Edmonton

Edmonton

Overview
Edmonton is the capital of the Canadian
Canada
Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, and northward into the Arctic Ocean...

 province
Provinces and territories of Canada
The provinces and territories of Canada combine to make up the world's second-largest country by area. There are ten provinces and three territories...

 of Alberta
Alberta
Alberta is a province of Canada. It had an estimated population of 3.7 million in 2010 making it the most populous of Canada's three prairie provinces...

 and is the province's second-largest city. Edmonton is located on the North Saskatchewan River
North Saskatchewan River
The North Saskatchewan River is a glacier-fed river that flows east from the Canadian Rockies to central Saskatchewan. It is one of two major rivers that join to make up the Saskatchewan River....

 and is the centre of the Edmonton Capital Region
Edmonton Capital Region
The Edmonton Capital Region , also commonly referred to as the Alberta Capital Region, Greater Edmonton or Metro Edmonton, is a conglomeration of municipalities centred around Edmonton – Alberta's provincial capital....

, which is surrounded by the central region
Central Alberta
Central Alberta is a region located in the Canadian province of Alberta.Central Alberta is the most densely populated rural area in the province...

 of the province.

The city and its census metropolitan area had populations of 730,372 and 1,034,945 as of the 2006 Census
Canada 2006 Census
The Canada 2006 Census was a detailed enumeration of the Canadian population. Census day was May 16, 2006. The next census following will be the 2011 Census. Canada's total population enumerated by the 2006 census was 31,612,897...

 respectively, making it the northernmost North America
North America
North America is a continent wholly within the Northern Hemisphere and almost wholly within the Western Hemisphere. It is also considered a northern subcontinent of the Americas...

n city with a metropolitan population over one million.
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Encyclopedia
Edmonton is the capital of the Canadian
Canada
Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, and northward into the Arctic Ocean...

 province
Provinces and territories of Canada
The provinces and territories of Canada combine to make up the world's second-largest country by area. There are ten provinces and three territories...

 of Alberta
Alberta
Alberta is a province of Canada. It had an estimated population of 3.7 million in 2010 making it the most populous of Canada's three prairie provinces...

 and is the province's second-largest city. Edmonton is located on the North Saskatchewan River
North Saskatchewan River
The North Saskatchewan River is a glacier-fed river that flows east from the Canadian Rockies to central Saskatchewan. It is one of two major rivers that join to make up the Saskatchewan River....

 and is the centre of the Edmonton Capital Region
Edmonton Capital Region
The Edmonton Capital Region , also commonly referred to as the Alberta Capital Region, Greater Edmonton or Metro Edmonton, is a conglomeration of municipalities centred around Edmonton – Alberta's provincial capital....

, which is surrounded by the central region
Central Alberta
Central Alberta is a region located in the Canadian province of Alberta.Central Alberta is the most densely populated rural area in the province...

 of the province.

The city and its census metropolitan area had populations of 730,372 and 1,034,945 as of the 2006 Census
Canada 2006 Census
The Canada 2006 Census was a detailed enumeration of the Canadian population. Census day was May 16, 2006. The next census following will be the 2011 Census. Canada's total population enumerated by the 2006 census was 31,612,897...

 respectively, making it the northernmost North America
North America
North America is a continent wholly within the Northern Hemisphere and almost wholly within the Western Hemisphere. It is also considered a northern subcontinent of the Americas...

n city with a metropolitan population over one million. The city's 2009 civic census showed a population of 782,439, while Statistics Canada
Statistics Canada
Statistics Canada is the Canadian federal government agency commissioned with producing statistics to help better understand Canada, its population, resources, economy, society, and culture. Its headquarters is in Ottawa....

 estimated its metropolitan population at 1,155,383 in 2009, making it the sixth-largest metropolitan area in the nation. A resident of Edmonton is known as an Edmontonian.

The majority of Edmonton's metropolitan population lives within the City of Edmonton rather than in the surrounding suburban municipalities. Historically Edmonton was surrounded by few other urban municipalities and many of the nearby settlements that did exist were absorbed through amalgamation or annexation. Edmonton annexed a significant amount of land up until the early 1980s, and as such it has sustained much of the region's suburban growth within the city.

Edmonton serves as the northern anchor of the Calgary–Edmonton Corridor and is a staging point for large-scale oil sands
Tar sands
Bituminous sands, colloquially known as oil sands or tar sands, are a type of unconventional petroleum deposit. The sands contain naturally occurring mixtures of sand, clay, water, and a dense and extremely viscous form of petroleum technically referred to as bitumen...

 projects occurring in northern Alberta
Northern Alberta
Northern Alberta is a region located in the Canadian province of Alberta.Its primary industry is oil and gas, with large heavy oil reserves being exploited at the Athabasca Oil Sands and Wabasca Area in the east of the region...

 and large-scale diamond mining operations in the Northwest Territories
Northwest Territories
The Northwest Territories is a federal territory of Canada.Located in northern Canada, the territory borders Canada's two other territories, Yukon to the west and Nunavut to the east, and three provinces: British Columbia to the southwest, and Alberta and Saskatchewan to the south...

.

Edmonton is a cultural, governmental and educational centre. It plays host to a year-round slate of world-class festivals, earning it the title of "The Festival City." It is home to North America's largest mall, West Edmonton Mall
West Edmonton Mall
West Edmonton Mall , located in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, is the largest shopping mall in North America and the fifth largest in the world. The mall was founded by the Ghermezian brothers, who emigrated from Iran in 1959. It was the world's largest mall until 2004.West Edmonton Mall covers a gross...

 (the world's largest mall from 1981 until 2004), and Fort Edmonton Park
Fort Edmonton Park
Fort Edmonton Park is an attraction in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Named for the first enduring European post in the area of modern-day Edmonton, the park is the largest living history museum in Canada by area...

, Canada's largest living history museum. In 2004, Edmonton celebrated the centennial of its incorporation as a city.

History



The first inhabitants settled in the area that is now Edmonton around 3,000 BC and perhaps as early as 12,000 BC, when an ice-free corridor opened up as the last ice age ended and timber, water, and wildlife became available in the region.

In 1754, Anthony Henday
Anthony Henday
Anthony Henday was one of the first white men to explore the interior of the Canadian northwest. His explorations were authorized and funded by the Hudson's Bay Company because of their concern with La Vérendrye and the other western commanders who were funnelling fur trade from the northwest to...

, an explorer working for the Hudson's Bay Company
Hudson's Bay Company
The Hudson's Bay Company , abbreviated HBC, or "The Bay" is the oldest commercial corporation in North America and one of the oldest in the world. A fur trading business for much of its existence, today Hudson's Bay Company owns and operates retail stores throughout Canada...

 (HBC), may have been the first European to enter the Edmonton area. His expeditions across the Canadian Prairies
Canadian Prairies
The Canadian Prairies is a region of Canada, specifically in western Canada, which may correspond to several different definitions, natural or political. Notably, the Prairie provinces or simply the Prairies comprise the provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba, as they are largely covered...

 were mainly to seek contact with the aboriginal population
Aboriginal peoples in Canada
Aboriginal peoples in Canada comprise the First Nations, Inuit and Métis. The descriptors "Indian" and "Eskimo" have fallen into disuse in Canada and are commonly considered pejorative....

 for the purpose of establishing the fur trade
Fur trade
The fur trade is a worldwide industry dealing in the acquisition and sale of animal fur. Since the establishment of world market for in the early modern period furs of boreal, polar and cold temperate mammalian animals have been the most valued...

, as competition was fierce between the Hudson's Bay Company and the North West Company
North West Company
The North West Company was a fur trading business headquartered in Montreal from 1779 to 1821. It competed with increasing success against the Hudson's Bay Company in what was to become Western Canada...

. By 1795, Fort Edmonton
Fort Edmonton
Fort Edmonton was the name of a series of trading posts of the Hudson's Bay Company from 1795 to 1891, all of which were located in central Alberta, Canada...

 was established on the north bank of the river, as a major trading post
Trading post
A trading post was a place or establishment in historic Northern America where the trading of goods took place. The preferred travel route to a trading post or between trading posts, was known as a trade route....

 for the Hudson's Bay Company. The name of the new fort was suggested by John Peter Pruden
John Peter Pruden
John Peter Pruden, christened on May 31, 1778 at All Saints Parish Church in Edmonton, Middlesex, England, was an early pioneer of Canada. During his many years of employment as a fur-trader with the Hudson's Bay Company, he had extensive interaction with such First Nations as the Cree and...

 after Edmonton, London
Edmonton, London
Edmonton is an area in the east of the London Borough of Enfield, England, north-north-east of Charing Cross. It has a long history as a settlement distinct from Enfield.-Location:...

, the home town of both the HBC deputy governor Sir James Winter Lake, and Pruden. In the late 19th century, the highly fertile soils surrounding Edmonton helped attract settlers, further establishing Edmonton as a major regional commercial and agricultural centre. Edmonton was also a stopping point for people hoping to cash in on the Klondike Gold Rush
Klondike Gold Rush
The Klondike Gold Rush, also called the Yukon Gold Rush, the Alaska Gold Rush and the Last Great Gold Rush, was an attempt by an estimated 100,000 people to travel to the Klondike region the Yukon in north-western Canada between 1897 and 1899 in the hope of successfully prospecting for gold...

 in 1897, although the majority of people doing so chose to take a steamship
Steamboat
A steamboat or steamship, sometimes called a steamer, is a ship in which the primary method of propulsion is steam power, typically driving propellers or paddlewheels...

 north to the Yukon
Yukon
Yukon is the westernmost and smallest of Canada's three federal territories. It was named after the Yukon River. The word Yukon means "Great River" in Gwich’in....

 from Vancouver
Vancouver
Vancouver is a coastal seaport city on the mainland of British Columbia, Canada. It is the hub of Greater Vancouver, which, with over 2.3 million residents, is the third most populous metropolitan area in the country,...

.

Incorporated as a city in 1904 with a population of 8,350, Edmonton became the capital of Alberta as the province joined Confederation a year later, on September 1, 1905. In November 1905, the Canadian Northern Railway
Canadian Northern Railway
The Canadian Northern Railway is a historic Canadian transcontinental railway. At its demise in 1923, when it was merged into the Canadian National Railway , the CNoR owned a main line between Quebec City and Vancouver via Ottawa, Winnipeg, and Edmonton.-Manitoba beginnings:CNoR had its start in...

 (CNR) arrived in Edmonton, accelerating growth.

During the early 1910s, Edmonton grew very rapidly, causing rising speculation in real estate prices. In 1912, Edmonton amalgamated
Amalgamation (politics)
A merger or amalgamation in a political or administrative sense is the combination of two or more political or administrative entities such as municipalities , counties, districts, etc. into a single entity. This term is used when the process occurs within a sovereign entity...

 with the City of Strathcona
Strathcona, Alberta
Strathcona was a city in Alberta, Canada, located on the south of the North Saskatchewan River opposite of the City of Edmonton. It amalgamated with Edmonton on February 1, 1912....

, south of the North Saskatchewan River; as a result, the city extended south of the North Saskatchewan River for the first time.

Just prior to World War I
World War I
World War I , which was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter, was a major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918...

, the real estate boom ended suddenly, causing the city's population to decline sharply from over 72,500 in 1914 to under 54,000 only two years later. Recruitment to the Canadian military during the war also contributed to the drop in population. Afterwards, the city was slow to recover in population and economy during the 1920s and 1930s until World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

.

The first licensed airfield in Canada, Blatchford Field (now Edmonton City Centre (Blatchford Field) Airport
Edmonton City Centre (Blatchford Field) Airport
Edmonton City Centre Airport, , is located within the city of Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. It is bordered by Yellowhead Trail to the north, Kingsway to the south, 121 Street to the west, and the Northern Alberta Institute of Technology to the east. It encompasses approximately of land just north...

), commenced operation in 1929. Pioneering aviators such as Wilfrid R. "Wop" May and Max Ward
Max Ward (bush pilot)
Maxwell "Max" William Ward, OC, AOE is a pioneering Canadian aviator and founder of Wardair airlines, at one time, the third-largest air carrier in Canada.-Early years:Max Ward was born 22 November 1921 in Edmonton, Alberta...

 used Blatchford Field as a major base for the distribution of mail, food, and medicine to Northern Canada
Northern Canada
Northern Canada, colloquially the North, is the vast northernmost region of Canada variously defined by geography and politics. Politically, the term refers to the three territories of Canada: Yukon, Northwest Territories, and Nunavut...

; hence Edmonton's role as the "Gateway to the North" was strengthened. World War II saw Edmonton becoming a major base for the construction of the Alaska Highway
Alaska Highway
The Alaska Highway was constructed during World War II for the purpose of connecting the contiguous U.S. to Alaska through Canada. It begins at the junction with several Canadian highways in Dawson Creek, British Columbia and runs to Delta Junction, Alaska, via Whitehorse, Yukon...

 and the Northwest Staging Route
Northwest Staging Route
The Northwest Staging Route was a series of airstrips, airport and radio ranging stations built in Alberta, British Columbia, the Yukon and Alaska during World War II. It was known in the Soviet Union as Alsib ....

.

Geography


Edmonton is located near the geographic centre of the province, at an elevation of 668 metres (2,192 ft). Edmonton is the most northerly city in North America with a metropolitan population of over one million. It is at the same latitude as Hamburg
Hamburg
-History:The first historic name for the city was, according to Claudius Ptolemy's reports, Treva.But the city takes its modern name, Hamburg, from the first permanent building on the site, a castle whose construction was ordered by the Emperor Charlemagne in AD 808...

, Germany
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

 and Manchester
Manchester
Manchester is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England. According to the Office for National Statistics, the 2010 mid-year population estimate for Manchester was 498,800. Manchester lies within one of the UK's largest metropolitan areas, the metropolitan county of Greater...

, England
England
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west; the Irish Sea is to the north west, the Celtic Sea to the south west, with the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south separating it from continental...

. The terrain in and around Edmonton is generally flat to gently rolling, with ravines and deep river valleys, such as the North Saskatchewan River valley. Despite the fact that the Canadian Rockies
Canadian Rockies
The Canadian Rockies comprise the Canadian segment of the North American Rocky Mountains range. They are the eastern part of the Canadian Cordillera, extending from the Interior Plains of Alberta to the Rocky Mountain Trench of British Columbia. The southern end borders Idaho and Montana of the USA...

 come as close to Edmonton as roughly 220 km (136.7 mi) to the southwest, the city is too distant for any of their peaks to be seen from even its tallest buildings.

The North Saskatchewan River originates at the Columbia Icefield
Columbia Icefield
The Columbia Icefield is an icefield located in the Canadian Rockies, astride the Continental Divide of North America. The icefield lies partly in the northwestern tip of Banff National Park and the southern end of Jasper National Park. It is about 325 km² in area, 100 to 365 metres in depth and...

 in Jasper National Park
Jasper National Park
Jasper National Park is the largest national park in the Canadian Rockies, spanning 10,878 km² . It is located in the province of Alberta, north of Banff National Park and west of the City of Edmonton. The park includes the glaciers of the Columbia Icefield, hot springs, lakes, waterfalls and...

 and bisects the city. It empties via the Saskatchewan River
Saskatchewan River
The Saskatchewan River is a major river in Canada, approximately long, flowing roughly eastward across Saskatchewan and Manitoba to empty into Lake Winnipeg...

, Lake Winnipeg
Lake Winnipeg
Lake Winnipeg is a large, lake in central North America, in the province of Manitoba, Canada, with its southern tip about north of the city of Winnipeg...

, and the Nelson River
Nelson River
The Nelson River is a river of north-central North America, in the Canadian province of Manitoba. Its full length is , it has mean discharge of , and has a drainage basin of , of which is in the United States...

 into Hudson Bay
Hudson Bay
Hudson Bay , sometimes called Hudson's Bay, is a large body of saltwater in northeastern Canada. It drains a very large area, about , that includes parts of Ontario, Quebec, Saskatchewan, Alberta, most of Manitoba, southeastern Nunavut, as well as parts of North Dakota, South Dakota, Minnesota,...

. It runs from the southwest to the northeast and is fed by numerous creeks throughout the city, such as Mill Creek
Mill Creek Ravine
Mill Creek Ravine is located in south Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. The north end of the ravine opens onto the North Saskatchewan River valley near the west end of Cloverdale and then approaches the Low Level and the James McDonald bridges...

, Whitemud Creek
Whitemud Creek
Whitemud Creek is a creek in central Alberta that flows into the North Saskatchewan River.For part of its length, the creek flows through the city of Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. It separates neighbourhoods in the Riverbend and Terwillegar areas from other neighbourhoods on the south side of the...

 and Blackmud Creek
Blackmud Creek
Blackmud Creek is a creek in Edmonton that flows into Whitemud Creek. It separates from Whitemud Creek in the neighborhood of Twin Brooks. It continues south of the city, then comes around the east of Nisku and runs into Coal Lake....

; this creates numerous ravines, many of which have been incorporated into urban park
Urban park
An urban park, is also known as a municipal park or a public park, public open space or municipal gardens , is a park in cities and other incorporated places to offer recreation and green space to residents of, and visitors to, the municipality...

land. Edmonton is situated at the boundary between prairie
Prairie
Prairies are considered part of the temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands biome by ecologists, based on similar temperate climates, moderate rainfall, and grasses, herbs, and shrubs, rather than trees, as the dominant vegetation type...

 to the south and boreal forest
Taiga
Taiga , also known as the boreal forest, is a biome characterized by coniferous forests.Taiga is the world's largest terrestrial biome. In North America it covers most of inland Canada and Alaska as well as parts of the extreme northern continental United States and is known as the Northwoods...

 to the north, in a transitional area known as aspen parkland
Aspen parkland
Aspen parkland refers to a very large area of transitional biome between prairie and boreal forest in two sections; the Peace River Country of northwestern Alberta crossing the border into British Columbia, and a much larger area stretching from central Alberta, all across central Saskatchewan to...

. However, the aspen parkland in and around Edmonton has long since been heavily altered by farming and other human activities, such as oil and natural gas
Natural gas
Natural gas is a naturally occurring gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, typically with 0–20% higher hydrocarbons . It is found associated with other hydrocarbon fuel, in coal beds, as methane clathrates, and is an important fuel source and a major feedstock for fertilizers.Most natural...

 exploration.

Parkland and environment




Edmonton's river valley constitutes the longest stretch of connected urban parkland in North America, and Edmonton has the highest per capita area of parkland of any Canadian city; the river valley is 22 times larger than New York City's Central Park
Central Park
Central Park is a public park in the center of Manhattan in New York City, United States. The park initially opened in 1857, on of city-owned land. In 1858, Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux won a design competition to improve and expand the park with a plan they entitled the Greensward Plan...

