Elections in the European Union

Elections in the European Union

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Elections to the Parliament of the European Union take place every five years by universal adult suffrage
Universal suffrage
Universal suffrage consists of the extension of the right to vote to adult citizens as a whole, though it may also mean extending said right to minors and non-citizens...

. 736 MEPs
Member of the European Parliament
A Member of the European Parliament is a person who has been elected to the European Parliament. The name of MEPs differ in different languages, with terms such as europarliamentarian or eurodeputy being common in Romance language-speaking areas.When the European Parliament was first established,...

 are elected to the European Parliament
European Parliament
The European Parliament is the directly elected parliamentary institution of the European Union . Together with the Council of the European Union and the Commission, it exercises the legislative function of the EU and it has been described as one of the most powerful legislatures in the world...

 which has been directly elected since 1979. No other body is directly elected although the Council of the European Union
Council of the European Union
The Council of the European Union is the institution in the legislature of the European Union representing the executives of member states, the other legislative body being the European Parliament. The Council is composed of twenty-seven national ministers...

 and European Council
European Council
The European Council is an institution of the European Union. It comprises the heads of state or government of the EU member states, along with the President of the European Commission and the President of the European Council, currently Herman Van Rompuy...

 is largely composed of nationally elected officials. Europarties
European political party
A European political party, formally a political party at European level, informally a Europarty, is a type of political party organization operating transnationally in Europe and in the institutions of the European Union. They are regulated and funded by the European Union and are usually made up...

 have the exclusive right to campaign EU-wide for the European elections.

Voting system



There is no uniform voting system
Voting system
A voting system or electoral system is a method by which voters make a choice between options, often in an election or on a policy referendum....

 for the election of MEPs; rather, each member state is free to choose its own system, subject to three restrictions:
  • The system must be a form of proportional representation
    Proportional representation
    Proportional representation is a concept in voting systems used to elect an assembly or council. PR means that the number of seats won by a party or group of candidates is proportionate to the number of votes received. For example, under a PR voting system if 30% of voters support a particular...

    , under either the party list
    Party-list proportional representation
    Party-list proportional representation systems are a family of voting systems emphasizing proportional representation in elections in which multiple candidates are elected...

     or single transferable vote
    Single transferable vote
    The single transferable vote is a voting system designed to achieve proportional representation through preferential voting. Under STV, an elector's vote is initially allocated to his or her most preferred candidate, and then, after candidates have been either elected or eliminated, any surplus or...

     system.
  • The electoral area may be subdivided if this will not generally affect the proportional nature of the voting system.
  • Any election threshold
    Election threshold
    In party-list proportional representation systems, an election threshold is a clause that stipulates that a party must receive a minimum percentage of votes, either nationally or within a particular district, to obtain any seats in the parliament...

     on the national level must not exceed five percent.


The allocation of seats to each member state is based on the principle of degressive proportionality
Degressive proportionality
Degressive proportionality is a type of formula for electing the members of a legislature or other decision-making body. If a body is elected by a number of regions, states or other subdivisions, degressive proportionality means that while the subdivisions do not each elect an equal number of...

, so that, while the size of the population of each country is taken into account, smaller states elect more MEPs than is justified by their populations. As the number of MEPs granted to each country has arisen from treaty negotiations, there is no precise formula for the apportionment of seats among member states. No change in this configuration can occur without the unanimous consent of all governments.

Europarties


The European Union has a multi-party system comprised by a number of ideologically diverse Europarties
European political party
A European political party, formally a political party at European level, informally a Europarty, is a type of political party organization operating transnationally in Europe and in the institutions of the European Union. They are regulated and funded by the European Union and are usually made up...

. As no one Europarty has ever gained power alone, their affiliated parliamentary groups must work with each other to pass legislation. Since no pan-European government is formed as a result of the European elections, long-term programmatic coalitions have yet to take place.

