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Edwin Sandys (archbishop)

Edwin Sandys (archbishop)

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Archbishop Edwin Sandys (1519–1588) was an English prelate
Prelate
A prelate is a high-ranking member of the clergy who is an ordinary or who ranks in precedence with ordinaries. The word derives from the Latin prælatus, the past participle of præferre, which means "carry before", "be set above or over" or "prefer"; hence, a prelate is one set over others.-Related...

.
He was Anglican
Anglicanism
Anglicanism is a tradition within Christianity comprising churches with historical connections to the Church of England or similar beliefs, worship and church structures. The word Anglican originates in ecclesia anglicana, a medieval Latin phrase dating to at least 1246 that means the English...

 Bishop of Worcester
Bishop of Worcester
The Bishop of Worcester is the Ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of Worcester in the Province of Canterbury, England. He is the head of the Diocese of Worcester in the Province of Canterbury...

 (1559–1570), London
Bishop of London
The Bishop of London is the ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of London in the Province of Canterbury.The diocese covers 458 km² of 17 boroughs of Greater London north of the River Thames and a small part of the County of Surrey...

 (1570–1576) and Archbishop of York
Archbishop of York
The Archbishop of York is a high-ranking cleric in the Church of England, second only to the Archbishop of Canterbury. He is the diocesan bishop of the Diocese of York and metropolitan of the Province of York, which covers the northern portion of England as well as the Isle of Man...

 (1576–1588) during the reign of Elizabeth I of England. He was one of the translators of the Bishops' Bible
Bishops' Bible
The Bishops' Bible is an English translation of the Bible which was produced under the authority of the established Church of England in 1568. It was substantially revised in 1572, and this revised edition was to be prescribed as the base text for the Authorized King James Version of...

.

Early years and education


Edwin was born in 1519 at Esthwaite Hall, which is 1 mile south of Hawkshead
Hawkshead
Hawkshead is a village and civil parish in the Cumbria, England. It is one of the main tourist honeypots in the South Lakeland area, and is dependent on the local tourist trade...

, Cumbria, on the road to Newby Bridge. The Hall nestles in the valley and overlooks Esthwaite Water
Esthwaite Water
Esthwaite Water is one of the smaller and lesser known lakes in the Lake District national park in northern England. It is situated between the much larger lakes of Windermere and Coniston Water, in the traditional county of Lancashire; since 1974 in the administrative county of Cumbria...

. Today it is still a family home, although the Sandys family now reside in the grander Graythwaite Hall
Graythwaite Hall
Graythwaite Hall, near Hawkshead, Cumbria in the Lake District of England is the home of the Sandys family. The grounds are open to the public, but the Hall is not....

 a few miles further south. He was the son of William Sandys and Margaret Dixon, a descendant of William I of Scotland
William I of Scotland
William the Lion , sometimes styled William I, also known by the nickname Garbh, "the Rough", reigned as King of the Scots from 1165 to 1214...

 it is claimed.

Whilst there is a theory that young Edwin received his early education at Furness Abbey
Furness Abbey
Furness Abbey, or St. Mary of Furness is a former monastery situated on the outskirts of the English town of Barrow-in-Furness, Cumbria. The abbey dates back to 1123 and was once the second wealthiest and most powerful Cistercian monastery in the country, behind only Fountains Abbey in North...

, it is believed by Collinson that both Edmund Grindal
Edmund Grindal
Edmund Grindal was an English church leader who successively held the posts of Bishop of London, Archbishop of York and Archbishop of Canterbury during the reign of Elizabeth I of England.-Early life to the death of Edward VI:...

 and Edwin Sandys shared a childhood, quite probably in St Bees
St Bees
St Bees is a village and civil parish in the Copeland district of Cumbria, in the North of England, about five miles west southwest of Whitehaven. The parish had a population of 1,717 according to the 2001 census. Within the parish is St...

, and were educated together. A branch of the Sandys family lived at Rottington Hall hear St Bees, the heralds knew in 1563 the family "...of St Bees in the County of Cumberland", and Sandys himself has recalled that he and Grindal had lived "familiarly" and "as brothers" and were only separated between Sandys's 13th and 18th Years. The St Bees registers are full of Sandys, and it thought likely that Sandys grew up at Rottington. However, his place of education is not recorded, though it is known that the Marian martyr John Bland was the schoolmaster of Sandys. Edwin Sandys kept one step behind Edmund Grindal in his subsequent career, succeeding him as bishop of London, and then archbishop of York.