. The public river valley parks provide a unique urban escape area, with park styles ranging from fully serviced urban parks to campsitelike facilities with few amenities. This main "Ribbon of Green" is supplemented by numerous neighbourhood parks located throughout the city, to give a total of 111 km² (27,428.7 acre) of parkland. Within the 7400 ha (18,285.8 acre), 25 km (15.5 mi)-long river valley park system, there are eleven lakes, fourteen ravines, and twenty-two major parks, and most of the city has excellent bike and walking trail connections. These trails are also part of the 235 km (146 mi) Waskahegan walking trail
Waskahegan Trail
The Waskahegan Trail is a walking/hiking trail that runs through and around Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. It is 309 km and runs through a mix of public and private land. Landowners are paid nothing. Their permission is given on the understanding that it can be withdrawn at any time for any reason...

. The City of Edmonton has named five parks in its River Valley Parks System in honour of each of "The Famous Five
The Famous Five (Canada)
The Famous Five or The Valiant Five were five Canadian women who asked the Supreme Court of Canada to answer the question, "Does the word 'Persons' in Section 24 of the British North America Act, 1867, include female persons?" in the case Edwards v...

".

Edmonton's streets and parklands are also home to one of the largest remaining concentrations of healthy American elm trees in the world, unaffected by Dutch elm disease
Dutch elm disease
Dutch elm disease is a disease caused by a member of the sac fungi category, affecting elm trees which is spread by the elm bark beetle. Although believed to be originally native to Asia, the disease has been accidentally introduced into America and Europe, where it has devastated native...

, which has wiped out vast numbers of such trees in eastern North America. Jack Pine
Jack Pine
Jack pine is a North American pine with its native range in Canada east of the Rocky Mountains from Northwest Territories to Nova Scotia, and the northeast of the United States from Minnesota to Maine, with the southernmost part of the range just into northwest Indiana...

, Lodgepole Pine
Lodgepole Pine
Lodgepole Pine, Pinus contorta, also known as Shore Pine, is a common tree in western North America. Like all pines, it is evergreen.-Subspecies:...

, White Spruce, White Birch, Aspen
Aspen
Populus section Populus, of the Populus genus, includes the aspen trees and the white poplar Populus alba. The five typical aspens are all native to cold regions with cool summers, in the north of the Northern Hemisphere, extending south at high altitudes in the mountains. The White Poplar, by...

, Mountain Ash
Sorbus
Sorbus is a genus of about 100–200 species of trees and shrubs in the subfamily Maloideae of the Rose family Rosaceae. Species of Sorbus are commonly known as whitebeam, rowan, service tree, and mountain ash...

, Amur Maple, Russian Olive, Green Ash, Basswood
Tilia
Tilia is a genus of about 30 species of trees native throughout most of the temperate Northern Hemisphere. The greatest species diversity is found in Asia, and the genus also occurs in Europe and eastern North America, but not western North America...

, Various Poplars and Willow
Willow
Willows, sallows, and osiers form the genus Salix, around 400 species of deciduous trees and shrubs, found primarily on moist soils in cold and temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere...

s, Flowering Crabapple
Malus
Malus , the apples, are a genus of about 30–35 species of small deciduous trees or shrubs in the family Rosaceae. Other studies go as far as 55 species including the domesticated Orchard Apple, or Table apple as it was formerly called...

, Mayday Tree and Manitoba Maple
Acer negundo
Acer negundo is a species of maple native to North America. Box Elder, Boxelder Maple, and Maple Ash are its most common names in the United States...

 are also abundant; Bur oak
Bur oak
Quercus macrocarpa, the Bur Oak, sometimes spelled Burr Oak, is a species of oak in the white oak section Quercus sect. Quercus, native to North America in the eastern and midwestern United States and south-central Canada...

, Silver Maple, Hawthorn
Crataegus
Crataegus , commonly called hawthorn or thornapple, is a large genus of shrubs and trees in the rose family, Rosaceae, native to temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere in Europe, Asia and North America. The name hawthorn was originally applied to the species native to northern Europe,...

 and Ohio Buckeye are increasingly popular. Other introduced tree species include White Ash, Blue Spruce, Norway Maple, Red oak, Sugar Maple, Common Horse-chestnut, McIntosh apple, and Evans Cherry
Evans Cherry
Evans Cherry — is a sour cherry cultivar rediscovered in an old orchard near Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.It is significant as it was once thought that cherries would not grow in the harsh climate of the Canadian prairies, yet the first specimen, discovered, or more accurately, re-discovered, by Ieuan...

. Three walnut species—Butternut, Manchurian walnut
Juglans mandshurica
Juglans mandshurica, the Manchurian walnut, is a deciduous tree of the genus Juglans , native to the Eastern Asiatic Region...

, and black walnut—have survived in Edmonton.

Several golf course
Golf course
A golf course comprises a series of holes, each consisting of a teeing ground, fairway, rough and other hazards, and a green with a flagstick and cup, all designed for the game of golf. A standard round of golf consists of playing 18 holes, thus most golf courses have this number of holes...

s, both public and private, are also located in the river valley; the long summer daylight hours of this northern city provide for extended play from early morning well into the evening. Golf courses and the park system become a winter recreation area during this season, and cross-country skiing and skating are popular during the long winter. Four downhill
Downhill
Downhill is an alpine skiing discipline. The rules for the Downhill were originally developed by Sir Arnold Lunn for the 1921 British National Ski Championships....

 ski slopes
Alpine skiing
Alpine skiing is the sport of sliding down snow-covered hills on skis with fixed-heel bindings. Alpine skiing can be contrasted with skiing using free-heel bindings: Ski mountaineering and nordic skiing – such as cross-country; ski jumping; and Telemark. In competitive alpine skiing races four...

 are located in the river valley as well, two within the city and two immediately outside.

Neighbourhoods


Edmonton has numerous distinct neighbourhoods. Downtown Edmonton
Downtown Edmonton
Downtown Edmonton is bounded by 109 Street to the west, 105 Avenue to the north, 97 Street to the east, 97 Avenue, 100 Avenue, and Rossdale Road to the south and Jasper Avenue to the southeast , though many people consider part or all of the surrounding neighborhoods to be part of downtown...

 consists of the Commercial Core, the Arts District, Rice Howard Way, McKay Avenue, Jasper-West, the Warehouse District and the Government Precinct (also known as Grandin). The Commercial Core and Rice Howard Way double as Edmonton's Central Business District
Central business district
A central business district is the commercial and often geographic heart of a city. In North America this part of a city is commonly referred to as "downtown" or "city center"...

 and the Arts District is home to most of Edmonton's main cultural buildings like the Art Gallery of Alberta
Art Gallery of Alberta
The Art Gallery of Alberta is a public art gallery located in downtown Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Its collection of well over 6,000 works of art includes historical and contemporary paintings, sculptures, installation works and photographs by Canadian and international artists...

. The Warehouse District is home to some old brick warehouses (most have been converted to lofts and condominiums) from when the area was the City's main industrial area and at the same time is one of the most up and coming districts in the City with lots of new construction underway or planned. McKay Avenue is home to many residential towers and some of the Downtown hotels and is fairly quiet, compared to the Government District which is home to the lively Alberta Legislature and many government offices.

Radiating from the core are many older urban neighbourhoods. Oliver
Oliver, Edmonton
Oliver is one of the oldest residential neighbourhoods in the City of Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. The neighbourhood is named after Frank Oliver, an early Edmonton resident, businessman, and politician...

, immediately west of Downtown Edmonton, is often mistakenly considered as part of the Downtown due to its high density condos and apartments. Between the old character homes of Westmount
Westmount, Edmonton
Westmount is an established central-west residential neighbourhood in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Westmount is wedge shaped with the point in the wedge overlooking the North Saskatchewan River valley, and is geographically close to the downtown core...

 and mid and high rises of Oliver is 124 Street which is home to many art galleries and restaurants. Further west of Westmount is Glenora
Glenora, Edmonton
Glenora is a prime residential neighbourhood in the city of Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, overlooking the North Saskatchewan River valley.Glenora is bounded on the east by Groat Road, on the north by 107 Avenue, on the west by 142 Street, and on the south by the river valley and the McKinnon Ravine...

, where the Royal Alberta Museum
Royal Alberta Museum
The Royal Alberta Museum is located in Edmonton, Alberta and was named the Provincial Museum of Alberta until 24 May 2005 when Queen Elizabeth II visited, bestowing royal patronage. It has a natural history exhibit, a wildlife exhibit, an entomology exhibit, a Native Culture exhibit, as well as...

 is located and lots of beautiful old Scottish-inspired mansions. To the east of Downtown is Boyle Street
Boyle Street, Edmonton
Boyle Street is a neighbourhood located in central Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, immediately east of the downtown core...

 which is one of the lower income neighbourhoods of the city and has many walk up apartments and old brick buildings. Northeast of Downtown is McCauley
McCauley, Edmonton
McCauley is an inner city neighbourhood in Edmonton, Alberta. It is named for the Matthew McCauley, the first mayor of Edmonton, and is located just to the north east of the downtown core...

, which is one of the most ethnically diverse areas of the city and home to Edmonton's Little Italy and part of Edmonton's Chinatown. Also northeast of Downtown is Alberta Avenue
Alberta Avenue, Edmonton
Alberta Avenue is a pre–World War II neighbourhood in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.-The Alberta Avenue neighbourhood:Alberta Avenue is one of the older residential neighbourhoods in Edmonton, with much of the area's development occurring during the First World War era...

 and Parkdale
Parkdale, Edmonton
Parkdale is a central neighbourhood in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada located a short distance north of the downtown core. Located just to the south of the neighbourhood is Commonwealth Stadium and just to the north east is Rexall Place...

, which are formerly run-down neighbourhoods that are undergoing revitalization with young families and artists moving in. Immediately across the river from Downtown Edmonton is Strathcona
Strathcona, Edmonton
Strathcona is a residential neighbourhood in south central Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. It is a part of, and should not be confused with, Old Strathcona, although much of the Strathcona neighbourhood is in Old Strathcona...

, which is full of character and home to the vibrant Whyte Avenue. Straddled between the main campus of University of Alberta
University of Alberta
The University of Alberta is a public research university located in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Founded in 1908 by Alexander Cameron Rutherford, the first premier of Alberta and Henry Marshall Tory, its first president, it is widely recognized as one of the best universities in Canada...

 and Strathcona
Strathcona, Edmonton
Strathcona is a residential neighbourhood in south central Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. It is a part of, and should not be confused with, Old Strathcona, although much of the Strathcona neighbourhood is in Old Strathcona...

 is Garneau
Garneau, Edmonton
Garneau is a well known neighbourhood in the city of Edmonton. It is located just west of the Strathcona neighbourhood and just east of the main University of Alberta campus...

, which has many independent cafes and French-Canadian inspired homes. To the southeast of Downtown are neighbourhoods such as Cloverdale
Cloverdale, Edmonton
Cloverdale is a river valley neighbourhood in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada located on the south side of the North Saskatchewan River. It is located immediately across the river from the downtown core and the river valley neighborhood of Riverdale. Southside neighborhoods overlooking Cloverdale...

 and Bonnie Doon
Bonnie Doon, Edmonton
Bonnie Doon is a neighbourhood in south-central Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. The western part of Bonnie Doon was originally part of the City of Strathcona, and became a part of Edmonton when Strathcona and Edmonton merged in 1912...

, which are relatively quiet. Bonnie Doon Shopping Centre is located within Bonnie Doon and the Muttart Conservatory
Muttart Conservatory
The Muttart Conservatory is a botanical garden located in the North Saskatchewan river valley, across from downtown Edmonton. The conservatory consists of four glass, pyramid-shaped structures that showcase plants from arid, tropical, and temperate climates, providing a welcome oasis of warmth...

 is located within Cloverdale.
Edmonton then gives way to matured suburbs that first began to appear in the 1940s through to around 1970. Neighbourhoods such as Strathearn
Strathearn, Edmonton
Strathearn is a roughly triangular shaped residential neighbourhood in south central Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Most of the development in Strathearn dates to the 1940s and 1950s....

, Rundle Heights
Rundle Heights, Edmonton
Rundle Heights is a residential neighbourhood overlooking the North Saskatchewan River valley in the City of Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, named for Methodist missionary Robert Terrill Rundle. While the neighbourhood didn't develop until the 1960s and 1970s, the area is closely associated with the...

, Jasper Park
Jasper Park, Edmonton
Jasper Park is a neighbourhood in west Edmonton, Alberta, Canada that was once a part of the Town of Jasper Place. It became a part of Edmonton when Jasper Place amalgamated with Edmonton in 1964...

, and Empire Park
Empire Park, Edmonton
Empire Park is a residential neighbourhood in south west Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. A major shopping centre, Southgate Centre, is located at the west end of the neighbourhood....

 have many 1950s and 1960s style walk up apartments and townhouse complexes alongside single family homes and mom and pop businesses. These neighbourhoods tend to not be thought of as much as suburbs as the post-1970 suburbs.

Post-1970 suburbs are much less matured and tend to not have back alleys for houses and instead opt for front-car garages so that cars are more convenient. One of the most well-known suburbs from the 1970s and 1980s is Mill Woods
Mill Woods
Mill Woods is a residential district in the City of Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Located in southeast Edmonton, Mill Woods is bounded by Whitemud Drive to the north, 91 Street to the west, 34 Street to the east, and Anthony Henday Drive to the south...

, a collection of neighbourhoods in southeast Edmonton. It is often incorrectly referred to as "Millwoods," due to a typographical mistake on street signs dating back to the neighbourhood's inception. Other areas where new suburbs popped up in the 1970s and 1980s into the early 1990s are Belmont
Belmont, Edmonton
Belmont is a residential neighbourhood located in the Clareview area of north east Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.The neighbourhood is bounded on the north by 137 Avenue, on the east by Victoria Trail, and on the west by 40 Street...

 and Kirkness
Kirkness, Edmonton
Kirkness is a residential neighbourhood in the Clareview area of north east Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. It is named for James Kirkness who came to the Edmonton area in 1866 as an employee of the Hudson's Bay Company. "A local park is named for James A...

 in the area generally considered "Clareview" in Northeast Edmonton; areas around Blue Quill
Blue Quill, Edmonton
Blue Quill is a residential neighbourhood located in south west Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Blue Quill and the adjacent neighbourhood of Blue Quill Estates are named to honour Chief Blue Quill of the Saddle Lake Band....

 and Lendrum Place
Lendrum Place, Edmonton
Lendrum Place is a residential neighbourhood located in south west Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. It is named for Robert Lendrum, an early land surveyor....

 in the southwest; and areas around Belmead
Belmead, Edmonton
Belmead is a residential neighbourhood in west Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Residents in Belmead live just to the west of West Edmonton Mall, the largest shopping centre in Canada....

 and Callingwood
Callingwood, Edmonton
Callingwood is an area in west Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. The city formally divides Callingwood into two neighbourhoods, Callingwood North and Callingwood South. Both neighbourhoods are discussed together in this article....

 in the west.

Most of the newer suburban growth in the City of Edmonton has occurred in Southwest Edmonton around Terwillegar
Terwillegar Towne, Edmonton
Terwillegar Towne is a neighbourhood located in south west Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. It is a newer neighbourhood with all residential construction occurring after 1995....

. More recently, many new suburban neighbourhoods have begun to pop up outside of Edmonton's ring road, Anthony Henday Drive, such as Summerside
Summerside, Edmonton
Summerside is a newer neighbourhoud in south Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. It is located south of Ellerslie Road and to the west of 66 Street. A portion of the west boundary runs along Parsons Road.The community developer of Summerside is Carma Developers....

, Ellerslie
Ellerslie, Edmonton
Ellerslie is a newer residential neighbourhood in south Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.The most common type of residence in the neighbourhood is the single family dwelling. According to the 2005 municipal census, two out of every three residences were single-family dwellings...

, Windermere
Windermere Estates, Edmonton
Windermere Estates is a neighbourhood in southwest Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, overlooking the North Saskatchewan River valley.It is bounded on the south by the future realignment of Ellerslie Road, on the east by 170 Street SW/Terwillegar Drive, on the northeast by Anthony Henday Drive, and on the...

, The Hamptons
The Hamptons, Edmonton
The Hamptons is a residential neighbourhood in west Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.It is bounded on the west by Winterburn Road, on the east by the Anthony Henday Drive and on the south by 45 Avenue. The north boundary is 62 Avenue...

, and Rutherford
Rutherford, Edmonton
Rutherford is a newer neighbourhood in south Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.According to the 2005 municipal census, approximately 85% of the residences in the neighbourhood are single family dwellings. The remainder are mostly duplexes with a small number of row houses...

. Many of these are home to small recreational lakes and newer suburban strip malls. Still, there are many new neighbourhoods going up within the ring road, such as The Meadows
The Meadows, Edmonton
The Meadows is a residential district in the City of Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Located in southeast Edmonton, The Meadows is bounded by Whitemud Drive to the north, 34 Street to the west, and Anthony Henday Drive to the east and south...

, east of Mill Woods and Carlton
Carlton, Edmonton
Carlton is a residential neighbourhood in the Palisades area of north west Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.According to the 2005 municipal census, the most common type of dwelling in the neighbourhood is the single family dwelling. These account for roughly nine out of ten of all residences in the...

 and Cumberland
Cumberland, Edmonton
Cumberland is a residential neighbourhood in the Palisades area of north west Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.According to the 2001 federal census, substantially all residential construction in Cumberland occurred during the 1990s. Single family dwellings account for approximately nine out of ten of...

 in Northwest Edmonton east of St. Albert Trail.

Several transit-oriented development
Transit-oriented development
A transit-oriented development is a mixed-use residential or commercial area designed to maximize access to public transport, and often incorporates features to encourage transit ridership...

s (TOD) have begun to appear along the LRT line at Clareview, with future developments planned at Belvedere
Belvedere, Edmonton
Belvedere is a residential neighbourhood in north east Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. It is located on the west side of the Canadian National Railway right of way close to the Belvedere LRT station....

 (part of the Old Town Fort Road Redevelopment Project). Another TOD, called Century Park, is being constructed at the site of what was once Heritage Mall, at the southern end of the LRT line. Century Park will eventually house up to 5,000 residents.
The Edmonton City Centre airport is planned to be developed into a TOD.

