economic sectors: the primary sector, largely raw material extraction industries such as mining and farming; the secondary sector, involving refining, construction,...

, power plants, small equipment such as lawn mowers and diesel generators
Electrical generator
In electricity generation, an electric generator is a device that converts mechanical energy to electrical energy. A generator forces electric charge to flow through an external electrical circuit. It is analogous to a water pump, which causes water to flow...

. Frequent policy alternatives to emissions standards are technology standards (which mandate Standards generally regulate the emissions
Motor vehicle emissions
Motor vehicle emissions are composed of the by-products that comes out of the exhaust systems or other emissions such as gasoline evaporation...

 of nitrogen oxides (NOx)
NOx
NOx is a generic term for the mono-nitrogen oxides NO and NO2 . They are produced from the reaction of nitrogen and oxygen gases in the air during combustion, especially at high temperatures...

, sulfur oxides
Lower sulfur oxides
The lower sulfur oxides are a group of chemical compounds consisting of :*SO, sulfur monoxide and its dimer S2O2*S2O*sulfur monoxides, SnO, based on cyclic Sn rings where n is 5-10*S7O2*polymeric oxides, polysulfuroxides sometimes termed PSO's...

, particulate matter (PM) or soot
Soot
Soot is a general term that refers to impure carbon particles resulting from the incomplete combustion of a hydrocarbon. It is more properly restricted to the product of the gas-phase combustion process but is commonly extended to include the residual pyrolyzed fuel particles such as cenospheres,...

, carbon monoxide
Carbon monoxide
Carbon monoxide , also called carbonous oxide, is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly lighter than air. It is highly toxic to humans and animals in higher quantities, although it is also produced in normal animal metabolism in low quantities, and is thought to have some normal...

 (CO), or volatile hydrocarbon
Hydrocarbon
In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon. Hydrocarbons from which one hydrogen atom has been removed are functional groups, called hydrocarbyls....

s (see carbon dioxide equivalent
Carbon dioxide equivalent
Carbon dioxide equivalent and Equivalent carbon dioxide are two related but distinct measures for describing how much global warming a given type and amount of greenhouse gas may cause, using the functionally equivalent amount or concentration of carbon dioxide as the reference.- Global warming...

).

Vehicle Emission performance standard



An emission performance standard is a limit that sets thresholds above which a different type of emission control technology might be needed. While emission performance standards have been used to dictate limits for conventional pollutants such as oxides of nitrogen and oxides of sulfur
Lower sulfur oxides
The lower sulfur oxides are a group of chemical compounds consisting of :*SO, sulfur monoxide and its dimer S2O2*S2O*sulfur monoxides, SnO, based on cyclic Sn rings where n is 5-10*S7O2*polymeric oxides, polysulfuroxides sometimes termed PSO's...

 (NOx and SOx), this regulatory technique may be used to regulate greenhouse gas
Greenhouse gas
A greenhouse gas is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiation within the thermal infrared range. This process is the fundamental cause of the greenhouse effect. The primary greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere are water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone...

ses, particularly carbon dioxide
Carbon dioxide
Carbon dioxide is a naturally occurring chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom...

 (CO2). In the US, this is given in pounds of carbon dioxide per megawatt-hour
Watt-hour
The kilowatt hour, or kilowatt-hour, is a unit of energy equal to 1000 watt hours or 3.6 megajoules.For constant power, energy in watt hours is the product of power in watts and time in hours...

 (lbs. CO2/MWhr), and kilograms CO2/MWhr elsewhere in the world...

USA


In the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

, emissions standards are managed by the Environmental Protection Agency
United States Environmental Protection Agency
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is an agency of the federal government of the United States charged with protecting human health and the environment, by writing and enforcing regulations based on laws passed by Congress...

 (EPA). The state of California
California
California is a state located on the West Coast of the United States. It is by far the most populous U.S. state, and the third-largest by land area...

 has special dispensation to promulgate more stringent vehicle emissions standards, and other states may choose to follow either the national or California
California
California is a state located on the West Coast of the United States. It is by far the most populous U.S. state, and the third-largest by land area...

 standards.