He went up to St John's College, Cambridge
St John's College, Cambridge
St John's College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge. The college's alumni include nine Nobel Prize winners, six Prime Ministers, three archbishops, at least two princes, and three Saints....

 graduating BA in 1539 and then a Doctor of Divinity
Doctor of Divinity
Doctor of Divinity is an advanced academic degree in divinity. Historically, it identified one who had been licensed by a university to teach Christian theology or related religious subjects....

 ten years later. In 1547 he was elected master of Catharine Hall
St Catharine's College, Cambridge
St. Catharine’s College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge. Founded in 1473, the college is often referred to informally by the nickname "Catz".-History:...

 and by the death of Edward VI in 1553 he was Vice Chancellor of the University.

Exile


On the death of King Edward, the Duke of Northumberland
Duke of Northumberland
The Duke of Northumberland is a title in the peerage of Great Britain that has been created several times. Since the third creation in 1766, the title has belonged to the House of Percy , which held the title of Earl of Northumberland from 1377....

 sought to avoid a Roman Catholic monarchy by illegally placing Lady Jane Grey
Lady Jane Grey
Lady Jane Grey , also known as The Nine Days' Queen, was an English noblewoman who was de facto monarch of England from 10 July until 19 July 1553 and was subsequently executed...

 on the throne. He and his followers arrived in Cambridge to raise an army in East Anglia and demanded that Edwin Sandys preach a sermon. When the rebellion failed and Mary Tudor
Mary I of England
Mary I was queen regnant of England and Ireland from July 1553 until her death.She was the only surviving child born of the ill-fated marriage of Henry VIII and his first wife Catherine of Aragon. Her younger half-brother, Edward VI, succeeded Henry in 1547...

 took the throne, Edwin was arrested and taken to the Tower of London
Tower of London
Her Majesty's Royal Palace and Fortress, more commonly known as the Tower of London, is a historic castle on the north bank of the River Thames in central London, England. It lies within the London Borough of Tower Hamlets, separated from the eastern edge of the City of London by the open space...

. For this he is mentioned in Foxe's Book of Martyrs
Foxe's Book of Martyrs
The Book of Martyrs, by John Foxe, more accurately Acts and Monuments, is an account from a Protestant point of view of Christian church history and martyrology...

. Later he was moved to more comfortable conditions in Marchalsea prison where he made friends with the prison keeper who connived at his escape.

He went first to Antwerp and then Augsburg
Augsburg
Augsburg is a city in the south-west of Bavaria, Germany. It is a university town and home of the Regierungsbezirk Schwaben and the Bezirk Schwaben. Augsburg is an urban district and home to the institutions of the Landkreis Augsburg. It is, as of 2008, the third-largest city in Bavaria with a...

 and Strasbourg
Strasbourg
Strasbourg is the capital and principal city of the Alsace region in eastern France and is the official seat of the European Parliament. Located close to the border with Germany, it is the capital of the Bas-Rhin département. The city and the region of Alsace are historically German-speaking,...

 where his wife joined him. His wife and infant son died there of a plague
Bubonic plague
Plague is a deadly infectious disease that is caused by the enterobacteria Yersinia pestis, named after the French-Swiss bacteriologist Alexandre Yersin. Primarily carried by rodents and spread to humans via fleas, the disease is notorious throughout history, due to the unrivaled scale of death...

. He then lived in Zurich
Zürich
Zurich is the largest city in Switzerland and the capital of the canton of Zurich. It is located in central Switzerland at the northwestern tip of Lake Zurich...

 until the ascendancy of Elizabeth I made it safe for him to return to England; on the day of Elizabeth's coronation. On 19 February 1560 he married Cicely Wilford, sister of James Wilford
James Wilford
Sir James Wilford was an English soldier, and commander of Haddington in Scotland during its occupation in the war of the Rough Wooing....

.

Archbishop of York


On his return he became successively Bishop of Worcester
Bishop of Worcester
The Bishop of Worcester is the Ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of Worcester in the Province of Canterbury, England. He is the head of the Diocese of Worcester in the Province of Canterbury...

, Bishop of London
Bishop of London
The Bishop of London is the ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of London in the Province of Canterbury.The diocese covers 458 km² of 17 boroughs of Greater London north of the River Thames and a small part of the County of Surrey...

 and Archbishop of York
Archbishop of York
The Archbishop of York is a high-ranking cleric in the Church of England, second only to the Archbishop of Canterbury. He is the diocesan bishop of the Diocese of York and metropolitan of the Province of York, which covers the northern portion of England as well as the Isle of Man...