Metropolitan area



Edmonton is at the centre of Canada's sixth largest census metropolitan area (CMA) that includes Edmonton and 34 other municipalities in the surrounding area. Larger communities include the Urban Service Area of Sherwood Park
Sherwood Park, Alberta
Sherwood Park is a large hamlet in Alberta, Canada within Strathcona County that is recognized as an urban service area. It is located adjacent to the City of Edmonton's eastern boundary, generally south of Highway 16 , west of Highway 21 and north of Highway 630...

 (part of Strathcona County
Strathcona County, Alberta
Strathcona County is a specialized municipality in central Alberta, Canada between Edmonton and Elk Island National Park.It is located in Division No. 11 and is also part of the Edmonton Census Metropolitan Area. More than half of the population lives in Sherwood Park, a large community east of...

), the cities of St. Albert
St. Albert, Alberta
St. Albert is a suburban city in Alberta, located northwest of Edmonton, on the Sturgeon River. It was originally settled as a Métis community, and is now the second largest city in the Edmonton area. St...

, Leduc
Leduc, Alberta
- Demographics :The population of the City of Leduc according to its 2011 municipal census is 24,139, a 3.6% increase over its 2010 municipal census population of 23,293....

, Spruce Grove
Spruce Grove, Alberta
Spruce Grove is a city in the vicinity of Edmonton, Alberta. Like nearby Stony Plain it is surrounded by Parkland County.With a population of 24,646, Spruce Grove is the 11th largest city in Alberta. The Horizon Stage Performing Arts Centre is the local theatre, and its TransAlta Tri Leisure Centre...

 and Fort Saskatchewan
Fort Saskatchewan, Alberta
Fort Saskatchewan is a city in Alberta, Canada, located northeast of downtown Edmonton, Alberta's capital city, along the North Saskatchewan River. Fort Saskatchewan is part of the Edmonton Census Metropolitan Area and is one of 24 municipalities on the Capital Region Board...

, and the towns of Stony Plain
Stony Plain, Alberta
Stony Plain is a large town in rural Alberta, Canada, just west of Edmonton.Stony Plain is a rapidly growing town with strong historical roots. It is located west of Spruce Grove and surrounded by Parkland County. The town is governed by one mayor and six councillors. The region is dominated by...

, Beaumont, Morinville
Morinville, Alberta
Morinville is a town in central Alberta, Canada. It is located north of Edmonton on Highway 2.- History :Morinville was settled by Father Morin, an Oblate missionary, who brought many French settlers in the late 1800s, followed by several German pioneers—hence its many French and German families...

, and Devon
Devon, Alberta
Devon is a town in the province of Alberta, Canada, situated southwest of Edmonton, the provincial capital, and located along the banks of the North Saskatchewan River.- History :Devon owes its existence to one of the largest oil discoveries in the world...

. Major employment areas outside of Edmonton but within the CMA include the Nisku Industrial Business Park and the Edmonton International Airport
Edmonton International Airport
Edmonton International Airport is the primary air passenger and air cargo facility in the Edmonton region in the Canadian province of Alberta. It is a hub facility for Northern Alberta and Northern Canada providing regularly scheduled nonstop flights to over fifty communities in Canada, the United...

/Port Alberta
Port Alberta
Port Alberta is a project by Edmonton International Airport in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, to combine air, rail, and road transportation infrastructure at a single point, with future connections to the Port of Prince Rupert and the Port of Vancouver....

 in Leduc County
Leduc County, Alberta
Leduc County is a municipal district located immediately south of the City of Edmonton. It is east to west and north to south, and has a population of over 12,000 people. The municipal district is home to scenic prairie parkland and several lakes...

, the Acheson Industrial Area in Parkland County
Parkland County, Alberta
Parkland County is a municipal district in central Alberta, Canada.It is located west of Edmonton in Census Division No. 11, along the Parkland Highway...

, Refinery Row
Refinery Row (Edmonton)
Refinery Row is the unofficial name given to the concentration of oil refineries in west Sherwood Park, Strathcona County, Alberta, just east of the city of Edmonton....

 in Strathcona County and Alberta's Industrial Heartland
Alberta's Industrial Heartland
Alberta's Industrial Heartland, also known as Upgrader Alley or the Heartland, is a joint land use planning and development initiative between five municipalities in the Edmonton Capital Region to attract investment in the chemical, petrochemical, oil, and gas industries to the region.Alberta's...

 within portions of Fort Saskatchewan, Strathcona County and Sturgeon County
Sturgeon County, Alberta
Sturgeon County is a municipal district in Alberta's Edmonton Capital Region, Canada.It begins at the north end of Edmonton, with 97th street turning into Highway 28. It extends east to Fort Saskatchewan and west to Calahoo. It is located in Division No. 11....

. Alberta's Industrial Heartland also extends beyond the CMA's northeastern boundary into a portion of Lamont County
Lamont County, Alberta
Lamont County is a municipal district in central Alberta, Canada, located in Census Division Number 10, northeast of Edmonton. The county contains 27 Townships. Its seat of government is Lamont.-History:...

.

The individual economic development interests and costs of service delivery in certain municipalities within the region has led to intermunicipal competition, strained intermunicipal relationships and overall fragmentation of the region. Although several attempts have been made by the City of Edmonton to absorb surrounding municipalities or annex portions of its neighbours, the city has not absorbed another municipality since the Town of Jasper Place
Jasper Place, Alberta
Jasper Place is a community in what is now west Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. At one time, it was an independent municipality known as the Town of Jasper Place.Following the Second World War, its population swelled rapidly...

 joined Edmonton on August 17, 1964 and the city has not annexed land from any of its neighbours since January 1, 1982. After years of mounting pressure in the early 21st century, the Province of Alberta formed the Capital Region Board (CRB) on April 15, 2008. The CRB consists of 24 member municipalities – 22 of which are within the Edmonton CMA and two of which are outside the CMA.

Climate


Edmonton has a relatively dry humid continental climate
Humid continental climate
A humid continental climate is a climatic region typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot summers and cold winters....

 (Koppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by Crimea German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen himself, notably in 1918 and 1936...

 Dfb, USDA Plant Hardiness Zone
Hardiness zone
A hardiness zone is a geographically defined area in which a specific category of plant life is capable of growing, as defined by climatic conditions, including its ability to withstand the minimum temperatures of the zone...

 3a) with extreme seasonal temperatures—although the city has milder winters than either Regina
Regina, Saskatchewan
Regina is the capital city of the Canadian province of Saskatchewan. The city is the second-largest in the province and a cultural and commercial centre for southern Saskatchewan. It is governed by Regina City Council. Regina is the cathedral city of the Roman Catholic and Romanian Orthodox...

 or Winnipeg
Winnipeg
Winnipeg is the capital and largest city of Manitoba, Canada, and is the primary municipality of the Winnipeg Capital Region, with more than half of Manitoba's population. It is located near the longitudinal centre of North America, at the confluence of the Red and Assiniboine Rivers .The name...

, both located at a latitude farther south. It has warm summers and cold winters, with the average daily temperatures ranging from -11.7 C in January to 17.5 °C (63.5 °F) in July. Annually, temperatures exceed 30 °C (86 °F) on an average of four to five days (but can occur often, anytime from late April to mid September) and fall below -20 C on an average of 28 days. The highest temperature recorded within the City of Edmonton was 38.3 °C (100.9 °F), on August 5, 1998. Some areas, however, such as the City of St. Albert
St. Albert, Alberta
St. Albert is a suburban city in Alberta, located northwest of Edmonton, on the Sturgeon River. It was originally settled as a Métis community, and is now the second largest city in the Edmonton area. St...

 and Sherwood Park
Sherwood Park, Alberta
Sherwood Park is a large hamlet in Alberta, Canada within Strathcona County that is recognized as an urban service area. It is located adjacent to the City of Edmonton's eastern boundary, generally south of Highway 16 , west of Highway 21 and north of Highway 630...

, recorded temperatures of 37.7 °C (99.9 °F) on July 22, 2006. The coldest temperature ever recorded at city centre was -40.6 C on January 26, 1972 - this was the only time since recordings began in 1953 that city centre has recorded a temperature below -40 C. The coldest overall temperature recorded in Edmonton was -49.4 C, on January 19 and 21, 1886.

The year 2006 was a particularly warm one for Edmonton, as temperatures reached 29 °C (84.2 °F) or higher more than twenty times during the year, from as early as Mid-May and again in early September. Typically, summer lasts from late June until late August, and the humidity is seldom uncomfortably high. Winter lasts from November to March, and varies greatly in length and severity. Spring and autumn are both short and highly variable. Edmonton's growing season
Growing season
In botany, horticulture, and agriculture the growing season is the period of each year when native plants and ornamental plants grow; and when crops can be grown....

 is from May 7 to September 23; Edmonton averages 140 frost free days a year. At the summer solstice
Summer solstice
The summer solstice occurs exactly when the axial tilt of a planet's semi-axis in a given hemisphere is most inclined towards the star that it orbits. Earth's maximum axial tilt to our star, the Sun, during a solstice is 23° 26'. Though the summer solstice is an instant in time, the term is also...

, Edmonton receives seventeen hours and six minutes of daylight, with twilight extending throughout the entire night during summer. Edmonton receives 2,299 hours of sunshine per year and is one of Canada's sunniest cities.


Edmonton has a fairly dry climate. On average, Edmonton receives 476.9 millimetres (18.78 in) of precipitation, of which 365.7 millimetres (14.4 in) is rain and 111.2 millimetres (4.38 in) is the melt from 123.5 centimetres (48.6 in) of snowfall per annum. Precipitation is heaviest in the late spring, summer, and early autumn. The wettest month is July, while the driest months are February, March, October, and November. In July, the mean precipitation is 91.7 mm (3.61 in). Droughts are not uncommon and may occur at any time of the year. Extremes do occur, such as the 114 mm (4.49 in) of rainfall that fell on July 31, 1953. Summer thunderstorms can be frequent and occasionally severe enough to produce large hail, damaging winds, funnel clouds, and even tornadoes. However, tornadoes near Edmonton are far weaker and short-lived compared to their counterparts farther south. Dangerous weather events are rare in Edmonton, and the F4 tornado
Edmonton Tornado
The Edmonton Tornado, an event also known as Black Friday to Edmontonians, was a powerful and devastating tornado that ripped through the eastern part of Edmonton, Alberta, Canada and parts of neighbouring Strathcona County on the afternoon of Friday, July 31, 1987.The tornado remained on the...

 that struck Edmonton on July 31, 1987, killing 27, was unique in many respects, including severity, duration, damage, and casualties. It is commonly referred to as Black Friday due both to its aberrant characteristics and the emotional shock it generated.

A massive cluster of thunderstorms occurred on July 11, 2004, with large hail and over 100 mm (3.94 in) of rain reported within the space of an hour in many places. This "1-in-200 year event" flooded major intersections and underpasses and damaged both residential and commercial properties. The storm caused extensive damage to West Edmonton Mall
West Edmonton Mall
West Edmonton Mall , located in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, is the largest shopping mall in North America and the fifth largest in the world. The mall was founded by the Ghermezian brothers, who emigrated from Iran in 1959. It was the world's largest mall until 2004.West Edmonton Mall covers a gross...

; a small glass section of the roof collapsed under the weight of the rainwater, causing water to drain onto the mall's indoor ice rink. As a result, the mall was forced to undergo an evacuation as a precautionary measure.

Demographics






According to the 2006 census
Canada 2006 Census
The Canada 2006 Census was a detailed enumeration of the Canadian population. Census day was May 16, 2006. The next census following will be the 2011 Census. Canada's total population enumerated by the 2006 census was 31,612,897...

, there were 730,372 residents within the city of Edmonton proper, compared to 3,290,350 for all of Alberta. The total population of the Census Metropolitan Area (CMA) was 1,034,945. In 2009, a municipal census showed the city had a population of 782,439.

In the five years between 2001 and 2006, the population of the city of Edmonton proper grew by 9.6%, compared with an increase of 10.4% for the Edmonton CMA
Edmonton Capital Region
The Edmonton Capital Region , also commonly referred to as the Alberta Capital Region, Greater Edmonton or Metro Edmonton, is a conglomeration of municipalities centred around Edmonton – Alberta's provincial capital....

 and 10.6% for Alberta as a whole. The population density of the city of Edmonton proper averaged 1,067.2 people per square kilometre (2,764/sq mi), compared with an average of 5.1 people per square kilometre (13.2/sq mi) for Alberta altogether.

In mid-2006, 11.9% of Edmonton's population were of retirement age (65 and over for males and females) compared with 13.7% in Canada. The median age was 35.3 years of age, compared to 37.6 years of age for all of Canada. Also, according to the 2006 census, 50.5% of the population within the city of Edmonton proper were female, while 49.5% were male. Children under five accounted for approximately 5.6% of the resident population of Edmonton. This compares with 6.2% in Alberta, and almost 5.3% for Canada overall.

In 2006, people of European ethnicities
European ethnic groups
The ethnic groups in Europe are the various ethnic groups that reside in the nations of Europe. European ethnology is the field of anthropology focusing on Europe....

 formed the largest cluster of ethnic groups in Edmonton, mostly of English
English people
The English are a nation and ethnic group native to England, who speak English. The English identity is of early mediaeval origin, when they were known in Old English as the Anglecynn. England is now a country of the United Kingdom, and the majority of English people in England are British Citizens...

, Scottish
Scottish people
The Scottish people , or Scots, are a nation and ethnic group native to Scotland. Historically they emerged from an amalgamation of the Picts and Gaels, incorporating neighbouring Britons to the south as well as invading Germanic peoples such as the Anglo-Saxons and the Norse.In modern use,...

, German, Irish
Irish Canadian
Irish Canadian are immigrants and descendants of immigrants who originated in Ireland. 1.2 million Irish immigrants arrived, 1825 to 1970, at least half of those in the period from 1831-1850. By 1867, they were the second largest ethnic group , and comprised 24% of Canada's population...

, Ukrainian
Ukrainian Canadian
A Ukrainian Canadian is a person of Ukrainian descent or origin who was born in or immigrated to Canada. In 2006, there were an estimated 1,209,085 persons residing in Canada of Ukrainian origin, making them Canada's ninth largest ethnic group; and giving Canada the world's third-largest...

, and French
French people
The French are a nation that share a common French culture and speak the French language as a mother tongue. Historically, the French population are descended from peoples of Celtic, Latin and Germanic origin, and are today a mixture of several ethnic groups...

 origin. According to the 2006 census, the city of Edmonton was 71.8% White
White people
White people is a term which usually refers to human beings characterized, at least in part, by the light pigmentation of their skin...

 and 5.3% Aboriginal, while visible minorities
Visible minority
A visible minority is a person who is visibly not one of the majority race in a given population.The term is used as a demographic category by Statistics Canada in connection with that country's Employment Equity policies. The qualifier "visible" is important in the Canadian context where...

 accounted for 22.9% of the population.

Religion



According to the 2001 census, 31.2% of Edmonton residents are Protestant
Protestantism
Protestantism is one of the three major groupings within Christianity. It is a movement that began in Germany in the early 16th century as a reaction against medieval Roman Catholic doctrines and practices, especially in regards to salvation, justification, and ecclesiology.The doctrines of the...

 and 29.4% are Catholic
Roman Catholic Church
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the world's largest Christian church, with over a billion members. Led by the Pope, it defines its mission as spreading the gospel of Jesus Christ, administering the sacraments and exercising charity...

. 5.5% belong to other Christian denominations, 2.9% are Muslim
Muslim
A Muslim, also spelled Moslem, is an adherent of Islam, a monotheistic, Abrahamic religion based on the Quran, which Muslims consider the verbatim word of God as revealed to prophet Muhammad. "Muslim" is the Arabic term for "submitter" .Muslims believe that God is one and incomparable...

, 0.6% are Jewish, 5.1% are adherents of other religions, and 24.4% profess no religion. One of Alberta's three Bahá'í
Bahá'í Faith
The Bahá'í Faith is a monotheistic religion founded by Bahá'u'lláh in 19th-century Persia, emphasizing the spiritual unity of all humankind. There are an estimated five to six million Bahá'ís around the world in more than 200 countries and territories....

 Centres is located in Edmonton; the other two centres are situated in Sylvan Lake, Alberta
Sylvan Lake, Alberta
Sylvan Lake is a town in central Alberta, Canada. It is located west of the City of Red Deer along Highway 11 or Highway 11A. It is situated on the southeast edge of Sylvan Lake, a long freshwater lake, in Red Deer County....

, and Athabasca, Alberta
Athabasca, Alberta
Athabasca is a town in northern Alberta, Canada. It lies north of Edmonton on Highway 2, on the banks of the Athabasca River. It is the centre of Athabasca County. Until 1913 it was known as Athabasca Landing.- History :...

. The first mosque
Mosque
A mosque is a place of worship for followers of Islam. The word is likely to have entered the English language through French , from Portuguese , from Spanish , and from Berber , ultimately originating in — . The Arabic word masjid literally means a place of prostration...

 established in Canada-the Al-Rashid Mosque
Al-Rashid Mosque
The Al-Rashid Mosque was the first mosque built in Canada. It was constructed in Edmonton, Alberta.-History:Al-Rashid Mosque was expected to be the first mosque in North America but was built in 1938 just after the Mother Mosque of America in Cedar Rapids, Iowa and several years after the 1929...

, founded by Abdullah Yusuf Ali
Abdullah Yusuf Ali
Hafiz Abdullah Yusuf Ali, CBE, FRSL was an Indian Islamic scholar who translated the Qur'an into English. His translation of the Qur'an is one of the most widely-known and used in the English-speaking world....

—is situated in Edmonton. Edmonton also hosts a Maronite
Maronite Church
The Syriac Maronite Church of Antioch is an Eastern Catholic Church in full communion with the Holy See of Rome . It traces its heritage back to the community founded by Maron, a 4th-century Syriac monk venerated as a saint. The first Maronite Patriarch, John Maron, was elected in the late 7th...

 Catholic church, on 76th Avenue/98th Street, with services in English on Saturdays and Arabic on Sundays. The Lebanese
Lebanon
Lebanon , officially the Republic of LebanonRepublic of Lebanon is the most common term used by Lebanese government agencies. The term Lebanese Republic, a literal translation of the official Arabic and French names that is not used in today's world. Arabic is the most common language spoken among...

 community also has a Druze
Druze
The Druze are an esoteric, monotheistic religious community, found primarily in Syria, Lebanon, Israel, and Jordan, which emerged during the 11th century from Ismailism. The Druze have an eclectic set of beliefs that incorporate several elements from Abrahamic religions, Gnosticism, Neoplatonism...