California's emissions standards are set by the California Air Resources Board
California Air Resources Board
The California Air Resources Board, also known as CARB or ARB, is the "clean air agency" in the government of California. Established in 1967 in the Mulford-Carrell Act, combining the Bureau of Air Sanitation and the Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Board, CARB is a department within the...

, known locally by its acronym "CARB". Given that California's automotive market is one of the largest in the world, CARB wields enormous influence over the emissions requirements that major automakers must meet if they wish to sell into that market. In addition, several other U.S. states also choose to follow the CARB standards, so their rulemaking has broader implications within the U.S. How Stuff Works: CARB lists 16 other states adopting CARB rules as of mid 2009. CARB's policies have also influenced EU emissions standards.

Federal (National) "Tier 1" regulations went into effect starting in 1994, and "Tier 2" standards are being phased in from 2004 to 2009. Automobiles and light truck
Light truck
Light truck or light duty truck is a U.S. classification for trucks or truck-based vehicles with a payload capacity of less than 4,000 pounds...

s (SUVs, pickup truck
Pickup truck
A pickup truck is a light motor vehicle with an open-top rear cargo area .-Definition:...

s, and minivan
Minivan
Minivan is a type of van designed for personal use. Minivans are typically either two-box or one box designs for maximum interior volume – and are taller than a sedan, hatchback, or a station wagon....

s) are treated differently under certain standards.

California is attempting to regulate greenhouse gas
Greenhouse gas
A greenhouse gas is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiation within the thermal infrared range. This process is the fundamental cause of the greenhouse effect. The primary greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere are water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone...

 emissions from automobiles, but faces a court challenge from the federal government. The states are also attempting to compel the federal EPA to regulate greenhouse gas
Greenhouse gas
A greenhouse gas is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiation within the thermal infrared range. This process is the fundamental cause of the greenhouse effect. The primary greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere are water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone...

 emissions, which as of 2007 it has declined to do. On May 19, 2009 news reports indicate that the Federal EPA will largely adopt California's standards on greenhouse gas emissions.

California and several other western states have passed bills requiring performance-based regulation of greenhouse gases from electricity generation.

In an effort to decrease emissions from heavy-duty diesel engines faster, the California Air Resources Board
California Air Resources Board
The California Air Resources Board, also known as CARB or ARB, is the "clean air agency" in the government of California. Established in 1967 in the Mulford-Carrell Act, combining the Bureau of Air Sanitation and the Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Board, CARB is a department within the...

's Carl Moyer Program funds upgrades that are in advance of regulations.

The EPA has separate regulations for small engines, such as groundskeeping equipment. The states must also promulgate miscellaneous emissions regulations in order to comply with the National Ambient Air Quality Standards
National Ambient Air Quality Standards
The National Ambient Air Quality Standards are standards established by the United States Environmental Protection Agency under authority of the Clean Air Act that apply for outdoor air throughout the country...

.

European Union



The European Union has its own set of emissions standards that all new vehicles must meet. Currently, standards are set for all road vehicles, trains, barges and 'nonroad mobile machinery' (such as tractors). No standards apply to seagoing ships or airplanes. The emissions standards change based on the test cycle used: ECE R49 (old) and ESC
ESC
-As an abbreviation:* Ecole Supérieure de Commerce, a business school in the French system of "Grandes Ecoles"* Edison State College* Edmonton Ski Club* Electronic stability control* Electronic Systems Center* Electronic speed control...

 (European Steady Cycle, since 2000).

Currently there are no standards for CO2 emissions. The European Parliament
European Parliament
The European Parliament is the directly elected parliamentary institution of the European Union . Together with the Council of the European Union and the Commission, it exercises the legislative function of the EU and it has been described as one of the most powerful legislatures in the world...

 has suggested introducing mandatory CO2 emission standards to replace current voluntary commitments by the auto manufacturers (see ACEA agreement
ACEA agreement
The ACEA agreement refers to a voluntary agreement between the European Automobile Manufacturers Association and the European Commission to limit the amount of carbon dioxide emitted by passenger cars sold in Europe...

) and labeling. In late 2005, the European Commission
European Commission
The European Commission is the executive body of the European Union. The body is responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the Union's treaties and the general day-to-day running of the Union....

 started working on a proposal for a new law to limit emissions from cars. The European Commission has received support of the European Parliament for its proposal to promote a broad market introduction of clean and energy efficient vehicles through public procurement.

