Elliott Cresson Medal

Elliott Cresson Medal

Discussion
Ask a question about 'Elliott Cresson Medal'
Start a new discussion about 'Elliott Cresson Medal'
Answer questions from other users
Full Discussion Forum
 
Encyclopedia
The Elliott Cresson Medal, also known as the Elliott Cresson Gold Medal, was the highest award given by the Franklin Institute
Franklin Institute
The Franklin Institute is a museum in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and one of the oldest centers of science education and development in the United States, dating to 1824. The Institute also houses the Benjamin Franklin National Memorial.-History:On February 5, 1824, Samuel Vaughn Merrick and...

. The award was established by Elliott Cresson
Elliott Cresson
Elliott Cresson was an American philanthropist who gave money to a number of causes after a brief career in the mercantile business. He established the Elliott Cresson Medal of the Franklin Institute in 1848, and helped found and manage the Philadelphia School of Design for Women, today's Moore...

, life member of the Franklin Institute, with $1,000 granted in 1848. The endowed award was to be "for some discovery in the Arts and Sciences, or for the invention or improvement of some useful machine, or for some new process or combination of materials in manufactures, or for ingenuity skill or perfection in workmanship." The medal was first awarded in 1875, 21 years after Cresson's death.

The Franklin Institute continued awarding the medal on an occasional basis until 1998 when they reorganized their endowed awards under one umbrella, The Benjamin Franklin Awards. A total of 268 Elliott Cresson Medals were given out during the award's lifetime.
Year Awardee Category Citation
1875
Life Science Electro Magnetic Dental Mallet
1875
Engineering Worsted Yarns
Worsted
Worsted , is the name of a yarn, the cloth made from this yarn, and a yarn weight category. The name derives from the village of Worstead in the English county of Norfolk...

1875
Engineering Drug Manufacturing
1875
Invention Printing press
1875
Engineering Sand Blast
1875
Engineering Microscopes and Objectives
1877
Engineering Shaft Coupling
1877
Engineering Dynomagraph
1878
Chemistry Inodorous Glycerin
1878
Engineering Bolt and rivet clipper
1878
Engineering Competitive test of mowing machines
1879
Invention Machine for Testing Flax
1880
Invention Time Telegraph
1881
Engineering Electric Induction Motor and Battery
1885
Engineering Shoe Sewing Machine
1885
Engineering Regenerative Gas Burner
1886
Engineering Synchronous Telegraphy
1886
Engineering Water Gas Process and Apparatus
1886
Engineering China and Porcelain Wares
1886
Engineering System of Interchangeable Cut Gears
1886
Engineering Railway Car Transfer Apparatus
1886
Invention Airbrush
Airbrush
An airbrush is a small, air-operated tool that sprays various media including ink and dye, but most often paint by a process of nebulization. Spray guns developed from the airbrush and are still considered a type of airbrush.-History:...

1887
Engineering Violins and Bows
1887
Engineering Bevel Gear Cutter
1887
Engineering Electric Smelting Furnace
1887
Engineering Electric Smelting Furnace
1887
Engineering Testing for Mine Gases and system of Mine Signaling
1889
Invention Writing Telegraph
1889
Engineering Linotype machine
Linotype machine
The Linotype typesetting machine is a "line casting" machine used in printing. The name of the machine comes from the fact that it produces an entire line of metal type at once, hence a line-o'-type, a significant improvement over manual typesetting....

1889
Invention Writing Telegraph
1889
Engineering Universal Rolling Machine
1890
Engineering Typewriter Improvements
1890
Computer and Cognitive Science Electric Tabulating Device
1890
Engineering Manufacture of files
1891
Engineering Spindle Support
1891
Engineering Welding Metal and Spinning and Shaping Tube
1891
Engineering Rangefinder
Rangefinder
A rangefinder is a device that measures distance from the observer to a target, for the purposes of surveying, determining focus in photography, or accurately aiming a weapon. Some devices use active methods to measure ; others measure distance using trigonometry...

1891
Engineering Testing Machine
1891
Engineering Spindle Support
1891
Engineering Compound Locomotive
1891
Engineering Spindle Support
1892
Engineering Composition for Journal Bearings
1892
Engineering Metallurgy of Steel
1893
Engineering Compound Locomotive
1893
Engineering Color photography
Color photography
Color photography is photography that uses media capable of representing colors, which are traditionally produced chemically during the photographic processing phase...