 Community Centre on the north side of the city. The Edmonton Alberta Temple
Edmonton Alberta Temple
The Edmonton Alberta Temple is the 67th operating temple of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.The temple was the second to be built in Alberta; the first was built in Cardston in 1923. The temple serves about 15,700 members in the area. The exterior of the temple is white granite and...

 of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints was dedicated on December 11, 1999. The Hindu
Hindu
Hindu refers to an identity associated with the philosophical, religious and cultural systems that are indigenous to the Indian subcontinent. As used in the Constitution of India, the word "Hindu" is also attributed to all persons professing any Indian religion...

 Community in Edmonton is served by the Hindu Society of Alberta (North Indian Temple) and the Maha Ganapathy Society of Alberta (South Indian Temple). The Sikh
Sikh
A Sikh is a follower of Sikhism. It primarily originated in the 15th century in the Punjab region of South Asia. The term "Sikh" has its origin in Sanskrit term शिष्य , meaning "disciple, student" or शिक्ष , meaning "instruction"...

 community in Edmonton is served by four gurdwara
Gurdwara
A Gurdwara , meaning the Gateway to the Guru, is the place of worship for Sikhs, the followers of Sikhism. A Gurdwara can be identified from a distance by tall flagpoles bearing the Nishan Sahib ....

s. The Jewish Community in Edmonton is served by Jewish Federation of Edmonton. The region is served by five synagogues. Edmonton is also home to two of Alberta's four Unitarian Universalist congregations—the Unitarian Church of Edmonton and the Westwood Unitarian Congregation; the other two are located in Calgary
Calgary
Calgary is a city in the Province of Alberta, Canada. It is located in the south of the province, in an area of foothills and prairie, approximately east of the front ranges of the Canadian Rockies...

 and Lethbridge
Lethbridge
Lethbridge is a city in the province of Alberta, Canada, and the largest city in southern Alberta. It is Alberta's fourth-largest city by population after Calgary, Edmonton and Red Deer, and the third-largest by area after Calgary and Edmonton. The nearby Canadian Rockies contribute to the city's...

.

Politics


In 1892 Edmonton was incorporated as a town. The first mayor was Matthew McCauley
Matthew McCauley (politician)
Matthew "Matt" McCauley was the first mayor of the city of Edmonton, and a member of the legislative assemblies of both the Northwest Territories and Alberta....

, he quickly established the first school board in Edmonton and Board of Trade (later Chamber of Commerce) and a municipal police service. Due to mayor McCauley's good relationship with the federal Liberals this helped Edmonton to maintain political prominence over Strathcona
Strathcona, Alberta
Strathcona was a city in Alberta, Canada, located on the south of the North Saskatchewan River opposite of the City of Edmonton. It amalgamated with Edmonton on February 1, 1912....

, a town on the south banks of the North Saskatchewan River. Edmonton was incorporated as a city in 1904 and became the capital of Alberta in 1905.

Municipal representation


Edmonton is represented by a mayor and 12 councillors - one for each of the 12 wards. On July 22, 2009 City Council
Edmonton City Council
The Edmonton City Council is the governing body of the City of Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.Members represent wards throughout the city, and are known as councillors. Until 2010, Edmonton was divided in six wards with two councillors representing citizens in each ward...

 adopted an electoral system that divides Edmonton into 12 wards, instead of the previous two for each of six wards. This system came into effect with the most recent municipal election
Edmonton municipal election, 2010
The 2010 Edmonton municipal election was held Monday, October 18, 2010 to elect a mayor and 12 councillors to the city council, seven of the nine trustees to Edmonton Public Schools, and the seven trustees to the Edmonton Catholic Schools. Two incumbent public school trustees had no challengers...

 in October 2010.

Provincial representation


Edmonton is the capital of the province of Alberta and holds all main provincial areas of government such as the Provincial Legislature of Alberta. The Edmonton region is represented by 20 MLAs
Legislative Assembly of Alberta
The Legislative Assembly of Alberta is one of two components of the Legislature of Alberta, the other being the Queen, represented by the Lieutenant-Governor of Alberta. The Alberta legislature meets in the Alberta Legislature Building in the provincial capital, Edmonton...

 one for each provincial electoral district
Alberta provincial electoral districts
Alberta provincial electoral districts are currently single member ridings that each elect one member to the Legislative Assembly of Alberta. There are 83 current districts fixed in law in Alberta.-History:...

. Many of these boundaries have been changed, adjusted and renamed while the city has grown.

Economy


Edmonton is the major economic centre for northern and central Alberta
Central Alberta
Central Alberta is a region located in the Canadian province of Alberta.Central Alberta is the most densely populated rural area in the province...

 and a major centre for the oil and gas industry. In its autumn 2007 Metropolitan Outlook, the Conference Board of Canada
Conference Board of Canada
The Conference Board of Canada is a not-for-profit Canadian organization dedicated to researching and analyzing economic trends, as well as organizational performance and public policy issues....

 forecast that Edmonton's GDP
Gross domestic product
Gross domestic product refers to the market value of all final goods and services produced within a country in a given period. GDP per capita is often considered an indicator of a country's standard of living....

 for 2007 will be $44.1-billion (2007 dollars), a 3.6% increase over 2006. The Edmonton Economic Development Corporation estimated that as of January 2005, the total value of major projects under construction in northern Alberta was $81.5-billion, with $18.2-billion occurring within Greater Edmonton.


Edmonton traditionally has been a hub for Albertan petrochemical
Petrochemical
Petrochemicals are chemical products derived from petroleum. Some chemical compounds made from petroleum are also obtained from other fossil fuels, such as coal or natural gas, or renewable sources such as corn or sugar cane....

 industries, earning it the nickname "Oil Capital of Canada" in the 1940s. Supply and service industries drive the energy extraction engine, while research develops new technologies and supports expanded value-added processing of Alberta's massive oil, gas, and oil sands reserves. These are reported to be the second-largest in the world, after Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia , commonly known in British English as Saudi Arabia and in Arabic as as-Sa‘ūdiyyah , is the largest state in Western Asia by land area, constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula, and the second-largest in the Arab World...

.

Despite the apparent focus on oil and gas, Edmonton's economy is one of the most diverse in Canada. Major industrial sectors include a strong technology sector anchored by major employers such as IBM
IBM
International Business Machines Corporation or IBM is an American multinational technology and consulting corporation headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States. IBM manufactures and sells computer hardware and software, and it offers infrastructure, hosting and consulting services in areas...

, Telus
TELUS
Telus is a national telecommunications company in Canada that provides a wide range of telecommunications products and services including internet access, voice, entertainment, video, and satellite television. The company is based in Burnaby, British Columbia, part of Greater Vancouver...

, Intuit Canada
Intuit Canada
Intuit Canada is a developer of financial management and tax preparation solutions for personal finance and small business accounting. Services are delivered on a variety of platforms including application software, software connected to services, software as a service, platform as a service and...

, Canadian Western Bank
Canadian Western Bank
The Canadian Western Bank is a bank that is based in Edmonton, and which operates primarily in western Canada. The bank serves personal and commercial clients in Western Canada.-History:...

, BioWare
BioWare
BioWare is a Canadian video game developer founded in February 1995 by newly graduated medical doctors Ray Muzyka, Greg Zeschuk, and Augustine Yip. BioWare is currently owned by American company Electronic Arts...

, Matrikon, General Electric
General Electric
General Electric Company , or GE, is an American multinational conglomerate corporation incorporated in Schenectady, New York and headquartered in Fairfield, Connecticut, United States...

, and Stantec Inc.
Stantec Inc.
Stantec Inc. is a Canadian professional services company and one of the leading firms in the design and consulting industry. Founded in 1954, Stantec provides planning, engineering, architecture, project management and other related services to its clients. It employs more than 10,000 people in...

 The associated biotech
Biotechnology
Biotechnology is a field of applied biology that involves the use of living organisms and bioprocesses in engineering, technology, medicine and other fields requiring bioproducts. Biotechnology also utilizes these products for manufacturing purpose...

 sector, with companies such as Afexa Life Sciences Inc. (formerly CV Technologies).
Much of the growth in technology sectors is due to Edmonton's reputation as one of Canada’s premier research and education centres. Research initiatives are anchored by educational institutions such as the University of Alberta
University of Alberta
The University of Alberta is a public research university located in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Founded in 1908 by Alexander Cameron Rutherford, the first premier of Alberta and Henry Marshall Tory, its first president, it is widely recognized as one of the best universities in Canada...

 as well as government initiatives underway at the Alberta Research Council
Alberta Research Council
Alberta Research Council is an Alberta government funded applied research and development corporation. In January 2010, the name was changed to Alberta Innovates - Technology Futures -History:...

 and Edmonton Research Park. Recently, the National Institute for Nanotechnology
National Institute for Nanotechnology
The National Institute for Nanotechnology is a research institution located on the University of Alberta main campus, in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Its primary purpose is nanotechnological research....

 was constructed on the University of Alberta campus.

During the 1970s and 1980s, Edmonton started to become a major financial centre, with both regional offices of Canada's major banks and locally based institutions opening. However, the turmoil of the late-1980s economy radically changed the situation. Locally based operations such as Principal Trust and Canadian Commercial Bank
Canadian Commercial Bank
The Canadian Commercial Bank was an Edmonton, Alberta-based Canadian bank. It received its parliamentary charter in 1975 and established its head office in Edmonton. The bank was privately owned and operated as a wholesale commercial bank. It officially began operations in July 1976, with CDN$22...

 would fail, and some regional offices were moved to other cities. The 1990s saw a solidification of the economy, and Edmonton is now home to Canadian Western Bank
Canadian Western Bank
The Canadian Western Bank is a bank that is based in Edmonton, and which operates primarily in western Canada. The bank serves personal and commercial clients in Western Canada.-History:...

, the only publicly traded Schedule I chartered bank headquarters west of Toronto. Other major financial centres include ATB Financial
ATB Financial
Alberta Treasury Branches, doing business as ATB Financial, is a financial institution and crown corporation owned by the Province of Alberta. ATB operates in Alberta only, providing financial services to 680,000 Albertans and Alberta-based businesses. ATB has 167 branches and 130 agencies, serving...

, Servus Credit Union
Servus Credit Union
Servus Credit Union is a member-owned, community-based financial institution based in Edmonton, Alberta, and is currently the third largest credit union in Canada and the largest credit union in Alberta....

 (formerly Capital City Savings), TD Canada Trust
TD Canada Trust
TD Canada Trust is the personal, small business and commercial banking operation of the Toronto-Dominion Bank in Canada. TD Canada Trust offers a range of financial services and products to more than 10 million Canadian customers through more than 1,100 branches and 2,600 ATM Green Machines...

 and Manulife Financial
Manulife Financial
Manulife Financial Corporation , is a Canadian insurance company and financial services provider. Manulife Financial's global head office is located in Toronto, Canada and the Company has operations in 21 countries and territories worldwide.The Company operates in Canada and Asia through the brand...

.

Edmonton has been the birthplace of several companies that have grown to international stature, such as PCL Construction
PCL Construction
The PCL family of companies is the largest general contracting organization in Canada and the sixth largest in the US. The organization is active in the commercial, institutional, multi-family residential, heavy industrial and civil construction sectors. The company's North American Headquarters...

, Stantec Inc. and more recently, Capital Power Corporation
Capital Power Corporation
Capital Power Corporation is an independent power-generation company based in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Capital Power develops, acquires, and operates power generation from a variety of energy sources...

. The local retail market has also seen the creation of many successful store concepts, such as The Brick
The Brick
The Brick Ltd. opened its first store in Edmonton, Alberta in 1971, and has grown to become one of Canada's largest volume retailers of furniture, mattresses, appliances and home electronics. The company was founded as The Brick Warehouse LP in Edmonton, Alberta with the first warehouse opening on...

, Katz Group
Katz Group of Companies
Katz Group of Companies operates over 1,800 pharmacies in Canada and the United States. It is based in Edmonton, Alberta. Daryl Katz is chairman of the Katz Group of Companies.- Katz Group Canada :Katz Group Canada Ltd...

, AutoCanada
AutoCanada
AutoCanada is Canada's largest multi-location and first publicly traded franchise automobile dealership group. Based in Edmonton, Alberta; AutoCanada operates or manages 25 dealerships across Canada and has over 1,070 employees.- Management Team :...

, Boston Pizza
Boston Pizza
Boston Pizza is a Canadian-based restaurant chain which owns and franchises locations in Canada, the United States and Mexico.-History:...

, Pizza 73
Pizza 73
Pizza 73 is a delivery and take-out chain serving pizza and chicken wings, operated by Flying Pizza 73 Inc., a subsidiary of Pizza Pizza.Founded in 1985 by David Tougas and its current president Guy Goodwin, Pizza 73 is headquartered in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada and operates regionally in Western...

, Liquor Stores GP (which includes Liquor Depot, Liquor Barn, OK Liquor, and Grapes & Grains), Planet Organic, Empire Design, Running Room, Booster Juice
Booster Juice
Booster Juice is Canada's largest chain of fresh juice and smoothie bars. The chain specializes in health-conscious smoothies composed of a pure juice, fruit sorbet or vanilla frozen yogurt, frozen fruit, fresh yogurt and ice...

, Earl's
Earls (restaurant chain)
Earls Leroy Earl Fuller's pride and joy is a casual dining restaurant chain that operates in Western Canada as well as Arizona, Washington and Colorado in the United States, and recently in Mississauga, Ontario. Earls has approximately 50 locations and their head office in North Vancouver, British...

, Fountain Tire
Fountain Tire
Fountain Tire provides tire and automotive services to the general consumer and the commercial, farming, and mining industries. The company employs licensed technicians to service automotive needs ranging from tire services and brakes, to shocks and transmissions.Fountain Tire also has a Corporate...

 and XS Cargo
XS Cargo
XS Cargo is a Canadian discount store that operates as a wholesale warehouse retailer.As the name states , the stores mark down prices to offer deals. The stores offer a bit of everything, from furniture, to electronics, to houseware and kitchenware...

.

Edmonton's geographical location has made it an ideal spot for distribution and logistics. CN Rail's North American operational facility is located in the city, as well as a major intermodal facility that handles all incoming freight from the port of Prince Rupert
Prince Rupert, British Columbia
Prince Rupert is a port city in the province of British Columbia, Canada. It is the land, air, and water transportation hub of British Columbia's North Coast, and home to some 12,815 people .-History:...

 in British Columbia
British Columbia
British Columbia is the westernmost of Canada's provinces and is known for its natural beauty, as reflected in its Latin motto, Splendor sine occasu . Its name was chosen by Queen Victoria in 1858...

.

Edmonton was judged to have the "best economic potential" of any North American city by the Financial Times
Financial Times
The Financial Times is an international business newspaper. It is a morning daily newspaper published in London and printed in 24 cities around the world. Its primary rival is the Wall Street Journal, published in New York City....

publication, FDi magazine. In a 2007 study, FDI placed Edmonton immediately ahead of Mississauga, Ontario
Ontario
Ontario is a province of Canada, located in east-central Canada. It is Canada's most populous province and second largest in total area. It is home to the nation's most populous city, Toronto, and the nation's capital, Ottawa....

; Charlotte
Charlotte, North Carolina
Charlotte is the largest city in the U.S. state of North Carolina and the seat of Mecklenburg County. In 2010, Charlotte's population according to the US Census Bureau was 731,424, making it the 17th largest city in the United States based on population. The Charlotte metropolitan area had a 2009...

, North Carolina
North Carolina
North Carolina is a state located in the southeastern United States. The state borders South Carolina and Georgia to the south, Tennessee to the west and Virginia to the north. North Carolina contains 100 counties. Its capital is Raleigh, and its largest city is Charlotte...

; Tijuana
Tijuana
Tijuana is the largest city on the Baja California Peninsula and center of the Tijuana metropolitan area, part of the international San Diego–Tijuana metropolitan area. An industrial and financial center of Mexico, Tijuana exerts a strong influence on economics, education, culture, art, and politics...

, Mexico
Mexico
The United Mexican States , commonly known as Mexico , is a federal constitutional republic in North America. It is bordered on the north by the United States; on the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; on the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and on the east by the Gulf of...

 and Calgary
Calgary
Calgary is a city in the Province of Alberta, Canada. It is located in the south of the province, in an area of foothills and prairie, approximately east of the front ranges of the Canadian Rockies...

 among cities with populations between 500,000 and two million. Edmonton's economic potential, expanding infrastructure, human resources, cost effectiveness, and high standard of living place it in the No. 4 spot on FDi’s list of top-ten North American large cities. The survey also named Edmonton in the top-five large North American cities for business development and investment promotion. Edmonton is known for its exceptional environmental stewardship, strong life-science sector, and burgeoning high-tech industry economy.

Retail



Edmonton is home to several shopping malls, including Canada's first mall, Westmount Centre
Westmount Centre
Westmount Centre is a shopping centre located in west Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. It contains 75 stores and services including Safeway, Shoppers Drug Mart and the four-screen Empire Theatres cinema complex. There is also a large food court in the mall. Westmount Centre is currently under...

 (still in operation but under redevelopment) and West Edmonton Mall
West Edmonton Mall
West Edmonton Mall , located in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, is the largest shopping mall in North America and the fifth largest in the world. The mall was founded by the Ghermezian brothers, who emigrated from Iran in 1959. It was the world's largest mall until 2004.West Edmonton Mall covers a gross...

, one of the world's largest malls and presently the largest in North America. Other malls include Bonnie Doon Shopping Centre, Edmonton City Centre
Edmonton City Centre
Edmonton City Centre is a shopping mall in downtown Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, across the street from Churchill Square.-History:In 1974, the City Centre Place shopping mall was completed within the larger Edmonton Centre development; TD Tower was added in 1976. In 1978, Oxford Tower and the...

 (a combination of the former Edmonton Centre and Eaton Centre malls), Southgate Centre
Southgate Centre
Southgate Centre is a shopping centre located in south Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, and is the third-largest mall in the city, after West Edmonton Mall and Kingsway Mall. It contains 154 retailers including Sears, The Bay, Safeway, HMV, Coles, Coach, Inc., Bench and Geox and many other small/chain...

, Kingsway Mall, Northgate Centre
Northgate Centre
Northgate Centre is a shopping mall located in the northern part of Edmonton, Alberta. It currently contains more than 70 stores and services. Its anchor tenants are Safeway, Future Shop and Zellers.-History:...

, Abbotsfield Mall, Londonderry Mall
Londonderry Mall
Londonderry Mall is a shopping centre located in north Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. It contains over 150 stores and services with seven major tenants including The Bay, Save-On-Foods, Winners, Sport Chek Supercentre, Army & Navy, and Shoppers Drug Mart....