The EU is to introduce Euro 4 effective January 1, 2008, Euro 5 effective January 1, 2010 and Euro 6 effective January 1, 2014.
These dates have been postponed for two years to give oil refineries the opportunity to modernize their plants.

UK


The British Parliament
Parliament of the United Kingdom
The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative body in the United Kingdom, British Crown dependencies and British overseas territories, located in London...

 proposed legislation regulating CO2 emissions from electricity generation via emission performance standards. This bill was even more stringent than that of the western American states in that it limited production to the equivalent of 400 kg CO2/MWh, which would effectively preclude the construction of any traditional coal-fired power plants
Fossil fuel power plant
A fossil-fuel power station is a power station that burns fossil fuels such as coal, natural gas or petroleum to produce electricity. Central station fossil-fuel power plants are designed on a large scale for continuous operation...

.

Germany


According to the German federal automotive office 37.3 % (15.4 million) cars in Germany (total car population 41.3 million) conform to the Euro 4 standard from Jan 2009.

China



Due to rapidly expanding wealth and prosperity, the number of coal power plants and cars on China's roads is rapidly growing, creating an ongoing pollution problem. China enacted its first emissions controls on automobiles in 2000, equivalent to Euro I standards. China's State Environmental Protection Administration (SEPA) upgraded emission controls again on July 1, 2004 to the Euro II standard. More stringent emission standard, National Standard III, equivalent to Euro III standards, went into effect on July 1, 2007. Plans are for Euro IV standards to take effect in 2010. Beijing introduced the Euro IV standard in advance on January 1, 2008, became the first city in mainland China to adopt this standard.

Hong Kong



From Jan 1, 2006, all new passenger cars with spark-ignition engines in Hong Kong
Hong Kong
Hong Kong is one of two Special Administrative Regions of the People's Republic of China , the other being Macau. A city-state situated on China's south coast and enclosed by the Pearl River Delta and South China Sea, it is renowned for its expansive skyline and deep natural harbour...

 must meet either Euro IV petrol standard, Japanese Heisei 17 standard or US EPA Tier 2 Bin 5 standard. For new passenger cars with compression-ignition engines, they must meet US EPA Tier 2 Bin 5 standard.

Background


The first Indian emission regulations were idle emission limits which became effective in 1989. These idle emission regulations were soon replaced by mass emission limits for both petrol (1991) and diesel (1992) vehicles, which were gradually tightened during the 1990s. Since the year 2000, India started adopting European emission and fuel regulations for four-wheeled light-duty and for heavy-dc. Indian own emission regulations still apply to two- and three-wheeled vehicles.

Current requirement is that all transport vehicles carry a fitness certificate that is renewed each year after the first two years of new vehicle registration.

On October 6, 2003, the National Auto Fuel Policy has been announced, which envisages a phased program for introducing Euro 2 - 4 emission and fuel regulations by 2010. The implementation schedule of EU emission standards in India is summarized in Table 1.
Table 1: Indian Emission Standards (4-Wheel Vehicles)
Standard Reference Date Region
India 2000 Euro 1 2000 Nationwide
Bharat Stage II Euro 2 2001 NCR*, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai
2003.04 NCR*, 12 Cities†
2005.04 Nationwide
Bharat Stage III Euro 3 2005.04 NCR*, 12 Cities†
2010.04 Nationwide
Bharat Stage IV Euro 4 2010.04 NCR*, 12 Cities†
* National Capital Region (Delhi)
† Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Bengaluru, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad, Pune, Surat, Kanpur, Lucknow, Sholapur, and Agra


The above standards apply to all new 4-wheel vehicles sold and registered in the respective regions. In addition, the National Auto Fuel Policy introduces certain emission requirements for interstate buses with routes originating or terminating in Delhi or the other 10 cities.

For 2-and 3-wheelers, Bharat Stage II (Euro 2) will be applicable from April 1, 2005 and Stage III (Euro 3) standards would come in force preferably from April 1, 2008, but not later than April 1, 2010.