Europarties
European political party
A European political party, formally a political party at European level, informally a Europarty, is a type of political party organization operating transnationally in Europe and in the institutions of the European Union. They are regulated and funded by the European Union and are usually made up...

 have the exclusive right to campaign for the European elections; their parliamentary groups are strictly forbidden to campaign and to spend funds for any campaign-related activity. With the Lisbon Treaty now in-force, Europarties are obliged from now-on to put forward a candidate for President of the European Commission
President of the European Commission
The President of the European Commission is the head of the European Commission ― the executive branch of the :European Union ― the most powerful officeholder in the EU. The President is responsible for allocating portfolios to members of the Commission and can reshuffle or dismiss them if needed...

; each Presidential candidate will, in fact, lead the pan-European campaign of the Europarty.

The two major parties are the centre-right
Centre-right
The centre-right or center-right is a political term commonly used to describe or denote individuals, political parties, or organizations whose views stretch from the centre to the right on the left-right spectrum, excluding far right stances. Centre-right can also describe a coalition of centrist...

 European People's Party
European People's Party
The European People's Party is a pro-European centre-right European political party. The EPP was founded in 1976 by Christian democratic parties, but later it increased its membership to include conservative parties and parties of other centre-right perspectives.The EPP is the most influential of...

 and Party of European Socialists
Party of European Socialists
The Party of European Socialists is a European political party led by Sergei Stanishev, former Prime Minister of Bulgaria. The PES comprises social-democratic national-level political parties primarily from Member state of the European Union, as well as other nations of the European continent. The...

. They form the two largest groups, (called EPP and S&D
Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats
The Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats is the social-democratic political group in the European Parliament, formed by MEPs of the Party of European Socialists and allied centre-left parties. The group dates its ancestry via various names back to the beginning of the European...

 respectively) along with other smaller parties. There are numerous other groups including communists
European United Left–Nordic Green Left
European United Left/Nordic Green Left is a left-wing political group with seats in the European Parliament since 1995.-Position:According to its 1994 constituent declaration, the group is opposed to the present European political structure, but committed to integration...

, greens
Green politics
Green politics is a political ideology that aims for the creation of an ecologically sustainable society rooted in environmentalism, social liberalism, and grassroots democracy...

, regionalists
Regionalism (politics)
Regionalism is a term used in international relations. Regionalism also constitutes one of the three constituents of the international commercial system...

, conservatives
European Conservatives and Reformists
The European Conservatives and Reformists, abbreviated to ECR, is a conservative anti-federalist political group in the European Parliament. The group currently comprises 57 MEPs, making it the fourth-largest group in the European Parliament....

, Liberals
Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe
The Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe is a transnational alliance between two European political parties: the European Liberal Democrat and Reform Party and the European Democratic Party. It has political groups in the European Parliament, the EU Committee of the Regions, the...

 and eurosceptics
Europe of Freedom and Democracy
Europe of Freedom and Democracy is a Eurosceptic political group in the European Parliament. Formed after the European parliamentary election in 2009, it is mostly made up of elements of the now defunct Independence/Democracy and Union for a Europe of Nations groups from the out-going...

. Together they form the seven recognised groups in the parliament. MEPs that are not members of groups are known as non-inscrits
Non-Inscrits
Non-Inscrits are Members of the European Parliament who do not sit in one of the recognized political groups....

.

Voter behaviour


Analysis contend that European elections are fought on national issues and used by voters to punish their governments mid-term. Turnout has also been falling steadily since the first elections in 1979 indicating increased apathy about the Parliament despite its increase in power over that period. The turnout is an increasingly big issue. Despite falling below 50% since 1999, turnout is not yet as low as that of the US Midterm elections
Elections in the United States
The United States has a federal government, with elected officials at the federal , state and local levels. On a national level, the head of state, the President, is elected indirectly by the people, through an Electoral College. In modern times, the electors virtually always vote with the popular...

 which usually fall below 40%. The turnout has fallen in every EU election since the first. In 2009, the overall turnout was just 43%, down from 45.5% in 2004. In Britain the turnout was just 34.3%, down from 38% in 2004.

However that situation is not criticised so much due to the fact the US President is elected separately, whereas the EU Commission President is appointed. Some such as former Parliament President Pat Cox
Pat Cox
Pat Cox is an Irish politician and former television current affairs presenter. He was President of the European Parliament from 2002 to 2004 and served as a member of the European Parliament from 1989–2004....

 has also noted that the 1999 election turnout was higher than the previous US Presidential election. It is hoped though that by more closely linking that post to the elections, turnout should increase.