, Capilano Mall, and Mill Woods Town Centre.

Edmonton also has many big box
Big-box store
A big-box store is a physically large retail establishment, usually part of a chain. The term sometimes also refers, by extension, to the company that operates the store...

 shopping centres and power centres. Some of the major ones include South Edmonton Common
South Edmonton Common
South Edmonton Common is Canada's largest retail power centre, and when fully developed, it will spread over and contain some of retail space, making it the largest open-air retail development in North America. It is located in south Edmonton, Alberta at 23 Avenue NW and Gateway Boulevard.This...

 (North America's largest open air retail development), Skyview Power Centre, Terra Losa Centre, Oliver Park, Southpark Centre, The Meadows, Christy's Corner, and Westpoint. In 2008, construction started on the Windermere power centre.

In contrast to suburban centres, Edmonton has many urban retail locations. The largest of them all, Old Strathcona
Old Strathcona
Old Strathcona is an historic district located in south-central Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Once the commercial core of the separate city of Strathcona, the area is now Edmonton's main arts and entertainment district, and in 2007 was named Alberta's second "Provincial Historic Area"...

, includes many independent stores between 99 Street and 109th St on Whyte Avenue and area. In around the downtown of Edmonton, there are a small handful of shopping districts such as previously mentioned Edmonton City Centre mall, Jasper Avenue and 104 Street. Near Oliver
Oliver, Edmonton
Oliver is one of the oldest residential neighbourhoods in the City of Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. The neighbourhood is named after Frank Oliver, an early Edmonton resident, businessman, and politician...

, 124 Street is home to a significant amount of retail stores.

Edmonton is the Canadian testing-ground for many American retailers such as Bath & Body Works
Bath & Body Works
Bath & Body Works, LLC, is an American retail store under the Limited Brands umbrella. It was founded in 1990 in New Albany, Ohio and has since expanded across the United States and Canada. It specializes in lotions, bath items, personal care items, and home fragrances.The company launched both a...

 and Calvin Klein
Calvin Klein
Calvin Richard Klein is an American fashion designer who launched the company that would later become Calvin Klein Inc. in 1968. In addition to clothing, Klein has also given his name to a range of perfumes, watches, and jewelry....

.

Culture



Many events are anchored in the downtown Arts District, centred around the recently renovated Churchill Square
Churchill Square (Edmonton)
thumb|300px|right|Churchill Square looking towards [[Edmonton City Hall|City Hall]]Churchill Square is the main downtown square in Edmonton, Alberta, which plays host to a large majority of festivals and events including: the Edmonton International Street Performers Festival, Edmonton Fashion...

 (named in honour of Sir Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, was a predominantly Conservative British politician and statesman known for his leadership of the United Kingdom during the Second World War. He is widely regarded as one of the greatest wartime leaders of the century and served as Prime Minister twice...

). On the south side of the river, the University district and Whyte Avenue contain theatres, concert halls, and various live music venues. Edmonton's current poet laureate is Mr. Roland Pemberton a.k.a. Mr. Cadence Weapon
Cadence Weapon
Cadence Weapon is the stage name of Rollie Pemberton, a Canadian rapper.-Biography:Born and raised in Edmonton, Alberta, his father was Teddy Pemberton, a pioneering hip hop DJ on CJSR-FM, and his grandfather was Rollie Miles, a football player for the Edmonton Eskimos...

.
  • The Francis Winspear Centre for Music
    Francis Winspear Centre for Music
    The Francis Winspear Centre for Music is a performing arts centre located in downtown Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.Built in 1997, it is the home of the Edmonton Symphony Orchestra. The center is named after Dr. Francis G. Winspear, who donated $6 million to the construction of the facility - the...

     was opened in 1997 after years of planning and fundraising. Described as one of the most acoustically perfect concert halls in Canada, it is home to the Edmonton Symphony Orchestra
    Edmonton Symphony Orchestra
    As the professional orchestra of Alberta's creative capital city, the Edmonton Symphony Orchestra presents over 85 concerts a year of symphonic music in all genres, from classical to country...

     and hosts a wide variety of shows every year. It seats 1,932 patrons and houses the $3-million Davis Concert Organ, the largest concert organ
    Pipe organ
    The pipe organ is a musical instrument that produces sound by driving pressurized air through pipes selected via a keyboard. Because each organ pipe produces a single pitch, the pipes are provided in sets called ranks, each of which has a common timbre and volume throughout the keyboard compass...

     in Canada. An interesting aspect of the hall's design is its separation into acoustically separate areas that are insulated from each other through acoustical barriers built into the structure. Patrons and artists can see these in the form of double-door "sound locks."
  • Across 102nd Avenue is the Citadel Theatre
    Citadel Theatre
    The Citadel Theatre is the major venue for theatre arts in the city of Edmonton, located in the Downtown Core on Churchill Square.-History:Originally the "Old Salvation Army Citadel", the Citadel was bought by Joseph H. Shoctor, James L. Martin, Ralph B. MacMillan, and Sandy Mactaggart, and the...

    , named after The Salvation Army
    The Salvation Army
    The Salvation Army is a Protestant Christian church known for its thrift stores and charity work. It is an international movement that currently works in over a hundred countries....

     Citadel in which Joe Shoctor first started the Citadel Theatre Company in 1965. It is now one of the largest theatre complexes in Canada, with five halls, each specializing in different kinds of productions. For instance, the Maclab Theatre features a thrust stage surrounded by a U-shaped seating arrangement, while the Shoctor Theatre is a traditional stage setup.
  • On the University of Alberta
    University of Alberta
    The University of Alberta is a public research university located in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Founded in 1908 by Alexander Cameron Rutherford, the first premier of Alberta and Henry Marshall Tory, its first president, it is widely recognized as one of the best universities in Canada...

     grounds is the 2,534-seat Northern Alberta Jubilee Auditorium
    Northern Alberta Jubilee Auditorium
    The Northern Alberta Jubilee Auditorium is a performing arts, culture and community facility, located in Edmonton, Alberta.-General information and history:...

    , which recently went through a year of heavy renovations carried out as part of the province's centennial celebrations. Both it and its southern twin
    Southern Alberta Jubilee Auditorium
    The Southern Alberta Jubilee Auditorium is a performing arts, culture and community facility located in Calgary, Alberta, Canada.The auditorium was built in 1955 to celebrate the 50th anniversary of Alberta...

     in Calgary were constructed in 1955 for the province's golden jubilee and have hosted many concerts, musicals, and ballets. The Edmonton Opera uses the Jubilee as its base of operations. On the front of the building is a quote from Suetonius
    Suetonius
    Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus, commonly known as Suetonius , was a Roman historian belonging to the equestrian order in the early Imperial era....

    ' Life of Augustus: "He found a city built of brick—left it built of marble."
  • Old Strathcona
    Old Strathcona
    Old Strathcona is an historic district located in south-central Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Once the commercial core of the separate city of Strathcona, the area is now Edmonton's main arts and entertainment district, and in 2007 was named Alberta's second "Provincial Historic Area"...

     is home to the Theatre District, which holds the Transalta Arts Barns (headquarters of the Edmonton International Fringe Festival
    Edmonton International Fringe Festival
    The Edmonton International Fringe Festival produced by the Fringe Theatre Adventures is an annual event held every August in Edmonton, Alberta in Canada....

    ), The Walterdale Playhouse
    The Walterdale Playhouse
    The Walterdale Playhouse is an amateur live performance venue in the Old Strathcona neighborhood of Edmonton. In 2008 the venue celebrated 50 year of theater. The theatre is mainly run by donations and volunteers in the community.-History:...

    , Catalyst Theatre
    Catalyst Theatre
    Catalyst Theatre is a theatre company in Edmonton founded in 1977. Catalyst Theatre creates and tours new work developed under Artistic Director Jonathan Christenson in collaboration with Resident Designer Bretta Gerecke...

    , and the Varscona Theatre
    Varscona Theatre
    The Varscona Theatre is a live performance venue in the Old Strathcona neighborhood of Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. A former firehall, since 1994 the Varscona has been operated by a consortium of small theatre companies, including Rapid Fire Theatre, Shadow Theatre and Teatro la Quindicina...

     (base of operations for several theatre companies, including Teatro la Quindicina
    Teatro la Quindicina
    Teatro la Quindicina is a theatre company founded by Canadian playwright Stewart Lemoine in 1982 at the Edmonton International Fringe Festival. The company is best known for producing Lemoine's original works but also produces a new comedy by an Edmonton-based playwright each season...

    , Shadow Theatre
    Shadow Theatre
    The Shadow Theatre is an Edmonton-based theatre company born of the Edmonton International Fringe Festival in 1990.-History:Shadow Theatre was incorporated in 1992, operating under the governance of a volunteer Board of Directors...

    , Rapid Fire Theatre
    Rapid Fire Theatre
    Rapid Fire Theatre is an improvisational theatre company based in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. The company’s goal is to provide affordable, high-energy improvisation and alternative theatre to audiences in Edmonton and beyond, while providing exciting opportunities for its participants.-History:The...

    , Die-Nasty
    Die-Nasty
    Die-Nasty is a live improvised soap opera, running weekly in the city of Edmonton, Alberta, Canada since 1991. Die-Nastys improv comedy format features a continuing storyline and recurring characters, live music, and a director who sets up scenes for the audience in voiceover.The cast of Die-Nasty...

    , and Oh Susanna!
    Oh Susanna!
    Oh Susanna! is a live improvised variety show/talkshow, presented monthly in the city of Edmonton, Alberta, at the Varscona Theatre in Old Strathcona. Performances are generally the last Saturday of the month at 11pm...

    ). Edmonton was named cultural capital of Canada in 2007.
  • Ukrainian Dnipro Ensemble of Edmonton
    Ukrainian Dnipro Ensemble of Edmonton
    The Ukrainian Dnipro Ensemble of Edmonton is a choir in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, which specialises in Ukrainian choral music.The Dnipro Male Chorus was organized in Edmonton in 1953 by Roman Soltykevych, along with a group of devotees, whose primary concern was the fostering, promotion, and...

    , organized in 1953, preserves the Ukrainian musical culture
    Music of Ukraine
    Ukraine is a multi-ethnic Eastern European state situated north of the Black Sea, previously part of the Soviet Union. Many of its ethnic groups living within Ukraine have their own unique musical traditions and some have developed specific musical traditions in association with the land in which...

     within the parameters of the Canadian multicultural identity.
  • Edmonton is home to world famous Ukrainian Dance
    Ukrainian dance
    Ukrainian dance refers to the traditional folk dances of the peoples of Ukraine.Today, Ukrainian dance is primarily represented by what ethnographers, folklorists and dance historians refer to as "Ukrainian Folk-Stage Dances" , which are stylized representations of traditional dances and their...

     ensembles such as the Cheremosh Ukrainian Dance Company
    Cheremosh Ukrainian Dance Company
    Cheremosh Ukrainian Dance Company is a Ukrainian dance company based in Edmonton, Alberta and a leader of Ukrainian dance in Canada. It was founded in 1969 by Chester and Luba Kuc and named after the Cheremosh River that separates the historic regions of Bukovyna and Galicia in Ukraine...

     and Shumka.
  • In 1917 the hadrosaur Edmontosaurus
    Edmontosaurus
    Edmontosaurus is a genus of crestless hadrosaurid dinosaur. It contains two species: Edmontosaurus regalis and Edmontosaurus annectens. Fossils of E. regalis have been found in rocks of western North America that date from the late Campanian stage of the Cretaceous Period 73 million years ago,...

     was named after the Edmonton Formation in Central Alberta, Edmontosaurus's name means "reptile from Edmonton".

Nightlife


There are several key areas of nightlife in the city of Edmonton. The most popular is the Whyte Avenue
Old Strathcona
Old Strathcona is an historic district located in south-central Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Once the commercial core of the separate city of Strathcona, the area is now Edmonton's main arts and entertainment district, and in 2007 was named Alberta's second "Provincial Historic Area"...

 (82nd Avenue) strip, located between 109 Street and 99 Street; it has the highest number of heritage buildings in Edmonton. Once the heart of the town of Strathcona (annexed by Edmonton on February 1, 1912), it fell into disrepair during the middle of the 20th century. Beginning in the 1970s, a coordinated effort to revive the area through the establishment of a Business Revitalization Zone
Business improvement district
A business improvement district is a defined area within which businesses pay an additional tax or fee in order to fund improvements within the district's boundaries. Grant funds acquired by the city for special programs and/or incentives such as tax abatements can be made available to assist...

 has produced an area rich with restored historical buildings and pleasant streetscapes. Its proximity to the University of Alberta has led to a high number of establishments ranging from restaurants and pubs to trendy clubs while hosting a wide variety of retail and specialty shops during the day. This area also contains two independent movie theatres: the Garneau
Garneau Theatre
The Garneau Theatre is a historic movie theatre located on 109 Street in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. It was operated by Magic Lantern Theatres until June 27, 2011 when it closed...

 and Princess theatres, as well as several live theatre, music, and comedy venues.

Downtown Edmonton has undergone a continual process of renewal and unprecedented growth since the mid-1990s. Many buildings were demolished during the oil boom, starting in the 1960s and continuing into the 1980s, to make way for office towers. As such, there have always been numerous pub-type establishments, as well as many hotel lounges and restaurants. The past decade has seen a strong resurgence in more mainstream venues. Edmonton also has a high demand for pub crawl tours in the city. Various clubs are also to be found along Edmonton's main street, Jasper Avenue. The Edmonton City Centre
Edmonton City Centre
Edmonton City Centre is a shopping mall in downtown Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, across the street from Churchill Square.-History:In 1974, the City Centre Place shopping mall was completed within the larger Edmonton Centre development; TD Tower was added in 1976. In 1978, Oxford Tower and the...

 mall also houses an Empire Theatres
Empire Theatres
Empire Theatres Limited is the second-largest movie theatre chain in Canada, and the only major circuit operating in Atlantic Canada. A subsidiary of Empire Company Ltd., the family-owned parent of the Sobeys supermarket chain presently owns and operates 51 locations in 8 of 10 provinces, from...

 movie theatre, featuring nine screens. The nonprofit Metro Cinema shows a variety of alternative or otherwise unreleased films every week.

West Edmonton Mall
West Edmonton Mall
West Edmonton Mall , located in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, is the largest shopping mall in North America and the fifth largest in the world. The mall was founded by the Ghermezian brothers, who emigrated from Iran in 1959. It was the world's largest mall until 2004.West Edmonton Mall covers a gross...

 holds several after-hour establishments in addition to its many stores and attractions. Bourbon Street has numerous eating establishments; clubs and casinos can also be found within the complex. Scotiabank Theatre (formerly known as Silver City), at the west end of the mall, is a theatre that features twelve screens and an IMAX
IMAX
IMAX is a motion picture film format and a set of proprietary cinema projection standards created by the Canadian company IMAX Corporation. IMAX has the capacity to record and display images of far greater size and resolution than conventional film systems...

.

Museums and galleries





There are many museums in Edmonton of various sizes. The largest is the Royal Alberta Museum
Royal Alberta Museum
The Royal Alberta Museum is located in Edmonton, Alberta and was named the Provincial Museum of Alberta until 24 May 2005 when Queen Elizabeth II visited, bestowing royal patronage. It has a natural history exhibit, a wildlife exhibit, an entomology exhibit, a Native Culture exhibit, as well as...

 (RAM), which was formerly known as the Provincial Museum of Alberta until it was renamed in honour of Queen Elizabeth II's 2005 Alberta centennial visit. The RAM houses over 10 million objects in its collection and showcases the culture and practices of the diverse aboriginal tribes of the region. The main building, overlooking the river valley west of the city centre in the Glenora
Glenora, Edmonton
Glenora is a prime residential neighbourhood in the city of Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, overlooking the North Saskatchewan River valley.Glenora is bounded on the east by Groat Road, on the north by 107 Avenue, on the west by 142 Street, and on the south by the river valley and the McKinnon Ravine...

 neighbourhood, was opened in 1967 and is now in the early stages of large-scale redevelopment.

The Telus World of Science is located in the Woodcroft
Woodcroft, Edmonton
Woodcroft is a neighbourhood located in north west Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Coronation Park and the Telus World of Science are located in the neighbourhood. The neighbourhood is surrounded by a mixture of residential neighborhoods and light industrial subdivisions...

 neighbourhood northwest of the city centre. It opened in 1984 and has since been expanded several times. It contains five permanent galleries, one additional gallery for temporary exhibits, an IMAX theatre, a planetarium
Planetarium
A planetarium is a theatre built primarily for presenting educational and entertaining shows about astronomy and the night sky, or for training in celestial navigation...

, an observatory
Observatory
An observatory is a location used for observing terrestrial or celestial events. Astronomy, climatology/meteorology, geology, oceanography and volcanology are examples of disciplines for which observatories have been constructed...

, and an amateur radio station
Amateur radio station
An amateur radio station is an installation designed to provide radiocommunications in the amateur radio service for an amateur radio operator. Radio amateurs build and operate several types of amateur radio stations, including fixed ground stations, mobile stations, space stations, and temporary...

.

The Alberta Aviation Museum
Alberta Aviation Museum
The Alberta Aviation Museum is a museum in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. It is located on-site at the Edmonton City Centre Airport CYXD on the southwest corner of the field ....

, located in a hangar at the City Centre Airport, was built for the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan
British Commonwealth Air Training Plan
The British Commonwealth Air Training Plan , known in some countries as the Empire Air Training Scheme , was a massive, joint military aircrew training program created by the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia and New Zealand, during the Second World War...

. Its collection includes both civilian and military aircraft, the largest of which are a Boeing 737
Boeing 737
The Boeing 737 is a short- to medium-range, twin-engine narrow-body jet airliner. Originally developed as a shorter, lower-cost twin-engine airliner derived from Boeing's 707 and 727, the 737 has developed into a family of nine passenger models with a capacity of 85 to 215 passengers...

 and two CF-101 Voodoo
CF-101 Voodoo
The CF-101 Voodoo was an all-weather interceptor aircraft operated by the Royal Canadian Air Force and Canadian Forces between 1961 and 1984. They were manufactured by the McDonnell Aircraft Corporation of St. Louis, Missouri for the United States Air Force , and later sold to Canada...

s. It also has one of only 3 BOMARC missiles in Canada.