Trucks and Buses


Emission standards for new heavy-duty diesel engines—applicable to vehicles of GVW > 3,500 kg—are listed in Table 1. Emissions are tested over the ECE R49 13-mode test (through the Euro II stage)
Table 2
Emission Standards for Diesel Truck and Bus Engines, g/kWh
Year Reference CO HC NOx PM
1992 - 17.3-32.6 2.7-3.7 - -
1996 - 11.20 2.40 14.4 -
2000 Euro I 4.5 1.1 8.0 0.36*
2005† Euro II 4.0 1.1 7.0 0.15
2010† Euro III 2.1 0.66 5.0 0.10
* 0.612 for engines below 85 kW
† earlier introduction in selected regions, see Table 1


More details on Euro I-III regulations can be found in the EU heavy-duty engine standards page.

Light duty diesel vehicles


Emission standards for light-duty diesel vehicles (GVW ≤ 3,500 kg) are summarized in Table 3. Ranges of emission limits refer to different classes (by reference mass) of light commercial vehicles; compare the EU light-duty vehicle emission standards page for details on the Euro 1 and later standards. The lowest limit in each range applies to passenger cars (GVW ≤ 2,500 kg; up to 6 seats).
Table 3
Emission Standards for Light-Duty Diesel Vehicles, g/km
Year Reference CO HC HC+NOx PM
1992 - 17.3-32.6 2.7-3.7 - -
1996 - 5.0-9.0 - 2.0-4.0 -
2000 Euro 1 2.72-6.90 - 0.97-1.70 0.14-0.25
2005† Euro 2 1.0-1.5 - 0.7-1.2 0.08-0.17
† earlier introduction in selected regions, see Table 1


The test cycle has been the ECE + EUDC for low power vehicles (with maximum speed limited to 90 km/h). Before 2000, emissions were measured over an Indian test cycle.

Engines for use in light-duty vehicles can be also emission tested using an engine dynamometer. The respective emission standards are listed in Table 4.
Table 4
Emission Standards for Light-Duty Diesel Engines, g/kWh
Year Reference CO HC NOx PM
1992 - 14.0 3.5 18.0 -
1996 - 11.20 2.40 14.4 -
2000 Euro I 4.5 1.1 8.0 0.36*
2005† Euro II 4.0 1.1 7.0 0.15
* 0.612 for engines below 85 kW
† earlier introduction in selected regions, see Table 1

4-wheel vehicles

Emissions standards for gasoline vehicles (GVW ≤ 3,500 kg) are summarized in Table 5. Ranges of emission limits refer to different classes of light commercial vehicles (compare the EU light-duty vehicle emission standards page). The lowest limit in each range applies to passenger cars (GVW ≤ 2,500 kg; up to 6 seats).
Table 5
Emission Standards for Gasoline Vehicles (GVW ≤ 3,500 kg), g/km
Year Reference CO HC HC+NOx
1991 - 14.3-27.1 2.0-2.9 -
1996 - 8.68-12.4 - 3.00-4.36
1998* - 4.34-6.20 - 1.50-2.18
2000 Euro 1 2.72-6.90 - 0.97-1.70
2005† Euro 2 2.2-5.0 - 0.5-0.7
* for catalytic converter fitted vehicles
† earlier introduction in selected regions, see Table 1


Gasoline vehicles must also meet an evaporative (SHED) limit of 2 g/test (effective 2000).
3- and 2-wheel vehicles

Emission standards for 3- and 2-wheel gasoline vehicles are listed in the following tables.
Table 6
Emission Standards for 3-Wheel Gasoline Vehicles, g/km
Year CO HC HC+NOx
1991 12-30 8-12 -
1996 6.75 - 5.40
2000 4.00 - 2.00
2005 (BS II) 2.25 - 2.00

Table 7
Emission Standards for 2-Wheel Gasoline Vehicles, g/km
Year CO HC HC+NOx
1991 12-30 8-12 -
1996 5.50 - 3.60 4.60