1893
Life Science Improvements in Artificial Limbs
1893
Engineering Jankó piano keyboard
Janko keyboard
The Jankó keyboard is a musical keyboard layout for a piano designed by Paul von Jankó in 1882.Based on the premise that the hand can barely stretch more than a 9th on the piano, and that all scales are fingered differently, Jankó's new keyboard had two interlocking 'manuals' with three...

1894
Engineering Alternating Electric Currents of High Frequency
1895
Engineering Experimental Researches on Steel
1895
Invention Stone Sawing Machine
1895
Engineering Water Wheel
Pelton wheel
The Pelton wheel is an impulse turbine which is among the most efficient types of water turbines. It was invented by Lester Allan Pelton in the 1870s. The Pelton wheel extracts energy from the impulse of moving water, as opposed to its weight like traditional overshot water wheel...

1896
Engineering Telegraphy, High speed system
1896
Invention Monotype Machine
1897
Engineering Process of electrolytic decomposing of alkaline chlorides
1897
Engineering Telautograph
Telautograph
The telautograph, an analog precursor to the modern fax machine, transmits electrical impulses recorded by potentiometers at the sending station to servomechanisms attached to a pen at the receiving station, thus reproducing at the receiving station a drawing or signature made by the sender...

1897
Invention Phantoscope projector
1897
Physics Discovery of X-ray
X-ray
X-radiation is a form of electromagnetic radiation. X-rays have a wavelength in the range of 0.01 to 10 nanometers, corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 petahertz to 30 exahertz and energies in the range 120 eV to 120 keV. They are shorter in wavelength than UV rays and longer than gamma...

s
1897
Invention Econometer
1898
Engineering Respiration Calorimeter
1898
Engineering All-Wrought Steel Belt Pulley
1898
Invention Venturi Meter
1898
Engineering Investigations with his electric furnace
1898
Engineering Respiration Calorimeter
1900
Engineering Round Lap Bale System
1900
Engineering Method and apparatus for acid blast etching of metal plates
1900
Engineering Bridge construction
1900
Earth Science Exhibit of the USGS
1900
Chemistry Discoveries regarding metallic oxides
1901
Engineering Diesel engine
Diesel engine
A diesel engine is an internal combustion engine that uses the heat of compression to initiate ignition to burn the fuel, which is injected into the combustion chamber...

1901
Chemistry Process of automatically heating and sterilizing fluids
1901
Engineering Reaction Breakwater
1901
Engineering Liszt Pipe Organ
1901
Engineering Process of automatically heating and sterilizing fluids
1902
Engineering Manufacturing Caustic Alkali and Halogen Gas
1902
Engineering Process of Treating Tool Steel
1902
Engineering Process of Treating Tool Steel
1903
Engineering Method of eliminating metals from mixtures of metals
1903
Engineering Process of fireproofing wood
1903
Engineering; Computer and Cognitive Science School City Educational Plan
1903
Engineering Theory of Musical Harmony
1903
Engineering System of Electric Traction
1904
Engineering System of Storing Coal
1904
Engineering; Computer and Cognitive Science School City
1904
Physics Alumino-Thermics
Aluminothermic reaction
Aluminothermic reactions are exothermic chemical reactions using aluminium as the reducing agent at high temperature. The most prominent example is the thermite reaction between aluminium and iron oxides:-History:...

1904
Engineering Machine for preparation of plates for etching
1904
Engineering Expanding and Flanging Machinery for Tubes
1904
Engineering Molecular Structure of Cast Iron
1904
Engineering Steam Generator
1905
Engineering Telautograph
Telautograph
The telautograph, an analog precursor to the modern fax machine, transmits electrical impulses recorded by potentiometers at the sending station to servomechanisms attached to a pen at the receiving station, thus reproducing at the receiving station a drawing or signature made by the sender...

1905
Physics Reducing Attenuation of Electrical Waves
1906
Engineering Paper Milk Bottles
1906
(unspecified) Historic Collection of Incandescent Electric Lamps
1907
Engineering Contributions to Evolution of American Locomotive
1907
Physics A new Bi-Focal Lens
1907
Engineering Fireproof Insulated Wire
1907
Engineering Pressed Steel Pulley for Power Transmission
1907
Chemistry Electric Furnace Manufacture of Carbon bisulfide
1908
Engineering Uses of American Woods
1908
Engineering Improved Articulated Compound Locomotive
1909
Chemistry The discovery of radium
Radium
Radium is a chemical element with atomic number 88, represented by the symbol Ra. Radium is an almost pure-white alkaline earth metal, but it readily oxidizes on exposure to air, becoming black in color. All isotopes of radium are highly radioactive, with the most stable isotope being radium-226,...