The Alberta Railway Museum
Alberta Railway Museum
The Alberta Railway Museum located in Edmonton, Alberta the Alberta Railway Museum houses a collection of railway equipment and buildings...

 is located in the rural northeast portion of the city. It contains a variety of locomotive
Locomotive
A locomotive is a railway vehicle that provides the motive power for a train. The word originates from the Latin loco – "from a place", ablative of locus, "place" + Medieval Latin motivus, "causing motion", and is a shortened form of the term locomotive engine, first used in the early 19th...

s and railroad car
Railroad car
A railroad car or railway vehicle , also known as a bogie in Indian English, is a vehicle on a rail transport system that is used for the carrying of cargo or passengers. Cars can be coupled together into a train and hauled by one or more locomotives...

s from different periods, and includes a working steam locomotive
Steam locomotive
A steam locomotive is a railway locomotive that produces its power through a steam engine. These locomotives are fueled by burning some combustible material, usually coal, wood or oil, to produce steam in a boiler, which drives the steam engine...

. Since most of its exhibits are outdoors, it is only open between Victoria Day and Labour Day.

The Telephone Historical Centre
Telephone Historical Centre
The Telephone Historical Centre is a telecommunications museum located in Edmonton, Alberta dedicated to preserving the history of the telephone in Edmonton. Founded by a group of retired ED TEL employees, the Telephone Historical Centre was opened on December 3, 1987, in a former telephone...

 is a telephone museum located in the historic Prince of Wales Armouries Heritage Centre in central Edmonton. In addition to a collection of artifacts tracing the history of the telephone, the museum has its own theatre featuring a brief film led by the robot Xeldon.

The Edmonton Valley Zoo is in the river valley to the southwest of the city centre.

The Art Gallery of Alberta
Art Gallery of Alberta
The Art Gallery of Alberta is a public art gallery located in downtown Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Its collection of well over 6,000 works of art includes historical and contemporary paintings, sculptures, installation works and photographs by Canadian and international artists...

 (AGA) is the city's largest single gallery. Formerly housed in an inconspicuous 1970s building downtown, the AGA collection had over 5,000 pieces of art. The former AGA building was demolished in July 2007 to make way for construction of a new facility designed by Randall Stout
Randall Stout
-Early life and education:Born and raised in Tennessee, Stout has a Bachelor of Architecture from the University of Tennessee and a Master of Architecture from Rice University.-Career:...

. It was estimated to cost over $88-million and the amount that Edmonton City Council
Edmonton City Council
The Edmonton City Council is the governing body of the City of Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.Members represent wards throughout the city, and are known as councillors. Until 2010, Edmonton was divided in six wards with two councillors representing citizens in each ward...

 donated towards its construction was met with some controversy. The AGA officially opened the weekend of January 30/31, 2010.

Independent galleries can be found throughout the city, especially along the 124 Street/Jasper Avenue corridor (known as the gallery walk).

Fort Edmonton Park
Fort Edmonton Park
Fort Edmonton Park is an attraction in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Named for the first enduring European post in the area of modern-day Edmonton, the park is the largest living history museum in Canada by area...

, Canada's largest living history
Living history
Living history is an activity that incorporates historical tools, activities and dress into an interactive presentation that seeks to give observers and participants a sense of stepping back in time. Although it does not necessarily seek to reenact a specific event in history, living history is...

 museum, is located in the river valley southwest of the city centre. Edmonton's heritage is displayed through historical buildings (many of which are originals moved to the park), costumed historical interpreters
Heritage interpretation
Heritage interpretation is the communication of information about, or the explanation of, the nature, origin, and purpose of historical, natural, or cultural resources, objects, sites and phenomena using personal or non-personal methods....

, and authentic artifacts. In total, it covers the region's history from approximately 1795 to 1929 (represented by Fort Edmonton
Fort Edmonton
Fort Edmonton was the name of a series of trading posts of the Hudson's Bay Company from 1795 to 1891, all of which were located in central Alberta, Canada...

), followed chronologically by 1885, 1905, and 1920 streets, and a recreation of a 1920s midway
Midway (fair)
A midway at a fair is the location where amusement rides, entertainment and fast food booths are concentrated....

. A steam train, streetcars, automobiles and horse drawn vehicles may be seen in operation (and utilized by the public) around the park. It is open from Victoria Day until the end of September, with other themed events throughout the year.

The University of Alberta operates its own internal Museums and Collections service.

The John Walter Museum and Historical Area (c. 1875 to 1901) is on the Canadian Register of Historic Places.

Festivals




Edmonton plays host to several large festival
Festival
A festival or gala is an event, usually and ordinarily staged by a local community, which centers on and celebrates some unique aspect of that community and the Festival....

s each year, contributing to its local nickname, "The Festival City." Downtown Edmonton's Churchill Square host numerous festivals each summer. The Works Art & Design Festival
The Works Art & Design Festival
The Works Art & Design Festival is a thirteen day celebration held at the end of June and the beginning of July in downtown, Edmonton, Canada. The festival displays the work of artists and designers from across Canada as well as featured exhibits from international presenters.-Overview:The Works...

, which takes place from late June to early July, showcases Canadian and international art and design from well-known award-winning artists as well as emerging and student artists. The Edmonton International Street Performer's Festival
Edmonton International Street Performer's Festival
The Edmonton International Street Performer's Festival takes place in mid-July in the city of Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.It showcases street performance artists from around the world since 1985. In 2009, the festival celebrated its 25th anniversary....

 takes place in mid-July and showcases street performance artists from around the world.

Edmonton's main summer festival is Capital EX
Edmonton's Capital EX
Edmonton's Capital EX, formerly known as Klondike Days or K-Days, is an annual 10-day exhibition held in Edmonton, Alberta, usually near the end of July. In recent years it has attracted between 700,000 and 800,000 visitors each year...

 (formerly Klondike Days). Klondike Days (or K-Days) was originally an annual fair and exhibition that eventually adopted a gold rush
Klondike Gold Rush
The Klondike Gold Rush, also called the Yukon Gold Rush, the Alaska Gold Rush and the Last Great Gold Rush, was an attempt by an estimated 100,000 people to travel to the Klondike region the Yukon in north-western Canada between 1897 and 1899 in the hope of successfully prospecting for gold...

 theme. In early 2006, it was decided that the festival would be renamed "The Capital City Exhibition" ("Capital EX"). Activities include chuckwagon
Chuckwagon
A chuckwagon or chuck wagon is a type of wagon historically used to carry food and cooking equipment on the prairies of the United States and Canada. Such wagons would form part of a wagon train of settlers or feed traveling workers such as cowboys or loggers.In modern times, chuckwagons feature...

 races, carnival rides and fairways, music, trade shows, and daily fireworks. Since 1960, the Sourdough Raft Races have also been a popular event. Later in November, Edmonton plays host to the Canadian Finals Rodeo
Canadian Finals Rodeo
The Canadian Finals Rodeo is the national championship rodeo in Canada. The CFR takes place in November and is the final event of the Canadian Professional Rodeo Association season...

 and Farmfair; this is a significant event in Canada's rodeo circuit and second only to the National Finals Rodeo
National Finals Rodeo
The National Finals Rodeo, organized by the Professional Rodeo Cowboys Association, is the premier championship rodeo event in the United States. Wrangler Jeans is the title sponsor for the 10-day event, commonly just called the National Finals or NFR, which is also sometimes referred to as the...

 in Las Vegas
Las Vegas, Nevada
Las Vegas is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Nevada and is also the county seat of Clark County, Nevada. Las Vegas is an internationally renowned major resort city for gambling, shopping, and fine dining. The city bills itself as The Entertainment Capital of the World, and is famous...

 in prestige.

The Edmonton International Fringe Festival
Edmonton International Fringe Festival
The Edmonton International Fringe Festival produced by the Fringe Theatre Adventures is an annual event held every August in Edmonton, Alberta in Canada....

, which takes place in mid-August, is the largest fringe theatre festival in North America and second only to the Edinburgh Fringe
Edinburgh Fringe
The Edinburgh Festival Fringe is the world’s largest arts festival. Established in 1947 as an alternative to the Edinburgh International Festival, it takes place annually in Scotland's capital, in the month of August...

 Festival worldwide. In August, Edmonton is also host to the Edmonton Folk Music Festival
Edmonton Folk Music Festival
The Edmonton Folk Music Festival is an annual four-day outdoor music event held the second weekend of August in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, established in 1980 by Don Whalen. The festival continues to draw many people from around the world as both spectators and performers. The current producer of...

, one of the most successful and popular folk music
Folk music
Folk music is an English term encompassing both traditional folk music and contemporary folk music. The term originated in the 19th century. Traditional folk music has been defined in several ways: as music transmitted by mouth, as music of the lower classes, and as music with unknown composers....

 festivals in North America. Another major summer festival is the Edmonton Heritage Festival, which is an ethnocultural festival that takes place in Hawrelak Park
William Hawrelak Park
William Hawrelak Park is a park in Edmonton, Alberta. It is named after former mayor William Hawrelak, and was formerly known as Mayfair Park.The park is situated in Edmonton's river valley, next to the North Saskatchewan River...

 on the Heritage Day
Civic Holiday
Civic Holiday is the most widely used name for a public holiday celebrated in parts of Canada on the first Monday in August, though it is only officially known by that term in Nunavut, the Northwest Territories, Prince Edward Island, and Manitoba...

 long weekend. Many other festivals exist, such as the Free Will Shakespeare Festival, the Dragon Boat Festival, the Whyte Avenue Art Walk, and the Edmonton International Film Festival
Edmonton International Film Festival
The Edmonton International Film Festival is a nine-day film festival in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, hosted at Empire Theatres at Edmonton City Centre....

.

Music



Edmonton is home to a thriving music scene. Along with the Edmonton Symphony Orchestra
Edmonton Symphony Orchestra
As the professional orchestra of Alberta's creative capital city, the Edmonton Symphony Orchestra presents over 85 concerts a year of symphonic music in all genres, from classical to country...

, notable past and present local musicians include Faunts
Faunts
-History:Faunts was formed in the fall of 2000 by two brothers Steve and Tim Batke. Faunts are released on Friendly Fire Recordings. In 2005, their debut album High Expectations/Low Results was well-received. In 2006, a 40-minute EP entitled M4 was released that grew out of music crafted to...

, Tommy Banks
Tommy Banks
Thomas Benjamin "Tommy" Banks, OC, AOE is a Canadian pianist, conductor, arranger, composer, television personality and Senator....

, Cadence Weapon
Cadence Weapon
Cadence Weapon is the stage name of Rollie Pemberton, a Canadian rapper.-Biography:Born and raised in Edmonton, Alberta, his father was Teddy Pemberton, a pioneering hip hop DJ on CJSR-FM, and his grandfather was Rollie Miles, a football player for the Edmonton Eskimos...

, Captain Tractor
Captain Tractor
Captain Tractor is a Canadian folk rock band, based in Edmonton, Alberta. They play a punk-influenced variant of Celtic folk music, similar to such bands as Great Big Sea, The Pogues or Spirit of the West...

, Five O'Clock Charlie
Five O'Clock Charlie
Five O'Clock Charlie was a pop/rock band that was based in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. In 2002 the band released an e.p. titled 'Redtown'. Its debut full length album, Five O'Clock, was released in 2004, and a short playing e.p. dubbed 'Watercolours' by local media followed in 2007...

, Kreesha Turner
Kreesha Turner
Kreesha Turner , is a Canadian R&B/pPop recording artist. She cites as her inspirations R&B acts such as Erykah Badu, Jill Scott and D'Angelo, hip-hop acts including A Tribe Called Quest, Andre 3000 and Common and rock acts like the Foo Fighters and Our Lady Peace.-Early life:The oldest of three...

, Mad Bomber Society
Mad bomber society
Mad Bomber Society is a six-piece ska band that was started in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada in 1992. After years of playing solely in Edmonton, they began touring Western Canada. Their first studio album was released in 2001...

, The Mark Birtles Project, P.J. Perry
P.J. Perry
Paul John Perry Guloien is a jazz saxophonist from Edmonton, Alberta. He has won one Juno award as a solo artist, and one for his work with The Rob McConnell Tentet....

, The Smalls
The Smalls
The Smalls were a hard rock/metal band from Edmonton, Alberta, with jazz, hardcore punk, speed metal and country music influences. They were probably the most prominent Alberta band in the second wave of performers coming out of the Canadian west coast DIY scene that was first ushered into Alberta...

, SNFU
SNFU
SNFU is a Canadian punk rock band formed in 1981 in Edmonton, Alberta and later relocated to Vancouver, British Columbia. They have released nine full-length albums and are cited as a formative influence on the skate punk sub-genre....

, Social Code
Social Code
Social Code is a Canadian alternative rock group from St. Albert, Alberta, Canada.-Formation and early years :...

, Stereos
Stereos
Stereos are a Juno nominated pop band from Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, formed in 2008. They are known mainly for their musical style, which fuses aspects of hip hop and pop to form their primary style including. Their first act that had them recognized was appearing on the MuchMusic original series,...

, Ten Second Epic
Ten Second Epic
Ten Second Epic is a five-piece rock band from Edmonton, Alberta. The band formed in 2002 and still consists of original lineup Andrew Usenik , Daniel Carriere , Craig Spelliscy , Sandy MacKinnon and Patrick Birtles . The band has released two full-length albums, Count Yourself In and Hometown...

, Tupelo Honey
Tupelo Honey (band)
Tupelo Honey is a Canadian rock band formed in St. Albert, Alberta, Canada, in February 2003. They have played with numerous headlining acts such as Bon Jovi, Default, Theory of a Deadman, Bif Naked, Three Days Grace, Thornley, The Trews, Billy Talent, and Sam Roberts.-Formation:The members of...

, Christian Hansen & The Autistics
Christian Hansen & The Autistics
Christian Hansen & The Autistics is a musical group out of Edmonton, Alberta. Formed late in 2007, the band consists of Christian Hansen and Molly Flood. The band describes themselves as "the dazzle of disco mixed with the immediacy of punk rock...

, Hot Panda
Hot Panda
Hot Panda is a Canadian indie rock band formed in 2006 based in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.-History:Hot Panda formed in 2006 naming themselves after a Chinese restaurant in Edmonton. The band released their debut EP Whale Headed Girl July 2007. They subsequently signed to Mint Records and released...

, Shout Out Out Out Out
Shout Out Out Out Out
Shout Out Out Out Out is a Canadian dance punk/electro group from Edmonton, Alberta. Their debut album Not Saying/Just Saying, released in 2006, quickly garnered significant airplay on Canadian campus radio and on CBC Radio 3. The album debuted at #11 on Canada's national campus radio chart,...

, and numerous others.

Sports and recreation



Edmonton has numerous professional sports teams, including the Edmonton Eskimos
Edmonton Eskimos
The Edmonton Eskimos are a Canadian football team based in Edmonton, Alberta. They currently play in the West Division of the Canadian Football League . Edmonton is currently the third-youngest franchise in the CFL, although there were clubs with the name Edmonton Eskimos as early as 1895...

 of the Canadian Football League
Canadian Football League
The Canadian Football League or CFL is a professional sports league located in Canada. The CFL is the highest level of competition in Canadian football, a form of gridiron football closely related to American football....

, Edmonton Oilers
Edmonton Oilers
The Edmonton Oilers are a professional ice hockey team based in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. They are members of the Northwest Division in the Western Conference of the National Hockey League ....

 of the National Hockey League
National Hockey League
The National Hockey League is an unincorporated not-for-profit association which operates a major professional ice hockey league of 30 franchised member clubs, of which 7 are currently located in Canada and 23 in the United States...

, Edmonton Capitals
Edmonton Capitals
The Edmonton Capitals are a professional baseball team based in Edmonton, Alberta. Known originally as the Edmonton Cracker-Cats, they began play in the Northern League in 2005 before switching to the Golden Baseball League in 2008. The team was sold to Daryl Katz in 2009, after which the team was...

 of the North American League
North American League
The North American League is an independent baseball league that began play in the 2011 season...

, Edmonton Rush
Edmonton Rush
The Edmonton Rush is a professional lacrosse team in the National Lacrosse League that started playing in the 2006 NLL season.The NLL announced that Edmonton, Alberta, Canada would receive an NLL franchise on May 5, 2005. They play their home games at Rexall Place...

 of the National Lacrosse League
National Lacrosse League
The National Lacrosse League is a men's professional indoor lacrosse league in North America. It currently has nine teams; three in Canada and six in the United States. Unlike other lacrosse leagues which play in the summer, the NLL plays its games in the winter and spring. Each year, the playoff...

, Edmonton Energy
Edmonton Energy
The Edmonton Energy is a professional basketball team in the International Basketball League, formerly known as the Edmonton Chill. The Chill name was revoked in August 2008 after allegations of misconduct were filed with the league regarding Troy Barns, the majority shareholder in the team.On 27...

 of the International Basketball League
International Basketball League
The International Basketball League was a short lived professional basketball league in the United States. The IBL was headquartered in Baltimore, Maryland. The league started in 1999 and ended in 2001.-History:...

, and FC Edmonton
FC Edmonton
FC Edmonton is a Canadian professional soccer team based in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Founded in 2010, the team plays in the North American Soccer League , the second tier of the American Soccer Pyramid....

 of the North American Soccer League
North American Soccer League
North American Soccer League was a professional soccer league with teams in the United States and Canada that operated from 1968 to 1984.-History:...

. Junior sports clubs include the Edmonton Huskies
Edmonton Huskies
The Edmonton Huskies are a Canadian Junior Football team based in Edmonton, Alberta. The Huskies play in the six-team Prairie Football Conference, which itself is part of the Canadian Junior Football League and competes annually for the national title known as the Canadian Bowl...

 and Edmonton Wildcats
Edmonton Wildcats
The Edmonton Wildcats are Canadian football team based in Edmonton, Alberta. The Wildcats play in the Prairie Football Conference, which is part of the Canadian Junior Football League and competes for the league championship, the Canadian Bowl...

 of the Canadian Junior Football League
Canadian Junior Football League
The Canadian Junior Football League is a national amateur Canadian football league consisting of 19 teams playing in six provinces across Canada. The teams compete annually for the Canadian Bowl...

 and the Edmonton Oil Kings
Edmonton Oil Kings
This article refers to the original Oil Kings franchises that existed until 1978. For the current team that began play in 2007, see Edmonton Oil Kings...

 of the Western Hockey League
Western Hockey League
The Western Hockey League is a major junior ice hockey league based in Western Canada and the Northwestern United States. The WHL is one of three leagues that constitute the Canadian Hockey League as the highest level of junior hockey in Canada...