Overview of the emission norms in India by CDR

  • 1991 - Idle CO Limits for Gasoline Vehicles and Free Acceleration Smoke for Diesel Vehicles, Mass Emission Norms for Gasoline Vehicles.
  • 1992 - Mass Emission Norms for Diesel Vehicles.
  • 1996 - Revision of Mass Emission Norms for Gasoline and Diesel Vehicles, mandatory fitment of Catalytic Converter for Cars in Metros on Unleaded Gasoline.
  • 1998 - Cold Start Norms Introduced .
  • 2000 - India 2000 (Eq. to Euro I) Norms, Modified IDC (Indian Driving Cycle), Bharat Stage II Norms for Delhi.
  • 2001 - Bharat Stage II (Eq. to Euro II) Norms for All Metros, Emission Norms for CNG & LPG Vehicles.
  • 2003 - Bharat Stage II (Eq. to Euro II) Norms for 11 major cities.
  • 2005 - From 1 April Bharat Stage III (Eq. to Euro III) Norms for 11 major cities.
  • 2010 - Bharat Stage III Emission Norms for 4-wheelers for entire country whereas Bharat Stage - IV (Eq. to Euro IV) for 13 major cities. Bharat Stage IV also has norms on OBD (similar to Euro III but diluted)

Japan


Background

In 1973 the first installment of four sets of new emissions standards were introduced. Interim standards were introduced on January 1, 1975 and again for 1976. The final set of standards were introduced for 1978. While the standards were introduced they were not made immediately mandatory, instead tax breaks were offered for cars which passed them. The standards were based on those adopted by the original US Clean Air Act
Clean Air Act (United States)
The Clean Air Act is a United States federal law enacted by Congress, and signed by President Richard Nixon on December 31, 1970 to control air pollution on a national level. It requires the Environmental Protection Agency to develop and enforce regulations to protect the general public from...

 of 1970, but the test cycle included more slow city driving to correctly reflect the Japanese situation. The 1978 limits for mean emissions during a "Hot Start Test" of CO, hydrocarbons, and NOx were 2.1 g/km of CO, 0.25 g/km of HC, and 0.25 g/km of NOx respectively. Maximum limits are 2.7 g/km of CO, 0.39 g/km of HC, and 0.48 g/km of NOx. The "10 - 15 Mode Hot Cycle" test, used to determine individual fuel economy ratings and emissions observed from the vehicle being tested, use a specific testing regime.

In 1992, to cope with NOx pollution problems from existing vehicle fleets in highly populated metropolitan areas, the Ministry of the Environment adopted the “Law Concerning Special Measures to Reduce the Total Amount of Nitrogen Oxides Emitted from Motor Vehicles in Specified Areas”, called in short The Motor Vehicle NOx Law. The regulation designated a total of 196 communities in the Tokyo, Saitama, Kanagawa, Osaka and Hyogo Prefectures as areas with significant air pollution due to nitrogen oxides emitted from motor vehicles. Under the Law, several measures had to be taken to control NOx from in-use vehicles, including enforcing emission standards for specified vehicle categories.

The regulation was amended in June 2001 to tighten the existing NOx requirements and to add PM control provisions. The amended rule is called the “Law Concerning Special Measures to Reduce the Total Amount of Nitrogen Oxides and Particulate Matter Emitted from Motor Vehicles in Specified Areas”, or in short the Automotive NOx and PM Law.

Emission Standards

The NOx and PM Law introduces emission standards for specified categories of in-use highway vehicles including commercial goods (cargo) vehicles such as trucks and vans, buses, and special purpose motor vehicles, irrespective of the fuel type. The regulation also applies to diesel powered passenger cars (but not to gasoline cars).

In-use vehicles in the specified categories must meet 1997/98 emission standards for the respective new vehicle type (in the case of heavy duty engines NOx = 4.5 g/kWh, PM = 0.25 g/kWh). In other words, the 1997/98 new vehicle standards are retroactively applied to older vehicles already on the road. Vehicle owners have two methods to comply:
  1. Replace old vehicles with newer, cleaner models
  2. Retrofit old vehicles with approved NOx and PM control devices


Vehicles have a grace period, between 9 and 12 years from the initial registration, to comply. The grace period depends on the vehicle type, as follows:
  • Light commercial vehicles (GVW ≤ 2500 kg): 8 years
  • Heavy commercial vehicles (GVW > 2500 kg): 9 years
  • Micro buses (11-29 seats): 10 years
  • Large buses (≥ 30 seats): 12 years
  • Special vehicles (based on a cargo truck or bus): 10 years
  • Diesel passenger cars: 9 years


Furthermore, the regulation allows fulfillment of its requirements to be postponed by an additional 0.5-2.5 years, depending on the age of the vehicle. This delay was introduced in part to harmonize the NOx and PM Law with the Tokyo diesel retrofit program.