1909
Chemistry The discovery of radium
Radium
Radium is a chemical element with atomic number 88, represented by the symbol Ra. Radium is an almost pure-white alkaline earth metal, but it readily oxidizes on exposure to air, becoming black in color. All isotopes of radium are highly radioactive, with the most stable isotope being radium-226,...

1909
Engineering Molecular Air Pump
1909
Engineering Dry air blast in blast furnace
Blast furnace
A blast furnace is a type of metallurgical furnace used for smelting to produce industrial metals, generally iron.In a blast furnace, fuel and ore and flux are continuously supplied through the top of the furnace, while air is blown into the bottom of the chamber, so that the chemical reactions...

 operation
1909
Engineering Color photography
Color photography
Color photography is photography that uses media capable of representing colors, which are traditionally produced chemically during the photographic processing phase...

1909
Engineering Multiplex Telephony
Multiplexing
The multiplexed signal is transmitted over a communication channel, which may be a physical transmission medium. The multiplexing divides the capacity of the low-level communication channel into several higher-level logical channels, one for each message signal or data stream to be transferred...

1909
Engineering Open Hearth Steel Process
1909
Engineering Air Brake Design and Application
1909
Engineering Underwood Typewriter
1909
Engineering Milling files
File (tool)
A file is a metalworking and woodworking tool used to cut fine amounts of material from a workpiece. It most commonly refers to the hand tool style, which takes the form of a steel bar with a case hardened surface and a series of sharp, parallel teeth. Most files have a narrow, pointed tang at one...

1909
Engineering The Autoplate Machine
1910
Engineering Automatic System of Telephony
1910
Physics Distinguished work in astronomical instruments
1910
Invention Mercury rectifier
Mercury arc valve
A mercury-arc valve is a type of electrical rectifier used for converting high-voltage or high-current alternating current into direct current . Rectifiers of this type were used to provide power for industrial motors, electric railways, streetcars, and electric locomotives, as well as for...

1910
Engineering Distinguished work in iron and steel industries
1910
Engineering Distinguished work in metallurgical sciences
1910
Engineering Distinguished work in electrical theory
1910
Physics For distinguished work in physical sciences
1910
Engineering Distinguished work in electrical discovery
1910
Life Science Distinguished work in agricultural chemistry
1912
Engineering Electrical Transmission of Articulate Speech
1912
Chemistry Discoveries in Chemistry
1912
Engineering Distinguished work in civil engineering
Civil engineering
Civil engineering is a professional engineering discipline that deals with the design, construction, and maintenance of the physical and naturally built environment, including works like roads, bridges, canals, dams, and buildings...

1912
Chemistry Determination of fundamental magnitudes in chemistry
1912
Physics Investigations in physical optics
1912
Chemistry Important Research in Chemistry
1912
Engineering Distinguished work in metrology
Metrology
Metrology is the science of measurement. Metrology includes all theoretical and practical aspects of measurement. The word comes from Greek μέτρον , "measure" + "λόγος" , amongst others meaning "speech, oration, discourse, quote, study, calculation, reason"...

1912
Engineering Industrial applications of electricity
1912
Chemistry Extended research in organic chemistry
Organic chemistry
Organic chemistry is a subdiscipline within chemistry involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation of carbon-based compounds, hydrocarbons, and their derivatives...

1913
Engineering Contributions to telephony and science of sound reproduction
1913
Life Science Organic
Organic chemistry
Organic chemistry is a subdiscipline within chemistry involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation of carbon-based compounds, hydrocarbons, and their derivatives...

 and biological chemistry
1913
Chemistry Discoveries in chemistry
1913
Engineering Distinguished work in civil engineering
Civil engineering
Civil engineering is a professional engineering discipline that deals with the design, construction, and maintenance of the physical and naturally built environment, including works like roads, bridges, canals, dams, and buildings...