. Venues for Edmonton's professional and junior sports teams include Commonwealth Stadium
Commonwealth Stadium (Edmonton)
Commonwealth Stadium is a sports stadium located in the Norwood Area of Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, primarily used by the Edmonton Eskimos of the Canadian Football League. The stadium is owned and operated by the City of Edmonton.- History :...

 (Eskimos), Rexall Place
Rexall Place
Rexall Place is an indoor arena in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada situated on the north side of Northlands. It is currently the home to the Edmonton Oilers of the National Hockey League, the Edmonton Rush of the National Lacrosse League and the Edmonton Oil Kings of the WHL...

 (Oilers, Rush and Oil Kings), Telus Field
TELUS Field
Telus Field is a baseball stadium in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. It is home to the Edmonton Capitals of the independent North American League, and was home to the former Edmonton Trappers, an AAA baseball team of the Pacific Coast League. The Trappers moved to Round Rock, Texas, and became the...

 (Capitals), the Universiade Pavilion
Universiade Pavilion
The Universiade Pavilion, better known as the Butterdome, is a 5,500-seat multi-purpose arena in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. It is home to the University of Alberta Golden Bears basketball team, as well as the Edmonton Energy of the International Basketball League...

 (Energy), Foote Field
Foote Field
Foote Field is a multi-purpose sports facility on the University of Alberta campus in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, built as a legacy facility for the 2001 World Championships in Athletics...

 (FC Edmonton), and Clarke Stadium
Clarke Stadium
Clarke Stadium, in its original incarnation, was a Canadian football stadium located in Edmonton, Alberta.-History:The stadium was originally built in 1938 on land deeded to the City for the purpose of constructing public sports fields by Mackenzie King...

 (Huskies and Wildcats). Edmonton's teams have rivalries with Calgary's teams.

Past notable hockey teams in Edmonton include the original junior hockey incarnation of the Edmonton Oil Kings of the Western Hockey League and the Edmonton Roadrunners of the American Hockey League
American Hockey League
The American Hockey League is a 30-team professional ice hockey league based in the United States and Canada that serves as the primary developmental circuit for the National Hockey League...

. Other past notable sports teams include the Edmonton Grads
Edmonton Grads
The Edmonton Grads were a Canadian women's basketball team. While long disbanded, the team continues to hold the North American record for the sports team with the best winning percentage of all time. The Grads won the first women's world title in basketball in 1924.-Origin:In 1912, J. Percy Page...

, a women's basketball team, and the Edmonton Trappers
Edmonton Trappers
The Edmonton Trappers were a minor league baseball team in the Pacific Coast League, ending with the 2004 season. Home games were played at Telus Field in downtown Edmonton, Alberta, Canada....

, a former baseball team in the Pacific Coast League
Pacific Coast League
The Pacific Coast League is a minor-league baseball league operating in the Western, Midwestern and Southeastern United States. Along with the International League and the Mexican League, it is one of three leagues playing at the Triple-A level, which is one step below Major League Baseball.The...

.
Local university-level sports teams include the U of A Golden Bears
Alberta Golden Bears
The Alberta Golden Bears are the men's athletic teams that represent the University of Alberta in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. The women's teams are known as the Alberta Pandas.-History:...

, the U of A Pandas
Alberta Pandas
The Alberta Pandas are the women's athletic teams that represent the University of Alberta in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. The men's teams are known as the Alberta Golden Bears. The Pandas compete in all Canadian Interuniversity Sport-sanctioned female sports, as well as tennis .-External links:*...

, the NAIT Ooks, and the Grant MacEwan Griffins. Local amateur teams, among others, include the Edmonton Gold
Edmonton Gold
The Edmonton Gold are a Canadian rugby union team based in Edmonton, Alberta. The team plays in the Rugby Canada Super League and draws most of its players from the Edmonton Rugby Union, one of fourteen Rugby Unions that have rep teams in the RCSL....

 of the Rugby Canada Super League and the Oil City Derbygirls in a flat track roller derby
Roller derby
Roller derby is a contact sport played by two teams of five members roller skating in the same direction around a track. Game play consists of a series of short matchups in which both teams designate a scoring player who scores points by lapping members of the opposing team...

 league.

Since 2005, Edmonton has hosted an annual circuit on the Indy Racing League known as the Edmonton Indy (formerly the Grand Prix of Edmonton). In addition, Castrol Raceway
Castrol Raceway
Castrol Raceway, formerly known as "Capital City Raceway Park", "Capital Raceway", "Labatt Raceway", and "Budweiser Motorsports Park", is a multi-track auto racing facility located in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Located on land leased from the Edmonton International Airport, the clay oval was built...

 hosts regular sprint car
Sprint car racing
Sprint cars are high-powered race cars designed primarily for the purpose of running on short oval or circular dirt or paved tracks. Sprint car racing is popular in the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa....

 and a national IHRA
International Hot Rod Association
The International Hot Rod Association, also known as IHRA, is the 2nd largest drag racing sanctioning body after the NHRA.-The Carrier Era:The IHRA was formed in November 1970 by businessman Larry Carrier. Throughout this period the organization was operated primarily in the south-eastern United...

 events at their facility next to Edmonton International Airport.

Past sporting events hosted by Edmonton include the 1978 Commonwealth Games
1978 Commonwealth Games
The 1978 Commonwealth Games were held in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, from 3 to 12 August 1978, two years after the 1976 Summer Olympics were held in Montreal, Quebec...

, the 1983 World University Games
1983 Summer Universiade
The 1983 Summer Universiade, also known as the XII Summer Universiade, took place in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada between July 1 and 12, 1983. Over 2,400 athletes from 73 countries participated....

 (Universiade
Universiade
The Universiade is an International multi-sport event, organized for university athletes by the International University Sports Federation . The name is a combination of the words "University" and "olympiad"...

), the 2001 World Championships in Athletics
2001 World Championships in Athletics
The 8th World Championships in Athletics, under the auspices of the International Association of Athletics Federations, were held at the Commonwealth Stadium, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada between 3 August and 12 August and was the first time the event had visited North America...

, the 2002 World Ringette Championships, the 2005 World Master Games, the 2006 Women's Rugby World Cup
2006 Women's Rugby World Cup
The 2006 Women's Rugby World Cup took place in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. The tournament began on 31 August and ended on 17 September 2006. The 2006 tournament was the third World Cup approved by the IRB, the previous two being held 2002 in Spain and in the Netherlands, in 1998...

, the 2007 FIFA U-20 World Cup
2007 FIFA U-20 World Cup
The 2007 FIFA U-20 World Cup was the sixteenth edition of the FIFA U-20 World Cup , hosted by Canada from June 30 to July 22, 2007. Argentina defeated Czech Republic in the title game by the score of 2–1, thus managing a back-to-back world title, its fifth in the past seven editions, and sixth...

, the CN Canadian Women's Open
Canadian Women's Open
The CN Canadian Women's Open is a women's professional golf tournament managed by the Royal Canadian Golf Association. It has been Canada's national championship tournament since 1973, and is an official event on the LPGA Tour.-History:...

, and the 2010 Canadian National Debating Championship
Canadian National Debating Championship
The Canadian National Debating Championship is the premier university debating championship in Canada, sanctioned by the Canadian University Society for Intercollegiate Debate. It has been held since 1978, always in the Canadian parliamentary debating style...

. Edmonton is sharing hosting duties with Calgary for the 2012 World Junior Ice Hockey Championships
2012 World Junior Ice Hockey Championships
- Group B :All round robin games held in Edmonton, Alberta at Rexall Place.All times local - Relegation round :All times local - Final round :-Quarterfinals:-Semifinals:-Fifth place game:-Bronze medal game:...

.
Current professional sports teams
Club Type League Venue Established Championships
Edmonton Eskimos
Edmonton Eskimos
The Edmonton Eskimos are a Canadian football team based in Edmonton, Alberta. They currently play in the West Division of the Canadian Football League . Edmonton is currently the third-youngest franchise in the CFL, although there were clubs with the name Edmonton Eskimos as early as 1895...

Canadian football
Canadian football
Canadian football is a form of gridiron football played exclusively in Canada in which two teams of 12 players each compete for territorial control of a field of play long and wide attempting to advance a pointed prolate spheroid ball into the opposing team's scoring area...

Canadian Football League
Canadian Football League
The Canadian Football League or CFL is a professional sports league located in Canada. The CFL is the highest level of competition in Canadian football, a form of gridiron football closely related to American football....

Commonwealth Stadium
Commonwealth Stadium (Edmonton)
Commonwealth Stadium is a sports stadium located in the Norwood Area of Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, primarily used by the Edmonton Eskimos of the Canadian Football League. The stadium is owned and operated by the City of Edmonton.- History :...

1949 13
Edmonton Oilers
Edmonton Oilers
The Edmonton Oilers are a professional ice hockey team based in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. They are members of the Northwest Division in the Western Conference of the National Hockey League ....

Ice hockey
Ice hockey
Ice hockey, often referred to as hockey, is a team sport played on ice, in which skaters use wooden or composite sticks to shoot a hard rubber puck into their opponent's net. The game is played between two teams of six players each. Five members of each team skate up and down the ice trying to take...

National Hockey League
National Hockey League
The National Hockey League is an unincorporated not-for-profit association which operates a major professional ice hockey league of 30 franchised member clubs, of which 7 are currently located in Canada and 23 in the United States...

Rexall Place
Rexall Place
Rexall Place is an indoor arena in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada situated on the north side of Northlands. It is currently the home to the Edmonton Oilers of the National Hockey League, the Edmonton Rush of the National Lacrosse League and the Edmonton Oil Kings of the WHL...

1972 5
Edmonton Capitals
Edmonton Capitals
The Edmonton Capitals are a professional baseball team based in Edmonton, Alberta. Known originally as the Edmonton Cracker-Cats, they began play in the Northern League in 2005 before switching to the Golden Baseball League in 2008. The team was sold to Daryl Katz in 2009, after which the team was...

Baseball
Baseball
Baseball is a bat-and-ball sport played between two teams of nine players each. The aim is to score runs by hitting a thrown ball with a bat and touching a series of four bases arranged at the corners of a ninety-foot diamond...

North American League
North American League
The North American League is an independent baseball league that began play in the 2011 season...

Telus Field
TELUS Field
Telus Field is a baseball stadium in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. It is home to the Edmonton Capitals of the independent North American League, and was home to the former Edmonton Trappers, an AAA baseball team of the Pacific Coast League. The Trappers moved to Round Rock, Texas, and became the...

2005 1
Edmonton Rush
Edmonton Rush
The Edmonton Rush is a professional lacrosse team in the National Lacrosse League that started playing in the 2006 NLL season.The NLL announced that Edmonton, Alberta, Canada would receive an NLL franchise on May 5, 2005. They play their home games at Rexall Place...

Indoor lacrosse
Box lacrosse
Box lacrosse, also known as indoor lacrosse and sometimes shortened to boxla, LAX or simply box, is an indoor version of lacrosse played mostly in North America. The game originated in Canada, where it is the most popular version of the game played in contrast to the traditional field lacrosse game...

National Lacrosse League
National Lacrosse League
The National Lacrosse League is a men's professional indoor lacrosse league in North America. It currently has nine teams; three in Canada and six in the United States. Unlike other lacrosse leagues which play in the summer, the NLL plays its games in the winter and spring. Each year, the playoff...

Rexall Place
Rexall Place
Rexall Place is an indoor arena in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada situated on the north side of Northlands. It is currently the home to the Edmonton Oilers of the National Hockey League, the Edmonton Rush of the National Lacrosse League and the Edmonton Oil Kings of the WHL...

2005 0
Edmonton Energy
Edmonton Energy
The Edmonton Energy is a professional basketball team in the International Basketball League, formerly known as the Edmonton Chill. The Chill name was revoked in August 2008 after allegations of misconduct were filed with the league regarding Troy Barns, the majority shareholder in the team.On 27...

Basketball
Basketball
Basketball is a team sport in which two teams of five players try to score points by throwing or "shooting" a ball through the top of a basketball hoop while following a set of rules...

International Basketball League
International Basketball League
The International Basketball League was a short lived professional basketball league in the United States. The IBL was headquartered in Baltimore, Maryland. The league started in 1999 and ended in 2001.-History:...

Universiade Pavilion
Universiade Pavilion
The Universiade Pavilion, better known as the Butterdome, is a 5,500-seat multi-purpose arena in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. It is home to the University of Alberta Golden Bears basketball team, as well as the Edmonton Energy of the International Basketball League...

2008 0
FC Edmonton
FC Edmonton
FC Edmonton is a Canadian professional soccer team based in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Founded in 2010, the team plays in the North American Soccer League , the second tier of the American Soccer Pyramid....

Soccer North American Soccer League
North American Soccer League (2010)
The North American Soccer League is a professional men's soccer league in the United States, Canada, and Puerto Rico which began league play on April 9, 2011. It has been provisionally sanctioned as the second tier of soccer in the United States soccer pyramid, behind Major League Soccer in the...

Foote Field
Foote Field
Foote Field is a multi-purpose sports facility on the University of Alberta campus in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, built as a legacy facility for the 2001 World Championships in Athletics...

2010 0

Current amateur and junior clubs
Club Type League Venue Established Championships
Edmonton Huskies
Edmonton Huskies
The Edmonton Huskies are a Canadian Junior Football team based in Edmonton, Alberta. The Huskies play in the six-team Prairie Football Conference, which itself is part of the Canadian Junior Football League and competes annually for the national title known as the Canadian Bowl...

Canadian football
Canadian football
Canadian football is a form of gridiron football played exclusively in Canada in which two teams of 12 players each compete for territorial control of a field of play long and wide attempting to advance a pointed prolate spheroid ball into the opposing team's scoring area...

Canadian Junior Football League
Canadian Junior Football League
The Canadian Junior Football League is a national amateur Canadian football league consisting of 19 teams playing in six provinces across Canada. The teams compete annually for the Canadian Bowl...

Clarke Stadium
Clarke Stadium
Clarke Stadium, in its original incarnation, was a Canadian football stadium located in Edmonton, Alberta.-History:The stadium was originally built in 1938 on land deeded to the City for the purpose of constructing public sports fields by Mackenzie King...

1947 5
Edmonton Wildcats
Edmonton Wildcats
The Edmonton Wildcats are Canadian football team based in Edmonton, Alberta. The Wildcats play in the Prairie Football Conference, which is part of the Canadian Junior Football League and competes for the league championship, the Canadian Bowl...

Canadian football
Canadian football
Canadian football is a form of gridiron football played exclusively in Canada in which two teams of 12 players each compete for territorial control of a field of play long and wide attempting to advance a pointed prolate spheroid ball into the opposing team's scoring area...

Canadian Junior Football League
Canadian Junior Football League
The Canadian Junior Football League is a national amateur Canadian football league consisting of 19 teams playing in six provinces across Canada. The teams compete annually for the Canadian Bowl...

Clarke Stadium
Clarke Stadium
Clarke Stadium, in its original incarnation, was a Canadian football stadium located in Edmonton, Alberta.-History:The stadium was originally built in 1938 on land deeded to the City for the purpose of constructing public sports fields by Mackenzie King...

1948 2
Edmonton Chimos
Edmonton Chimos
The Edmonton Chimos are a professional women's ice hockey team in the Western Women's Hockey League . The team played its home games at River Cree Twin Arenas in Edmonton, Canada. The Owner is Arlan Maschmayer.- History :...

Ice hockey
Ice hockey
Ice hockey, often referred to as hockey, is a team sport played on ice, in which skaters use wooden or composite sticks to shoot a hard rubber puck into their opponent's net. The game is played between two teams of six players each. Five members of each team skate up and down the ice trying to take...

Western Women's Hockey League
Western Women's Hockey League
The Western Women's Hockey League is one of two major women's hockey leagues in Canada. The league was established in 2004, and consisted of teams in Canada and one from the United States...

River Cree Resort Twin Arena / Jubilee Recreation Centre
Jubilee Recreation Centre
The Jubilee Recreation Centre is a 2,000-seat multi-purpose arena in Fort Saskatchewan, Alberta. It was home to the Fort Saskatchewan Traders ice hockey team. The arena is also referred to as "the JRC"....

1973 0
Edmonton Gold
Edmonton Gold
The Edmonton Gold are a Canadian rugby union team based in Edmonton, Alberta. The team plays in the Rugby Canada Super League and draws most of its players from the Edmonton Rugby Union, one of fourteen Rugby Unions that have rep teams in the RCSL....

Rugby union
Rugby union
Rugby union, often simply referred to as rugby, is a full contact team sport which originated in England in the early 19th century. One of the two codes of rugby football, it is based on running with the ball in hand...

Rugby Canada Super League Ellerslie Rugby Park
Ellerslie Rugby Park
Ellerslie Rugby Park is a park located in South Edmonton in the neighborhood of Ellerslie. It hosts as the Edmonton Gold's home field and it also puts on many private events. There are two buildings on the site, the Banquet Room, and the Clubroom...

1998 0
Edmonton WAM! Ringette
Ringette
Ringette is a team sport played on an ice surface. Played primarily by females, Ringette requires the use of straight sticks to control a rubber ring; with the objective of the game being to score goals by shooting the ring into the opponent's net. It was introduced by Sam Jacks in North Bay,...

National Ringette League
National Ringette League
The National Ringette League is the top level ringette league in Canada. It is composed of 18 teams divided into two conferences. The 2009-10 regular season began on October 17th, 2009 and concluded March 21st, 2010.- Teams :-External links:* *...

Callingwood Twin Arena 2001 4
Edmonton Stallions Canadian football
Canadian football
Canadian football is a form of gridiron football played exclusively in Canada in which two teams of 12 players each compete for territorial control of a field of play long and wide attempting to advance a pointed prolate spheroid ball into the opposing team's scoring area...

Alberta Football League
Alberta Football League
The Alberta Football League is an amateur Canadian football league. For the 2010 season, 8 teams competed for the league championship...

Foote Field
Foote Field
Foote Field is a multi-purpose sports facility on the University of Alberta campus in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, built as a legacy facility for the 2001 World Championships in Athletics...

2001 2
Edmonton Prospects Baseball
Baseball
Baseball is a bat-and-ball sport played between two teams of nine players each. The aim is to score runs by hitting a thrown ball with a bat and touching a series of four bases arranged at the corners of a ninety-foot diamond...

Western Major Baseball League
Western Major Baseball League
The Western Major Baseball League or WMBL is a collegiate summer baseball league. The league can trace its roots back to 1948, as it has gone by many names over the years, including the Alberta-Saskatchewan Baseball league, Western Canadian Baseball League and Saskatchewan Baseball League before...