. He helped in the translation of a new version of the Bishops' Bible
Bishops' Bible
The Bishops' Bible is an English translation of the Bible which was produced under the authority of the established Church of England in 1568. It was substantially revised in 1572, and this revised edition was to be prescribed as the base text for the Authorized King James Version of...

. Sandys's own personal copy may be seen in the Hawkshead Grammar School Museum
Hawkshead Grammar School Museum
The museum operates in the old Hawkshead Grammar School building from April through to October. It gives a guided tour of the school room which brings the school to life. Visitors may feel the atmosphere and almost believe you are in a working English schoolroom of 200 years ago where the...

.

Along with other Marian exiles
Marian exiles
The Marian Exiles were English Calvinist Protestants who fled to the continent during the reign of Queen Mary I.-Exile communities:According to English historian John Strype, more than 800 Protestants fled to the continent, mainly to the Low Countries, Germany, Switzerland, and France, and joined...

, who returned to positions of wealth and importance, Archbishop Sandys was concerned that true religion and sound learning would forever flourish in the land. They saw the necessity of education for religion’s sake and the need for the Church of England
Church of England
The Church of England is the officially established Christian church in England and the Mother Church of the worldwide Anglican Communion. The church considers itself within the tradition of Western Christianity and dates its formal establishment principally to the mission to England by St...

 to hold their own in discussion with Roman Catholics. To these ends Edwin Sandys founded Hawkshead Grammar School
Hawkshead Grammar School
Hawkshead Grammar School in Hawkshead, Cumbria, England was founded in 1585 by Archbishop Edwin Sandys, of York, who petitioned a charter from Queen Elizabeth I to set up a governing body. The early School taught Latin, Greek and sciences, including arithmetic and geometry...

 in 1585 and endowed it with sufficient land and property for it to offer a free education.

Descendants


His eldest son, Sir Samuel Sandys
Samuel Sandys (died 1623)
Sir Samuel Sandys was an English landowner and politician who sat in the House of Commons at various times between 1586 and 1622....

 of Ombersley
Ombersley
The village of Ombersley is in the Wychavon District Council area of Worcestershire.The first known reference to the village was the granting of a Charter to Abbot Egwin, later Saint Egwin, of Evesham Abbey in 706 AD. This was the Charter of King Æthelweard of the Hwicce, which granted twelve...

 in Worcestershire
Worcestershire
Worcestershire is a non-metropolitan county, established in antiquity, located in the West Midlands region of England. For Eurostat purposes it is a NUTS 3 region and is one of three counties that comprise the "Herefordshire, Worcestershire and Warwickshire" NUTS 2 region...

, was ancestor of the Lords Sandys of Ombersley
Baron Sandys
Baron Sandys is a title that has been created three times, once in the Peerage of England, once in the Peerage of Great Britain and once in the Peerage of the United Kingdom....

. His second son, Sir Edwin Sandys
Edwin Sandys (American colonist)
Sir Edwin Sandys was an English politician, a leading figure in the parliaments of James I of England. He was also one of the founders of the proprietary Virginia Company of London, which in 1607 established the first permanent English settlement in what is now the United States in the colony of...

, was one of the colonial organizers and treasurer of the New World
New World
The New World is one of the names used for the Western Hemisphere, specifically America and sometimes Oceania . The term originated in the late 15th century, when America had been recently discovered by European explorers, expanding the geographical horizon of the people of the European middle...

 colony of Virginia
London Company
The London Company was an English joint stock company established by royal charter by James I of England on April 10, 1606 with the purpose of establishing colonial settlements in North America.The territory granted to the London Company included the coast of North America from the 34th parallel ...

.

Edwin Sandys descendants number in the thousands today. Some of his notable descendants include;
  • Sir Samuel Sandys of Ombersley
    Ombersley
    The village of Ombersley is in the Wychavon District Council area of Worcestershire.The first known reference to the village was the granting of a Charter to Abbot Egwin, later Saint Egwin, of Evesham Abbey in 706 AD. This was the Charter of King Æthelweard of the Hwicce, which granted twelve...

  • Sir Edwin Sandys
    Edwin Sandys (American colonist)
    Sir Edwin Sandys was an English politician, a leading figure in the parliaments of James I of England. He was also one of the founders of the proprietary Virginia Company of London, which in 1607 established the first permanent English settlement in what is now the United States in the colony of...

  • George Sandys
    George Sandys
    George Sandys was an English traveller, colonist and poet.-Life:He was born in Bishopsthorpe, the seventh and youngest son of Edwin Sandys, archbishop of York. He studied at St Mary Hall, Oxford, but took no degree...