Results

List of previous elections
  • 2009 – EU 27
    European Parliament election, 2009
    Elections to the European Parliament were held in the 27 member states of the European Union between 4 and 7 June 2009. A total of 736 Members of the European Parliament were elected to represent some 500 million Europeans, making these the biggest trans-national elections in history...

  • 2007 – Bulgaria and Romania
    European Parliament election, 2007
    Two member states of the European Union held elections to the European Parliament in 2007. For details, see*European Parliament election, 2007 *European Parliament election, 2007...

  • 2004 – EU 25
    European Parliament election, 2004
    Elections to the European Parliament were held from 10 June 2004 to 13 June 2004 in the 25 member states of the European Union, using varying election days according to local custom...

  • 1999 – EU 15
    European Parliament election, 1999
    The European Parliament Election, 1999 was a European election for all 626 members of the European Parliament held across the 15 European Union member states on 10, 11 and 13 June 1999. The voter turn-out was generally low, except in Belgium and Luxembourg, where voting is compulsory and where...

  • 1995 – Austria, Finland and Sweden
  • 1994 – EU 12
    European Parliament election, 1994
    The 1994 European Parliamentary Election was a European election held across the 12 European Union member states in June 1994.This election saw the merge of the European People's Party and European Democrats, an increase in the overall number of seats and a fall in overall turnout to...

  • 1989 – EC 12
    European Parliament election, 1989
    The 1989 European Parliamentary Election was a European election held across the 12 European Community member states in June 1989. It was third European election but the first time that Spain and Portugal voted at the same time as the other members...

  • 1987 – Portugal and Spain
    European Parliament election, 1987
    European Parliament election, 1987 may refer to:*European Parliament election, 1987 *European Parliament election, 1987...

  • 1984 – EC 10
    European Parliament election, 1984
    The 1984 election to the European Parliament was the first since the inaugural election of 1979 and the 1981 enlargement of the European Community to include Greece. It was also the last before the accession of Spain and Portugal in 1987....

  • 1981 – Greece
  • 1979 – EC 9
    European Parliament election, 1979
    The 1979 European elections were parliamentary elections held across all 9 European Community member states. They were the first European elections to be held, allowing citizens to elect 410 MEPs to the European Parliament, and also the first international election in history.Seats in the...

List of European Parliament elections by state


Historical percentage results in union-wide elections of the three major groups by region.
REGION 1979
European Parliament election, 1979
The 1979 European elections were parliamentary elections held across all 9 European Community member states. They were the first European elections to be held, allowing citizens to elect 410 MEPs to the European Parliament, and also the first international election in history.Seats in the...

1984
European Parliament election, 1984
The 1984 election to the European Parliament was the first since the inaugural election of 1979 and the 1981 enlargement of the European Community to include Greece. It was also the last before the accession of Spain and Portugal in 1987....

1989
European Parliament election, 1989
The 1989 European Parliamentary Election was a European election held across the 12 European Community member states in June 1989. It was third European election but the first time that Spain and Portugal voted at the same time as the other members...

1994
European Parliament election, 1994
The 1994 European Parliamentary Election was a European election held across the 12 European Union member states in June 1994.This election saw the merge of the European People's Party and European Democrats, an increase in the overall number of seats and a fall in overall turnout to...

1999
European Parliament election, 1999
The European Parliament Election, 1999 was a European election for all 626 members of the European Parliament held across the 15 European Union member states on 10, 11 and 13 June 1999. The voter turn-out was generally low, except in Belgium and Luxembourg, where voting is compulsory and where...

2004
European Parliament election, 2004
Elections to the European Parliament were held from 10 June 2004 to 13 June 2004 in the 25 member states of the European Union, using varying election days according to local custom...

2009
European Parliament election, 2009
Elections to the European Parliament were held in the 27 member states of the European Union between 4 and 7 June 2009. A total of 736 Members of the European Parliament were elected to represent some 500 million Europeans, making these the biggest trans-national elections in history...