The NOx and PM Law is enforced in connection with Japanese vehicle inspection program, where non-complying vehicles cannot undergo the inspection in the designated areas. This, in turn, may trigger an injunction on the vehicle operation under the Road Transport Vehicle Law.

See also

  • Air pollution
    Air pollution
    Air pollution is the introduction of chemicals, particulate matter, or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or cause damage to the natural environment or built environment, into the atmosphere....

  • C. Arden Pope
    C. Arden Pope
    C. Arden Pope III is an American professor of economics at Brigham Young University and one of the world's foremost experts in environmental science. He received his B.S. from Brigham Young University in 1978 and his Ph.D. in Economics and statistics from Iowa State University in 1981...

  • Carbon dioxide equivalent
    Carbon dioxide equivalent
    Carbon dioxide equivalent and Equivalent carbon dioxide are two related but distinct measures for describing how much global warming a given type and amount of greenhouse gas may cause, using the functionally equivalent amount or concentration of carbon dioxide as the reference.- Global warming...

  • The Center for Clean Air Policy
    The Center for Clean Air Policy
    The Center for Clean Air Policy is an independent, nonprofit think tank that was founded in 1985 in the United States. CCAP works on climate and air quality policy issues at the local, national and international levels...

     (in the US)
  • Emission factor
    Emission factor
    An emission intensity is the average emission rate of a given pollutant from a given source relative to the intensity of a specific activity; for example grams of carbon dioxide released per megajoule of energy produced, or the ratio of greenhouse gas emissions produced to GDP...

  • Emission test cycle
    Emission test cycle
    An emission test cycle, also known as a 'smog check', is a specified procedure for measuring pollutant emissions of engines. For emission measurements to be comparable for different engines in a category, the measurements are performed under a specific operating pattern, or 'test cycle' of...

  • Emissions trading
    Emissions trading
    Emissions trading is a market-based approach used to control pollution by providing economic incentives for achieving reductions in the emissions of pollutants....

  • Environmental standard
    Environmental standard
    An environmental standard is a policy guideline that regulates the effect of human activity upon the environment. Standards may specify a desired state or limit alterations An environmental standard is a policy guideline that regulates the effect of human activity upon the environment. Standards...

  • European emission standards
    European emission standards
    European emission standards define the acceptable limits for exhaust emissions of new vehicles sold in EU member states. The emission standards are defined in a series of European Union directives staging the progressive introduction of increasingly stringent standards.Currently, emissions of...

  • Flexible-fuel vehicle
    Flexible-fuel vehicle
    A flexible-fuel vehicle or dual-fuel vehicle is an alternative fuel vehicle with an internal combustion engine designed to run on more than one fuel, usually gasoline blended with either ethanol or methanol fuel, and both fuels are stored in the same common tank...

  • Fuel efficiency
    Fuel efficiency
    Fuel efficiency is a form of thermal efficiency, meaning the efficiency of a process that converts chemical potential energy contained in a carrier fuel into kinetic energy or work. Overall fuel efficiency may vary per device, which in turn may vary per application, and this spectrum of variance is...

  • Mobile Emission Reduction Credit (MERC)
    Mobile Emission Reduction Credit (MERC)
    A mobile emission reduction credit is an emission reduction credit generated within the transportation sector. The term “mobile sources” refers to motor vehicles, engines, and equipment that move, or can be moved, from place to place...

  • Motor vehicle emissions
    Motor vehicle emissions
    Motor vehicle emissions are composed of the by-products that comes out of the exhaust systems or other emissions such as gasoline evaporation...

  • National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants
    National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants
    The National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants are emissions standards set by the United States EPA for an air pollutant not covered by NAAQS that may cause an increase in fatalities or in serious, irreversible, or incapacitating illness...

  • Ultra-low sulfur diesel
    Ultra-low sulfur diesel
    Ultra-low-sulfur diesel is a term used to describe diesel fuel with substantially lowered sulfur content...

  • Vehicle emissions control

External links




EU

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