1913
Physics Extended researches in physical science
1913
Engineering Metallography of Iron and Steel
1913
Engineering Analytical methods in electrical engineering
1914
Chemistry Original Researches in Photo-Chemistry
1914
Engineering Liquefaction of gases and refrigeration
1914
Chemistry Leading work in electro-chemistry
1914
Engineering The art and science of aviation
1915
Engineering Automatic Bottle Blowing Machine
1916
Engineering Development of the Art of telephony
1916
Engineering Low Expansion Wire for Incandescent Lamps
1916
Engineering Permutit water softening process
1917
Engineering Investigation of Electric Furnaces and High Temperature
1918
Engineering Lewis Machine Gun
Lewis Gun
The Lewis Gun is a World War I–era light machine gun of American design that was perfected and widely used by the British Empire. It was first used in combat in World War I, and continued in service with a number of armed forces through to the end of the Korean War...

1920
Engineering Electrical Propulsion of Ships
1923
Engineering Audion
Audion
An Audion is a wireless signal detector device invented by Lee De Forest in 1906.Audion may also refer to:* Audion , an electronic music album by Larry Fast* Audion , a media player for Apple Macintosh created by Panic...

1923
Engineering Hydraulic Valve
1923
Engineering Thrust bearing
Thrust bearing
A thrust bearing is a particular type of rotary bearing. Like other bearings they permit rotation between parts, but they are designed to support a high axial load while doing this.Thrust bearings come in several varieties....

1925
Engineering Turbo-Electric Appliances
1926
Physics Astronomical Researches of sun, solar atmosphere and solar physics
1926
Engineering Design of Optical Systems
1927
Physics Researches in Sound
1927
Physics Investigations in the Physical Sciences
1928
Engineering Permalloy
Permalloy
Permalloy is a nickel-iron magnetic alloy, with about 20% iron and 80% nickel content. It is notable for its very high magnetic permeability, which makes it useful as a magnetic core material in electrical and electronic equipment, and also in magnetic shielding to block magnetic fields...

1928
Engineering Revolutionizing automobile industry, and industrial leadership
1928
Computer and Cognitive Science Kinematic Computing Devices
1928
Engineering Wright Whirlwind Air-Cooled Engine, Model J-5
Wright R-790
The Wright R-790 Whirlwind was a series of nine-cylinder air-cooled radial aircraft engines built by Wright Aeronautical Corporation, all of which had a displacement of about 790 in³ and around 200 hp...

1929
Life Science Carbohydrate chemistry
1929
Life Science Instruments for Removal of Foreign Bodies from Respiratory and food Passages
1929
Engineering Navigational and Recording Instruments (Gyroscopic)
1930
Physics Measurement of Liquid Flow in Closed Conduits
1930
Engineering High Pressure Steam Boilers in Electric Generating Stations
1931
Physics Scattering and diffraction of electrons by crystals
1931
Physics Scattering and Diffraction of Electrons by Crystals
1931
Engineering Contributions to magnetism and metallurgy
1931
Physics Work in Spectroscopy
1932
Physics Work in high pressure
1932
Engineering Symmetrical Coordinates in Polyphase Networks
1932
(unspecified) Dielectric Behavior
1933
Physics Optical Planetarium
1933
Engineering Autogiro-flying machine with freely rotating wings
1934
Engineering Vertical Antenna for Radio Transmission
1934
Engineering Continuous Cab Signal and Automatic Train Control Systems
1936
Chemistry Development of synthetic aliphatic chemistry
Aliphatic compound
In organic chemistry, aliphatic compounds are acyclic or cyclic, non-aromatic carbon compounds.Thus, aliphatic compounds are opposite to aromatic compounds.- Structure :...

1936
Engineering High Voltage Electrostatic Generator
1937
Chemistry Discovery of the positron
Positron
The positron or antielectron is the antiparticle or the antimatter counterpart of the electron. The positron has an electric charge of +1e, a spin of ½, and has the same mass as an electron...

1937
Earth Science Contributions to the Science of Geodesy (Isostasy
Isostasy
Isostasy is a term used in geology to refer to the state of gravitational equilibrium between the earth's lithosphere and asthenosphere such that the tectonic plates "float" at an elevation which depends on their thickness and density. This concept is invoked to explain how different topographic...

)
1937
Engineering Process for Manufacture of Cellophane
Cellophane
Cellophane is a thin, transparent sheet made of regenerated cellulose. Its low permeability to air, oils, greases, bacteria and water makes it useful for food packaging...

1937
Physics Low temperature research
1937
Engineering Development of the Cyclotron
Cyclotron
In technology, a cyclotron is a type of particle accelerator. In physics, the cyclotron frequency or gyrofrequency is the frequency of a charged particle moving perpendicularly to the direction of a uniform magnetic field, i.e. a magnetic field of constant magnitude and direction...