3.6 6.3 6.3 22 35.3 31.2 10.9
Northern 3.6 2.7 4.5 6.8 16.7 18.1 20.3
23.2 33 45.5 56.8 27.6 23.9 21
33.6 30.9 26.7 31.9 36.4 34.9 37.3
Western 6.5 10.6 12 8.5 5.2 11.9 12.5
34.1 32.7 32.7 29.9 27.9 30.2 20.8
37 34.3 29.6 25.9 39.8 38.2 45.2
Southern 6.2 4.8 9.5 8.5 5 7.9 5
16 21 29.1 29.9 30.8 33 35
- - - - - 46.4 41
Eastern - - - - - 14.3 10
- - - - - 21.4 23.7
26 25.3 23.4 27.7 37.2 36.9 36
Total 9.8 7.1 9.5 7.6 8 12.4 11.4
27.6 30 34.2 34.9 28.8 28.3 25
Turnout 63 61 58.5 56.8 49.4 45.5 43


Legend:   [     ] Socialist (PES
Party of European Socialists
The Party of European Socialists is a European political party led by Sergei Stanishev, former Prime Minister of Bulgaria. The PES comprises social-democratic national-level political parties primarily from Member state of the European Union, as well as other nations of the European continent. The...

/S&D
Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats
The Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats is the social-democratic political group in the European Parliament, formed by MEPs of the Party of European Socialists and allied centre-left parties. The group dates its ancestry via various names back to the beginning of the European...

) – [     ] Liberal (ELDR/ALDE
Alde
Alde is a village in Suffolk, England.ALDE is also an auction house specialized in books, manuscripts and coins : ....

) – [     ] People's (EPP/EPP-ED)

Proposed reforms


As of 2011 reforms by liberal MEP Andrew Duff
Andrew Duff
Andrew Duff OBE is a Liberal Democrat politician, president of the Union of European Federalists, and a Member of the European Parliament for the East of England region of the UK....

 are being considered by Parliament which are seen as the most significant overhaul of the electoral system since elections began. 25 extra MEPs would be added on a transnational European list with its candidates being selected by the European party groups rather than national member parties. The candidate lists would have to represent a third of member states and are seen as a way to personalise and dramatise the elections in order to reengage an apathetic electorate. Duff sees the next Commission President possibly coming from the transnational list. Duff's proposals also include a single electoral roll, regular reapportioning of seats, one set of immunity rules and the holding of elections in May rather than June. However, due to a waning of support and possible opposition from member states, Duff has taken the proposal back to committee in order to get broader support before putting them before the plenary in autumn 2011.

Commission President

Election Largest Group President Party
1994
European Parliament election, 1994
The 1994 European Parliamentary Election was a European election held across the 12 European Union member states in June 1994.This election saw the merge of the European People's Party and European Democrats, an increase in the overall number of seats and a fall in overall turnout to...

PES
Party of European Socialists
The Party of European Socialists is a European political party led by Sergei Stanishev, former Prime Minister of Bulgaria. The PES comprises social-democratic national-level political parties primarily from Member state of the European Union, as well as other nations of the European continent. The...

Jacques Santer EPP
European People's Party
The European People's Party is a pro-European centre-right European political party. The EPP was founded in 1976 by Christian democratic parties, but later it increased its membership to include conservative parties and parties of other centre-right perspectives.The EPP is the most influential of...

1999
European Parliament election, 1999
The European Parliament Election, 1999 was a European election for all 626 members of the European Parliament held across the 15 European Union member states on 10, 11 and 13 June 1999. The voter turn-out was generally low, except in Belgium and Luxembourg, where voting is compulsory and where...

EPP-ED Romano Prodi
Romano Prodi
Romano Prodi is an Italian politician and statesman. He served as the Prime Minister of Italy, from 17 May 1996 to 21 October 1998 and from 17 May 2006 to 8 May 2008...

PES
2004
European Parliament election, 2004
Elections to the European Parliament were held from 10 June 2004 to 13 June 2004 in the 25 member states of the European Union, using varying election days according to local custom...