  • Samuel Sandys, 1st Baron Sandys
    Samuel Sandys, 1st Baron Sandys
    Samuel Sandys, 1st Baron Sandys, PC was a British politician in the 18th century. He held numerous posts within the government of the United Kingdom, namely Chancellor of the Exchequer, Leader of the House of Commons, Cofferer of the Household and First Lord of Trade...

     (1695–1770)
  • Edwin Sandys, 2nd Baron Sandys
    Edwin Sandys, 2nd Baron Sandys
    Edwin Sandys, 2nd Baron Sandys was the eldest son of Samuel Sandys, 1st Baron Sandys and his wife Letitia daughter of Sir Thomas Tipping, baronet of Wheatfield, Oxfordshire...

     (1726–1797)
  • Mary Hill, Marchioness of Downshire, 1st Baroness Sandys (1774–1836)
  • Arthur Moyses William Hill, 2nd Baron Sandys
    Arthur Moyses William Hill, 2nd Baron Sandys
    Lieutenant-General Arthur Moyses William Hill, 2nd Baron Sandys , styled as Lord Arthur Hill until 1836, was an Anglo-Irish soldier and politician.-Background:...

     (1793–1860)
  • (Arthur) Marcus Cecil Sandys, 3rd Baron Sandys
    Marcus Sandys, 3rd Baron Sandys
    Arthur Marcus Cecil Sandys, 3rd Baron Sandys , known as Lord Marcus Hill until 1860, was a British Whig politician.-Background:...

  • Richard Michael Oliver Hill, 7th Baron Sandys
    Richard Hill, 7th Baron Sandys
    Richard Michael Oliver Hill, 7th Baron Sandys DL , is a British landowner and Conservative politician.Sandys is the only son of Arthur Fitzgerald Sandys Hill, 6th Baron Sandys, and his wife Cynthia Mary , and was educated at the Royal Naval College, Dartmouth. He served with the Royal Scots Greys...

     (b. 1931)
  • U.S. President Zachary Taylor
    Zachary Taylor
    Zachary Taylor was the 12th President of the United States and an American military leader. Initially uninterested in politics, Taylor nonetheless ran as a Whig in the 1848 presidential election, defeating Lewis Cass...

  • Richard Taylor
    Richard Taylor (general)
    Richard Taylor was a Confederate general in the American Civil War. He was the son of United States President Zachary Taylor and First Lady Margaret Taylor.-Early life:...

  • Richard Lovelace
    Richard Lovelace
    Richard Lovelace was an English poet in the seventeenth century. He was a cavalier poet who fought on behalf of the king during the Civil war. His best known works are To Althea, from Prison, and To Lucasta, Going to the Warres....

  • Francis Lovelace
    Francis Lovelace
    Francis Lovelace was an English Royalist and the second Governor of New York colony.He was born the third son of Sir William Lovelace and his wife Anne Barne of Lovelace Place, Bethersden and Woolwich, Kent. He was the younger brother of Richard Lovelace, the Cavalier poet...

  • Thomas Todd
    Thomas Todd
    Thomas Todd was an American attorney and U.S. Supreme Court justice. Raised in the Colony of Virginia, he studied law and later participated in the founding of Kentucky, where he served as a clerk, judge, and justice. He was married twice and had a total of eight children. Todd joined the U.S...

  • Sir Archer Croft, 2nd Baronet
    Sir Archer Croft, 2nd Baronet
    Sir Archer Croft, 2nd Baronet was the eldest son of Sir Herbert Croft, 1st Baronet and his wife Elizabeth daughter of Thomas Archer. He served as Member of Parliament for Leominster from 1722 to 1727; for Winchelsea in 1728; and for Bere Alston from 1728 to 1734....

     (1684–1753)
  • Sir John Croft, 4th Baronet
    Sir John Croft, 4th Baronet
    Sir John Croft, 4th Baronet. He was the son of Sir Archer Croft, 2nd Baronet and Frances Waring. He died at Bath, England on 4 December 1797, without legitimate issue.-Baronetage :...

     (c. 1735–1797)
  • Sir Herbert Croft, 5th Baronet (1751–1816)
  • Dr. Sir Richard Croft, 6th Baronet (1762–1818)
  • Henry Page Croft, 1st Baron Croft
    Henry Page Croft, 1st Baron Croft
    Henry Page Croft, 1st Baron Croft was a British Conservative Party politician.-Early life and family:He was born at Fanhams Hall in Ware, Hertfordshire, England. He was the son of Richard Benyon Croft a naval officer and a major benefactor of the Richard Hale School, and Anne Elizabeth...


See also



External links