1938
Engineering Polaroid camera
1939
Physics Creation of new methods for measuring gravitation, sound, heat, radiation and current and static electricity
1939
Engineering Theory of electric circuits for improvements in telephony
1939
Engineering Contributions to electric communications
1940
Engineering Low carbon ferro-alloys and electro-metallurgy
1940
Life Science Researches upon Vitamin B1 including its isolation in the pure state in quantities sufficient for further study
1941
Engineering Submarine rescue devices, U.S. lung and rescue chamber
1942
Life Science Investigation in Carbohydrate chemistry
1942
Physics Measurement of magnetic moments of atomic nuclei, and their radio frequency spectra
1943
Engineering Salt velocity method for measuring the flow of water in conduits
1944
Chemistry Contributions in organic chemistry
Organic chemistry
Organic chemistry is a subdiscipline within chemistry involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation of carbon-based compounds, hydrocarbons, and their derivatives...

1945
Engineering Leadership in field of radio for U.S. Navy
1945
Engineering Hydraulic turbines
1946
Engineering Contributions to design and development of anti-aircraft guns, tanks, seacoast artillery and welded gun carriages
1948
Engineering Practical systems of long distance communications
1950
Physics Work in the field of atmospheric electricity and the mechanism of lightning discharge
1952
Engineering Contributions to improvement of telephonic communications by applying mathematical probability to the study of telephone traffic and by the invention of switching equipment
1952
Engineering Development of the single runner vertical reaction turbine
1953
Physics Scientific basis for the electro-deposition of metals
1953
Physics Precision measurement in Zeeman effect
Zeeman effect
The Zeeman effect is the splitting of a spectral line into several components in the presence of a static magnetic field. It is analogous to the Stark effect, the splitting of a spectral line into several components in the presence of an electric field...

1953
Physics Contributions to field of spectroscopy and to the knowledge of the electronic structure of many elements
1955
Physics For extensive investigations involving frictions between solid surfaces
1957
Physics Technique of radio carbon dating
1957
Engineering Engineering accomplishments, inventions and leadership
1957
Engineering Pulsed radar, and development of radar systems
1958
Chemistry Discoveries in polysulfide polymers and new processes of combining chemical compounds for the manufacture of synthetic rubber
1958
Engineering Theory of elasticity and elastic stability
1959
Engineering Developed remote radio control of moving vehicles
1959
Engineering Matched impedance principle in electro-mechanical devices
1959
Engineering Contributions to radio, radar and electronics
1960
Engineering Contributions to theory and application of aerodynamics which advanced the art of wind tunnel and aircraft design and for contributions to design and development of first automatic radar homing guided missile
1960
Engineering Pioneering work in elasticity of materials
1960
Physics Significant studies in the field of cosmic radiation
1961
Physics The bubble chamber for tracking and photographing tracks of high energy ionizing particles and the fragments of nuclear collisions
1961
Physics Discovery of recoilless emission
1961
Engineering Performance of electric power systems
1961
Physics Pioneering achievements in space science, Van Allen Radiation Belts
1962
Physics Innovations in the design of astronomical instruments and the mathematics of optical design
1962
Engineering Liquid rocket motors and rocket development
1963
Physics Contributions to applied electromagnetism and nuclear physics such as conception of strange-focusing principle in synchrotron
Synchrotron
A synchrotron is a particular type of cyclic particle accelerator in which the magnetic field and the electric field are carefully synchronised with the travelling particle beam. The proton synchrotron was originally conceived by Sir Marcus Oliphant...

s, the ARGUS experiment
ARGUS (experiment)
The ARGUS experiment was a particle physics experiment that ran at the electron-positron collider ring DORIS II at DESY. It is the first experiment that observed the mixing of the B mesons ....

 and principles in Astron development
1963
Physics Radio astronomy
Radio astronomy
Radio astronomy is a subfield of astronomy that studies celestial objects at radio frequencies. The initial detection of radio waves from an astronomical object was made in the 1930s, when Karl Jansky observed radiation coming from the Milky Way. Subsequent observations have identified a number of...

, early radio telescope
Radio telescope
A radio telescope is a form of directional radio antenna used in radio astronomy. The same types of antennas are also used in tracking and collecting data from satellites and space probes...

s, and the identification of the first radio star
Radio star
Stellar radio sources, radio source stars or radio stars are stellar objects that produce copious emissions of various radio frequencies, whether constant or pulsed. Radio emissions from stars can be produced in many varied ways....