EPP José Manuel Barroso EPP
2009
European Parliament election, 2009
Elections to the European Parliament were held in the 27 member states of the European Union between 4 and 7 June 2009. A total of 736 Members of the European Parliament were elected to represent some 500 million Europeans, making these the biggest trans-national elections in history...

EPP José Manuel Barroso EPP

The third Delors Commission
Delors Commission
The Delors Commission was the administration of Jacques Delors, the 8th President of the European Commission. Delors presided over the European Commission for three terms The Delors Commission was the administration of Jacques Delors, the 8th President of the European Commission. Delors presided...

 had a short mandate, in order to bring the terms of the Commission
European Commission
The European Commission is the executive body of the European Union. The body is responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the Union's treaties and the general day-to-day running of the Union....

 in line with that of the Parliament. Under the European Constitution the European Council
European Council
The European Council is an institution of the European Union. It comprises the heads of state or government of the EU member states, along with the President of the European Commission and the President of the European Council, currently Herman Van Rompuy...

 would have to take into account the results of the latest European elections and, furthermore, the Parliament would ceremonially "elect", rather than simply approve, the Council's proposed candidate. This was taken as the parliament's cue to have its parties run with candidates for the President of the European Commission
President of the European Commission
The President of the European Commission is the head of the European Commission ― the executive branch of the :European Union ― the most powerful officeholder in the EU. The President is responsible for allocating portfolios to members of the Commission and can reshuffle or dismiss them if needed...

 with the candidate of the winning party being proposed by the Council.

This was partly put into practice in 2004 when the European Council selected a candidate from the political party which won that year's election
European Parliament election, 2004
Elections to the European Parliament were held from 10 June 2004 to 13 June 2004 in the 25 member states of the European Union, using varying election days according to local custom...

. However at that time only one party had run with a specific candidate: the European Green Party
European Green Party
The European Green Party is the Green political party at European level. As such it is a federation of green parties in Europe.-History:...

, who had the first true pan-European political party with a common campaign, put forward Daniel Cohn-Bendit
Daniel Cohn-Bendit
Daniel Marc Cohn-Bendit is a Franco-German politician, active in both countries. He was a student leader during the unrest of May 1968 in France and he was also known during that time as Dany le Rouge...

. However the fractious nature of the other political parties led to no other candidates, the People's Party only mentioned four or five people they'd like to be President. The Constitution failed ratification but these amendments have been carried over to the Treaty of Lisbon
Treaty of Lisbon
The Treaty of Lisbon of 1668 was a peace treaty between Portugal and Spain, concluded at Lisbon on 13 February 1668, through the mediation of England, in which Spain recognized the sovereignty of Portugal's new ruling dynasty, the House of Braganza....

 which came into force in 2009.

There are plans to strengthen the European political parties in order for them to propose candidates for the 2009 election. The European Liberal Democrat and Reform Party
European Liberal Democrat and Reform Party
The European Liberal Democrat and Reform Party is a European political party mainly active in the European Union, composed of 56 national-level liberal and liberal-democratic parties from across Europe...

 have already indicated, in their October 2007 congress, their intention for forward a candidate for the post as part of a common campaign. They failed to do so however the European People's Party
European People's Party
The European People's Party is a pro-European centre-right European political party. The EPP was founded in 1976 by Christian democratic parties, but later it increased its membership to include conservative parties and parties of other centre-right perspectives.The EPP is the most influential of...

 did select Barroso as their candidate and, as the largest party, Barroso's turn was renewed. The Socialists, disappointed at the 2009 election, agreed to put forward a candidate for Commission President at all subsequent elections. There is a campaign within that party to have open primaries for said candidate.

In February 2008, President Barroso admitted there was a problem in legitimacy and that, despite having the same legitimacy as Prime Ministers in theory, in practice it was not the case. The low turnout creates a problem for the President's legitimacy, with the lack of a "European political sphere", but analysis claim that if citizens were voting for a list of candidates for the post of President, turn out would be much higher than that seen in recent years.

With the Lisbon Treaty now in-force, Europarties
European political party
A European political party, formally a political party at European level, informally a Europarty, is a type of political party organization operating transnationally in Europe and in the institutions of the European Union. They are regulated and funded by the European Union and are usually made up...

 are obliged from now-on to put forward a candidate for President of the European Commission
President of the European Commission
The President of the European Commission is the head of the European Commission ― the executive branch of the :European Union ― the most powerful officeholder in the EU. The President is responsible for allocating portfolios to members of the Commission and can reshuffle or dismiss them if needed...

; each Presidential candidate will, in fact, lead the pan-European campaign of the Europarty.

The President of the European Parliament
President of the European Parliament
The President of the European Parliament presides over the debates and activities of the European Parliament. He or she also represents the Parliament within the EU and internationally. The President's signature is required for enacting most EU laws and the EU budget.Presidents serve...

 Jerzy Buzek
Jerzy Buzek
Jerzy Karol Buzek is a Polish engineer, academic lecturer and politician who was the ninth post-Cold War Prime Minister of Poland from 1997 to 2001...

 proposed in 2010 that Commissioners be directly elected, by member states placing their candidate at the top of their voting lists in European elections. That would give them individually, and the body as a whole, a democratic mandate.

See also


  • Democratic deficit in the European Union
    Democratic deficit in the European Union
    Democratic deficit in the European Union is a term used to refer to the view that the EU lacks democracy, arguably due to a lack of legitimacy in its institutions and/or lack of influence on the part of its citizens. Opinions differ on how to remedy this, and it is also argued that the deficit is...

  • Electoral calendar
  • Electoral system
  • European Parliament
    European Parliament
    The European Parliament is the directly elected parliamentary institution of the European Union . Together with the Council of the European Union and the Commission, it exercises the legislative function of the EU and it has been described as one of the most powerful legislatures in the world...

  • European Parliament election 2009
    European Parliament election, 2009
    Elections to the European Parliament were held in the 27 member states of the European Union between 4 and 7 June 2009. A total of 736 Members of the European Parliament were elected to represent some 500 million Europeans, making these the biggest trans-national elections in history...

  • European Parliament political group
  • History of the European Union
    History of the European Union
    The European Union is a geo-political entity covering a large portion of the European continent. It is founded upon numerous treaties and has undergone expansions that have taken it from 7 member states to 27, a majority of states in Europe....

  • Member of the European Parliament
    Member of the European Parliament
    A Member of the European Parliament is a person who has been elected to the European Parliament. The name of MEPs differ in different languages, with terms such as europarliamentarian or eurodeputy being common in Romance language-speaking areas.When the European Parliament was first established,...

  • National elections;
  • Austria
    Elections in Austria
    This article provides information on elections and election results in Austria.On a federal level, there are two main elections: for head of state every six years, and for the...

  • Belgium
    Elections in Belgium
    Elections in Belgium gives information on election and election results in Belgium.Belgium elects its bicameral federal legislature, the Federal Parliament Elections in Belgium gives information on election and election results in Belgium.Belgium elects its bicameral federal legislature, the...

  • Bulgaria
    Elections in Bulgaria
    Elections in Bulgaria gives information on election and election results in Bulgaria.Bulgaria elects on national level a head of state - the president - and a legislature. The president is elected for a five year term by the people...

  • Cyprus
    Elections in Cyprus
    Elections in Cyprus gives information on election and election results in Cyprus.Cyprus elects on national level a head of state - the president - and a legislature. The election of the President is direct, by universal suffrage and secret ballot. Voting is compulsory and every citizen over the...

  • Czech Republic
    Elections in the Czech Republic
    Elections in the Czech Republic gives information on election and election results in the Czech Republic.The Czech Republic elects on national level a legislature. The Parliament has two chambers...

  • Denmark
    Elections in Denmark
    Elections in Denmark gives information on elections and election results in Denmark. Denmark has a multi-party system. Elections normally result in two strong parties....

  • Estonia
    Elections in Estonia
    Estonia elects a legislature on the national level. The Riigikogu has 101 members, elected for a four year term by proportional representation. A head of state - the president - is elected for a five year term by parliament or an electoral college...