1964
Engineering Achievements in natural and synthetic rubber production
1964
Physics Solution of buckling problems in physics and engineering
1964
Physics Contributions to the control and direction of high-energy particle beams and as a designer of instrumentation for measurement of high-energy physical phenomena
1965
Life Science Clinical chemistry procedures and apparatus
1966
Physics Development of the theory of radiation shielding
1966
Chemistry Polymer
Polymer
A polymer is a large molecule composed of repeating structural units. These subunits are typically connected by covalent chemical bonds...

s
1968
Chemistry Fluorine
Fluorine
Fluorine is the chemical element with atomic number 9, represented by the symbol F. It is the lightest element of the halogen column of the periodic table and has a single stable isotope, fluorine-19. At standard pressure and temperature, fluorine is a pale yellow gas composed of diatomic...

 Compounds of Xenon
Xenon
Xenon is a chemical element with the symbol Xe and atomic number 54. The element name is pronounced or . A colorless, heavy, odorless noble gas, xenon occurs in the Earth's atmosphere in trace amounts...

 and Radon
Radon
Radon is a chemical element with symbol Rn and atomic number 86. It is a radioactive, colorless, odorless, tasteless noble gas, occurring naturally as the decay product of uranium or thorium. Its most stable isotope, 222Rn, has a half-life of 3.8 days...

1969
Chemistry Quantum mechanical calculations of activation energies
Activation energy
In chemistry, activation energy is a term introduced in 1889 by the Swedish scientist Svante Arrhenius that is defined as the energy that must be overcome in order for a chemical reaction to occur. Activation energy may also be defined as the minimum energy required to start a chemical reaction...

1969
Engineering Contributions in the fields of electronics
1970
Engineering Nuclear power reactors
1971
Chemistry Polymer
Polymer
A polymer is a large molecule composed of repeating structural units. These subunits are typically connected by covalent chemical bonds...

 science
1971
Physics Theories of magnetism and dielectrics
1972
Physics Josephson effect
Josephson effect
The Josephson effect is the phenomenon of supercurrent across two superconductors coupled by a weak link...

 and theory of matter at low temperatures
1972
Engineering Development of full maneuvering automatic pilot
Autopilot
An autopilot is a mechanical, electrical, or hydraulic system used to guide a vehicle without assistance from a human being. An autopilot can refer specifically to aircraft, self-steering gear for boats, or auto guidance of space craft and missiles...

 and Lear jet
Lear Jet
Learjet is a manufacturer of business jets for civilian and military use. It was founded in the late 1950s by William Powell Lear as Swiss American Aviation Corporation. Learjet is now a subsidiary of Bombardier and marketed as the "Bombardier Learjet Family".-History:The Learjet started life as an...

1973
Physics Astronomy
Astronomy
Astronomy is a natural science that deals with the study of celestial objects and phenomena that originate outside the atmosphere of Earth...

1973
Life Science Crash Injury Research
1974
Chemistry Percyano compounds, synthesis and exploration of chemical and physical properties
1974
Physics Role in gravitational experiment and theory
1974
Earth Science Plant hormones and air pollution chemistry
1974
Physics Cosmic ray
Cosmic ray
Cosmic rays are energetic charged subatomic particles, originating from outer space. They may produce secondary particles that penetrate the Earth's atmosphere and surface. The term ray is historical as cosmic rays were thought to be electromagnetic radiation...

s, gamma-ray astronomy
Gamma-ray astronomy
Gamma-ray astronomy is the astronomical study of the cosmos with gamma rays. Gamma-rays are the most energetic form of "light" that travel across the universe, and gamma-rays thus have the smallest wavelength of any wave in the electromagnetic spectrum.Gamma-rays are created by celestial events...

1975
Life Science Nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of enzymatic complexes
1975
Physics Acoustic quadrupole theory of aerodynamic noise generation
1976
Physics Leadership in forefront of experimentation in study of high energy interactions, nuclear forces and particle physics
Particle physics
Particle physics is a branch of physics that studies the existence and interactions of particles that are the constituents of what is usually referred to as matter or radiation. In current understanding, particles are excitations of quantum fields and interact following their dynamics...