  • Finland
    Elections in Finland
    Elections in Finland gives information on election and election results in Finland.On national level Finland elects a head of state — the President of the Republic — and a legislature. The president is elected for a six-year term by direct popular vote...

  • France
    Elections in France
    France is a representative democracy. Public officials in the legislative and executive branches are either elected by the citizens or appointed by elected officials...

  • Germany
    Elections in Germany
    The following information deals with elections in Germany, including elections to the Bundestag , the Landtags of the various states, and local elections.-Election system:...

  • Greece
    Elections in Greece
    Elections in Greece gives information on election and election results in Greece.-Election of the legislature:The Greek Parliament has 300 members, elected for a four-year term by a system of 'reinforced' proportional representation in 56 constituencies, 48 of which are multi-seat and 8 single-seat...

  • Hungary
    Elections in Hungary
    Elections in Hungary are held at two levels: general elections to elect the 386 members of the National Assembly, and local elections to elect local authorities.-Presidential elections:...

  • Ireland
    Elections in Ireland
    The Republic of Ireland elects on national level a head of state — the president — and a legislature. The president is elected for a seven year term by Irish citizens resident in the state ....

  • Italy
    Elections in Italy
    This page gathers the results of elections in Italy.Italy elected, on national level, a Parliament consisting of two houses, the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate of the Republic...

  • Latvia
    Elections in Latvia
    Elections in Latvia gives information on election and election results in Latvia.Latvia elects on national level a legislature. The Saeima has 100 members, elected for a four year term by proportional representation with a 5% threshold. An unmodified Sainte-Laguë method is used to allocate seats....

  • Lithuania
    Elections in Lithuania
    Elections in Lithuania gives information on election and election results in Lithuania.Lithuania elects on national level a head of state—the president—and a legislature. The president is elected for a five year term by the people...

  • Luxembourg
    Elections in Luxembourg
    Elections in Luxembourg are held to determine the political composition of the representative institutions of Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. Luxembourg is a liberal representative democracy, with universal suffrage guaranteed under the constitution...

  • Malta
    Elections in Malta
    Malta elects on a national level the executive -, legislature and 6 MEPs representing Malta in the European Parliament....

  • Netherlands
    Elections in the Netherlands
    Elections in the Netherlands are held for six territorial levels of government: the European Union, the state, the twelve Provinces of the Netherlands, the 25 water boards, the 418 municipalities and in two cities for neighbourhood councils...

  • Poland
    Elections in Poland
    Elections in Poland gives information on election and election results in Poland. Poland has a multi-party political system. Poland elects on national level a head of state - the president - and a legislature...

  • Portugal
    Elections in Portugal
    Elections in Portugal gives information on election and election results in Portugal.Only the elections since the Carnation Revolution of 1974 are listed here. During the period encompassing the Constitutional Monarchy and the First Republic there were also elections, but only for a limited...

  • Romania
    Elections in Romania
    Romania elects on a national level a head of state – the president – and a legislature. The president is elected for a five year term by the people . The Romanian Parliament has two chambers...

  • Slovakia
    Elections in Slovakia
    Elections in Slovakia gives information on election and election results in Slovakia.Slovakia elects on national level a head of state - the president - and a legislature. The president is elected for a five year term by the people...

  • Slovenia
    Elections in Slovenia
    At a national level, Slovenia elects a head of state and a legislature. The president is elected for a five year term by the people using the Run-Off system. The National Assembly , Slovenia's parliament, has 90 members each elected for four-year terms. All but two of these are elected using the...

  • Spain
    Elections in Spain
    There are four types of elections in Spain: general elections, elections to the legislatures of the autonomous communities, local elections and elections to the European Parliament...

  • Sweden
    Elections in Sweden
    Elections in the Kingdom of Sweden are held every four years, and determine the makeup of the legislative bodies on the three levels of administrative division in the country. At the highest level, these elections determine the allocation of seats in the Riksdag, the national legislative body of...

  • United Kingdom
    Elections in the United Kingdom
    There are five types of elections in the United Kingdom: United Kingdom general elections, elections to devolved parliaments and assemblies, elections to the European Parliament, local elections and mayoral elections. Elections are held on Election Day, which is conventionally a Thursday...


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