1978
Chemistry Development of methods for synthesis of diborane
Diborane
Diborane is the chemical compound consisting of boron and hydrogen with the formula B2H6. It is a colorless gas at room temperature with a repulsively sweet odor. Diborane mixes well with air, easily forming explosive mixtures. Diborane will ignite spontaneously in moist air at room temperature...

 and alkali metal
Alkali metal
The alkali metals are a series of chemical elements in the periodic table. In the modern IUPAC nomenclature, the alkali metals comprise the group 1 elements, along with hydrogen. The alkali metals are lithium , sodium , potassium , rubidium , caesium , and francium...

 hydride
Hydride
In chemistry, a hydride is the anion of hydrogen, H−, or, more commonly, a compound in which one or more hydrogen centres have nucleophilic, reducing, or basic properties. In compounds that are regarded as hydrides, hydrogen is bonded to a more electropositive element or group...

s
1978
Chemistry Computer-generated model
Computer simulation
A computer simulation, a computer model, or a computational model is a computer program, or network of computers, that attempts to simulate an abstract model of a particular system...

 for water molecules
Water (properties)
Water is the most abundant compound on Earth's surface, covering about 70%. In nature, it exists in liquid, solid, and gaseous states. It is in dynamic equilibrium between the liquid and gas states at standard temperature and pressure. At room temperature, it is a tasteless and odorless liquid,...

1979
Physics Unified theory
Unified field theory
In physics, a unified field theory, occasionally referred to as a uniform field theory, is a type of field theory that allows all that is usually thought of as fundamental forces and elementary particles to be written in terms of a single field. There is no accepted unified field theory, and thus...

 of weak and electromagnetic interactions
1980
Physics Outstanding work in X-ray astronomy
X-ray astronomy
X-ray astronomy is an observational branch of astronomy which deals with the study of X-ray observation and detection from astronomical objects. X-radiation is absorbed by the Earth's atmosphere, so instruments to detect X-rays must be taken to high altitude by balloons, sounding rockets, and...

1981
Earth Science Application of quantitative methods to geological problems
1982
Physics Plasma physics
1982
Physics Contributions to the understanding of molecular structure and dynamics
1984
Life Science For investigation of genetics of mucopolysaccharide storage disease
Mucopolysaccharidosis
Mucopolysaccharidoses are a group of metabolic disorders caused by the absence or malfunctioning of lysosomal enzymes needed to break down molecules called glycosaminoglycans - long chains of sugar carbohydrates in each of our cells that help build bone, cartilage, tendons, corneas, skin and...

1985
Engineering For the application of mass spectrometry
Mass spectrometry
Mass spectrometry is an analytical technique that measures the mass-to-charge ratio of charged particles.It is used for determining masses of particles, for determining the elemental composition of a sample or molecule, and for elucidating the chemical structures of molecules, such as peptides and...

 to geoscience research
1985
Physics For contributions to controlled thermonuclear reactions, baryon synthesis and proton decay, induced gravity
Induced gravity
Induced gravity is an idea in quantum gravity that space-time background emerges asa mean field approximation of underlying microscopic degrees of freedom, similar to the fluid mechanics approximation of Bose–Einstein condensates...

 and the quark model
1986
Physics For contributions to the current understanding of second order phase transition
1987
Physics For development of the scanning tunneling microscope
1987
Physics For the development of scanning tunneling microscope
1988
Engineering For clarification of the role of pressure in producing paramagnetic-ferromagnetic and conductor-insulator transitions
1989
Physics For interpretation of dynamical chaos in physical systems
Chaos theory
Chaos theory is a field of study in mathematics, with applications in several disciplines including physics, economics, biology, and philosophy. Chaos theory studies the behavior of dynamical systems that are highly sensitive to initial conditions, an effect which is popularly referred to as the...

1990
Physics For his discoveries in laser physics and quantum optics, atomic and statistical physics, and biological engineering
1991
Physics For observations of electromagnetic potentials and insights into quantum mechanics
1991
Physics For elevated electromagnetic potentials to status of physical observables
1992
Life Science For the discovery of the cystic fibrosis
Cystic fibrosis
Cystic fibrosis is a recessive genetic disease affecting most critically the lungs, and also the pancreas, liver, and intestine...

gene
1995
Life Science For his contributions in automating the synthesis of DNA oligonucleotides
1995
Physics For development and refinement of techniques of molecular beam epitaxy for use in quantum physics
1997
Life Science For discovering the biology of free radical reactions in living organisms
1997
Life Science For discovering the biology of free radical reactions in living organisms