John Fry Park 2005 0
Edmonton Drillers
Edmonton Drillers (CMISL)
The Edmonton Drillers are a Canadian Major Indoor Soccer League team.-History:On January 24, 2007, the formation of the Canadian Major Indoor Soccer League was announced along with that a series of exhibition games would take place in various markets to gauge interest...

Indoor soccer
Indoor soccer
Indoor soccer or arena soccer, or six-a-side football in the United Kingdom, is a game derived from association football adapted for play in an indoor arena such as a turf-covered hockey arena or skating rink. The most important difference in play is that the indoor field is surrounded by a wall...

Canadian Major Indoor Soccer League
Canadian Major Indoor Soccer League
The Canadian Major Indoor Soccer League or CMISL is a professional indoor soccer league that began full league play in January 2008. The league's president is Mel Kowalchuk...

Servus Credit Union Place
Servus Credit Union Place
Servus Credit Union Place is a $43-million multipurpose leisure centre that opened on September 30, 2006 in St. Albert, Alberta...

 (St. Albert)
2006 1
Edmonton Oil Kings
Edmonton Oil Kings
This article refers to the original Oil Kings franchises that existed until 1978. For the current team that began play in 2007, see Edmonton Oil Kings...

Ice hockey
Ice hockey
Ice hockey, often referred to as hockey, is a team sport played on ice, in which skaters use wooden or composite sticks to shoot a hard rubber puck into their opponent's net. The game is played between two teams of six players each. Five members of each team skate up and down the ice trying to take...

Western Hockey League
Western Hockey League
The Western Hockey League is a major junior ice hockey league based in Western Canada and the Northwestern United States. The WHL is one of three leagues that constitute the Canadian Hockey League as the highest level of junior hockey in Canada...

Rexall Place
Rexall Place
Rexall Place is an indoor arena in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada situated on the north side of Northlands. It is currently the home to the Edmonton Oilers of the National Hockey League, the Edmonton Rush of the National Lacrosse League and the Edmonton Oil Kings of the WHL...

2007 0

K–12


Edmonton has three publicly funded school boards (districts) that provide kindergarten and grades 1–12. The vast majority of students attend schools in the two large English language boards: Edmonton Public Schools
Edmonton Public Schools
Edmonton Public Schools is the largest public school district in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. The district offers a variety of alternative and special needs programs, and many are offered in multiple locations to improve accessibility for students...

, and the separate Edmonton Catholic School District
Edmonton Catholic School District
The Edmonton Catholic School District is the Catholic school board in Edmonton, Canada.-Size and transportation:In size the School Board is medium with 33,441 students, 1,858 Certificated Staff, and 1,191 Classified Staff. There are a number of schools operating under the board, 84 schools in...

. Also, since 1994, the Francophone
Francophone
The adjective francophone means French-speaking, typically as primary language, whether referring to individuals, groups, or places. Often, the word is used as a noun to describe a natively French-speaking person....

 minority community has had their own school board based in Edmonton, the Greater North Central Francophone Education Region No. 2
Greater North Central Francophone Education Region No. 2
The Greater North Central Francophone Education Region No. 2, known in French as the Conseil scolaire Centre-Nord is Alberta’s largest French language school board. French language education is intended for children who are eligible under section 23 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms...

, which includes surrounding communities. Most recently, the city has seen a small number of public charter schools
Alberta charter schools
Alberta charter schools are a special type of public schools which have a greater degree of autonomy than a normal public school, to allow them to offer programs that are significantly different from regular public schools operated by district school boards. Charter schools report directly to the...

 open, independent of any board. All three school boards and public charter schools are funded through provincial grants and property tax
Property tax
A property tax is an ad valorem levy on the value of property that the owner is required to pay. The tax is levied by the governing authority of the jurisdiction in which the property is located; it may be paid to a national government, a federated state or a municipality...

es.

Some private schools exist as well, including Edmonton Academy and Tempo School. The Edmonton Society for Christian Education and Millwoods Christian School (not part of the former) used to be private schools; however, both have become part of Edmonton Public Schools as alternative programs.

Both the Edmonton Public Schools and the Edmonton Catholic School District provide support and resources for those wishing to homeschool
Homeschooling
Homeschooling or homeschool is the education of children at home, typically by parents but sometimes by tutors, rather than in other formal settings of public or private school...

 their children.

Post secondary



Edmonton has become one of Canada's major educational centres, with more than 60,000 full time postsecondary students spread over several institutions and campuses (total enrollment among the schools is as high as 170,000, which includes students enrolled in multiple institutions).

The University of Alberta
University of Alberta
The University of Alberta is a public research university located in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Founded in 1908 by Alexander Cameron Rutherford, the first premier of Alberta and Henry Marshall Tory, its first president, it is widely recognized as one of the best universities in Canada...

 (known colloquially as the U of A), whose main campus is situated on the south side of Edmonton's river valley, is a board-governed public institution with annual revenue of one billion dollars. About 36,000 students are served in more than 200 undergraduate programs and 170 graduate programs. The main campus consists of more than ninety buildings on 890,000 square metres (220 acres) of land, with buildings dating back to the university's establishment in 1908. It is also home to Canada's second-largest research library, which ranks first in volumes per student, with over 10 million (in 2005) and subscriptions to 13,000 full-text electronic journals and 500 electronic databases. Grant MacEwan University enrolls 40,791 students in programs offering career diplomas, university transfers, and bachelor's degrees;

Other universities within the borders of Edmonton include Athabasca University
Athabasca University
Athabasca University is a Canadian university in Athabasca, Alberta. It is an accredited research institution which also offers distance education courses and programs. Courses are offered primarily in English with some French offerings. Each year, 32,000 students attend the university. It offers...

, Concordia University College of Alberta
Concordia University College of Alberta
Concordia University College of Alberta is an Canadian independent university in Edmonton, Alberta. The enabling legislation is the Post-secondary Learning Act.-History:...

, The King's University College
King's University College (Edmonton)
The King's University College is a private liberal arts college, located in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. The University was founded by members of the Christian Reformed Church who saw a need for a regional, trans-denominational, Christian college in Western Canada...

, Taylor University College and Seminary
Taylor University College and Seminary
Taylor College and Seminary is a private college in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. The College and Seminary is "Aspiring to be a leading evangelical centre of academic excellence and Christian character." The enabling legislation is the Post-secondary Learning Act.-History:The college was established...

, and the Edmonton campus of the University of Lethbridge
University of Lethbridge
The University of Lethbridge is a publicly-funded comprehensive academic and research university, founded in the liberal education tradition, located in Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada, with two other urban campuses in Calgary and Edmonton. The main building sits among the coulees on the west side of...

.

Other Edmonton post-secondary institutions include the Northern Alberta Institute of Technology
Northern Alberta Institute of Technology
The Northern Alberta Institute of Technology is located in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada and provides technical training and applied education designed to meet the demands of Alberta's industries...

 (NAIT), with 48,500 students enrolled in 190 technical, vocational, and apprenticeship programs; and NorQuest College
NorQuest College
NorQuest College is a publicly-funded community college in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. The student body numbers over 10,000, with 3,000 full-time and 7,000 part-time students. More than 2,000 students graduate each year.-History:...

, with 11,300 students, specializing in short courses in skills and academic upgrading. Edmonton is also home to the Antarctic Institute of Canada
Antarctic Institute of Canada
The Antarctic Institute of Canada, founded in 1985 in Alberta, Canada by Austin Mardon, is devoted to the furthering of research and support of Antarctic studies in Canada...

.

Air



Edmonton is a major air transportation gateway to northern Alberta and northern Canada. The Edmonton International Airport
Edmonton International Airport
Edmonton International Airport is the primary air passenger and air cargo facility in the Edmonton region in the Canadian province of Alberta. It is a hub facility for Northern Alberta and Northern Canada providing regularly scheduled nonstop flights to over fifty communities in Canada, the United...

 (EIA) and Edmonton City Centre Airport
Edmonton City Centre (Blatchford Field) Airport
Edmonton City Centre Airport, , is located within the city of Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. It is bordered by Yellowhead Trail to the north, Kingsway to the south, 121 Street to the west, and the Northern Alberta Institute of Technology to the east. It encompasses approximately of land just north...

 (ECCA) are the two airports serving the city.

The EIA, being the larger of the two airports, provides passenger service to destinations in the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

, Europe
Europe
Europe is, by convention, one of the world's seven continents. Comprising the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is generally 'divided' from Asia to its east by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways connecting...

, Mexico
Mexico
The United Mexican States , commonly known as Mexico , is a federal constitutional republic in North America. It is bordered on the north by the United States; on the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; on the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and on the east by the Gulf of...

, and the Caribbean
Caribbean
The Caribbean is a crescent-shaped group of islands more than 2,000 miles long separating the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea, to the west and south, from the Atlantic Ocean, to the east and north...

. The EIA is located within Leduc County
Leduc County, Alberta
Leduc County is a municipal district located immediately south of the City of Edmonton. It is east to west and north to south, and has a population of over 12,000 people. The municipal district is home to scenic prairie parkland and several lakes...

, adjacent to the City of Leduc
Leduc, Alberta
- Demographics :The population of the City of Leduc according to its 2011 municipal census is 24,139, a 3.6% increase over its 2010 municipal census population of 23,293....

 and the Nisku Industrial Business Park.

The ECCA is a general aviation
General aviation
General aviation is one of the two categories of civil aviation. It refers to all flights other than military and scheduled airline and regular cargo flights, both private and commercial. General aviation flights range from gliders and powered parachutes to large, non-scheduled cargo jet flights...

 facility (since air services consolidation in 1995) and the only airport located within the city limits. The ECCA is home to a variety of aviation companies with key markets in northern Alberta. The ECCA is currently in the process of being closed by the city, and redeveloped into a transit orientated development, connected to the NAIT LRT expansion.

With direct air distances from Edmonton to places such as London
London
London is the capital city of :England and the :United Kingdom, the largest metropolitan area in the United Kingdom, and the largest urban zone in the European Union by most measures. Located on the River Thames, London has been a major settlement for two millennia, its history going back to its...

 in Europe being shorter than to other main airports in western North America, Edmonton Airports is working to establish a major container shipping hub called Port Alberta
Port Alberta
Port Alberta is a project by Edmonton International Airport in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, to combine air, rail, and road transportation infrastructure at a single point, with future connections to the Port of Prince Rupert and the Port of Vancouver....

.

Rail


Edmonton serves as a major transportation hub
Transportation hub
A transport hub is a place where passengers and cargo are exchanged between vehicles or between transport modes. Public transport hubs include train stations, rapid transit stations, bus stops, tram stop, airports and ferry slips. Freight hubs include classification yards, seaports and truck...

 for Canadian National Railway
Canadian National Railway
The Canadian National Railway Company is a Canadian Class I railway headquartered in Montreal, Quebec. CN's slogan is "North America's Railroad"....

, whose North American operations management centre is located at their Edmonton offices. It is also tied into the Canadian Pacific Railway
Canadian Pacific Railway
The Canadian Pacific Railway , formerly also known as CP Rail between 1968 and 1996, is a historic Canadian Class I railway founded in 1881 and now operated by Canadian Pacific Railway Limited, which began operations as legal owner in a corporate restructuring in 2001...

 network, which provides service from Calgary to the south and extends northeast of Edmonton to serve Alberta's Industrial Heartland
Alberta's Industrial Heartland
Alberta's Industrial Heartland, also known as Upgrader Alley or the Heartland, is a joint land use planning and development initiative between five municipalities in the Edmonton Capital Region to attract investment in the chemical, petrochemical, oil, and gas industries to the region.Alberta's...

.

Inter-city rail
Inter-city rail
Inter-city rail services are express passenger train services that cover longer distances than commuter or regional trains.There is no precise definition of inter-city rail. Its meaning may vary from country to country...

 passenger rail service is operated by Via Rail
VIA Rail
Via Rail Canada is an independent crown corporation offering intercity passenger rail services in Canada. It is headquartered near Montreal Central Station at 3 Place Ville-Marie in Montreal, Quebec....

 from the Edmonton railway station
Edmonton (Via Rail station)
The Edmonton railway station is on the Canadian National Railway mainline in Edmonton, Alberta. The station is served by Via Rail's The Canadian three times per week in each direction. The train station is located near the Edmonton City Centre Airport, approximately 8–10 km from the city...

 to Jasper National Park
Jasper National Park
Jasper National Park is the largest national park in the Canadian Rockies, spanning 10,878 km² . It is located in the province of Alberta, north of Banff National Park and west of the City of Edmonton. The park includes the glaciers of the Columbia Icefield, hot springs, lakes, waterfalls and...

, Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan is a prairie province in Canada, which has an area of . Saskatchewan is bordered on the west by Alberta, on the north by the Northwest Territories, on the east by Manitoba, and on the south by the U.S. states of Montana and North Dakota....

, and British Columbia.

Public transit



The Edmonton Transit System
Edmonton Transit System
The Edmonton Transit System, also called ETS, is the public transit service owned and operated by the city of Edmonton, Alberta. It operates Edmonton's bus and light rail systems.-Service:...

 is the city's main public transit agency, operating the Edmonton Light Rail Transit
Edmonton Light Rail Transit
Edmonton Light Rail Transit, more commonly referred to as the LRT, is a light rail system in Edmonton, Alberta. Part of the Edmonton Transit System , the 20.5-kilometre route starts in Edmonton's northeast suburbs and ends at Century Park in Edmonton's south end.The ETS designates the LRT as Route...

 (LRT) line as well as a large fleet of buses. Approximately 34% of people in the Edmonton Capital Region
Edmonton Capital Region
The Edmonton Capital Region , also commonly referred to as the Alberta Capital Region, Greater Edmonton or Metro Edmonton, is a conglomeration of municipalities centred around Edmonton – Alberta's provincial capital....

 (mostly from Edmonton proper) use ETS per day (354,440 out of 1,034,945 ). There are approximately 280,000 bus riders on average per day using Edmonton Transit System.

From the 1990s to early 2009, Edmonton was one of two cities in Canada still operating trolleybus
Trolleybus
A trolleybus is an electric bus that draws its electricity from overhead wires using spring-loaded trolley poles. Two wires and poles are required to complete the electrical circuit...

es, along with Vancouver. On June 18, 2008, City Council decided to abandon the system and the last trolleybus ran on May 2, 2009.

Scheduled LRT service began on April 23, 1978, with five extensions of the single line completed since. The original Edmonton line is considered to be the first "modern" light rail
Light rail
Light rail or light rail transit is a form of urban rail public transportation that generally has a lower capacity and lower speed than heavy rail and metro systems, but higher capacity and higher speed than traditional street-running tram systems...

 line in North America (i.e., built from scratch, rather than being an upgrade of an old system). It introduced the use of German-designed rolling stock that subsequently became the standard light rail vehicle of the United States. The Edmonton "proof-of-payment
Proof-of-payment
Proof-of-payment or POP is an honor-based fare collection approach used on many public transportation systems. Instead of checking each passenger as they enter a fare control zone, proof-of-payment requires that each passenger carry a ticket or pass proving that they have paid the fare. Ticket...

" fare collection system adopted in 1980—modelled after European ticket systems—became the North American transit industry's preferred approach for subsequent light rail projects. The four-year South LRT extension was opened in full on April 24, 2010, which sees trains travelling to Century Park
Century Park (ETS)
Century Park Station is an LRT station as part of the Edmonton Transit System's South LRT Expansion Project. It's named after a transit-oriented development called Century Park, located on the former Heritage Mall site next to the station...

 (located at 23 Avenue and 111 Street), making stops at South Campus
South Campus (ETS)
South Campus Station is an LRT station and transit centre located in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada and was constructed as part of the Edmonton Transit System's South LRT Expansion Project. It is located on the University of Alberta's south campus near Foote Field, the Saville Centre, and the Neil...

 and Southgate Centre
Southgate (ETS)
Southgate Station is an LRT station as part of the Edmonton Transit System's South LRT Expansion Project. This project added approximately 7.6 km of track and five stations to the LRT system in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada....

 along the way. Edmonton is also looking into plans to expand LRT to Mill Woods
Mill Woods
Mill Woods is a residential district in the City of Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Located in southeast Edmonton, Mill Woods is bounded by Whitemud Drive to the north, 91 Street to the west, 34 Street to the east, and Anthony Henday Drive to the south...

 and the West side by 2016 using low floor technology, along with a line to NAIT
Northern Alberta Institute of Technology
The Northern Alberta Institute of Technology is located in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada and provides technical training and applied education designed to meet the demands of Alberta's industries...

 in north-central Edmonton using the high floor style present in the current line by 2014.

Roads


A largely gridded system forms most of Edmonton's street and road network. The address system is mostly numbered, with streets running south to north and avenues running east to west. In built-up areas built since the 1950s, local streets and major roadways generally do not conform to the grid system. Major roadways include Yellowhead Trail (Alberta Highway 16) and Whitemud Drive
Whitemud Drive
Whitemud Drive is the main east-west freeway in southern Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. It is one of few roads in Edmonton that has controlled access and limited at-grade intersections with traffic signals. It currently functions as a freeway between Anthony Henday Drive in the west and Anthony Henday...

, and the city is connected to other communities elsewhere in Alberta, British Columbia, and Saskatchewan via the Yellowhead Highway
Yellowhead Highway
The Yellowhead Highway is a major east-west highway connecting the four western Canadian provinces of British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba. Although part of the Trans-Canada Highway system, the highway should not be confused with the more southerly, originally-designated...

 to the west and east and the Queen Elizabeth II Highway (Alberta Highway 2) to the south.

Trail system


There is an extensive multi-use trail system for bicycles and pedestrians throughout the city; however, most of this is within the river valley parkland system.

Waste disposal


The Edmonton Composting Facility
Edmonton Composting Facility
The Edmonton Composting Facility is the site of the City of Edmonton's advanced co-composting system for processing organic waste. Co-composting involves mixing household wastes with biosolids , to create compost. Together with the City's three recycling programs, Edmonton is able to divert 60% of...

, the largest of its type in the world, is also the largest stainless steel
Stainless steel
In metallurgy, stainless steel, also known as inox steel or inox from French "inoxydable", is defined as a steel alloy with a minimum of 10.5 or 11% chromium content by mass....

 building in North America. By 2013, the city anticipates that it will divert more than 90% of the city's household waste from the landfill
Landfill
A landfill site , is a site for the disposal of waste materials by burial and is the oldest form of waste treatment...

s. Among the innovative uses for the city's waste includes a Christmas tree
Christmas tree
The Christmas tree is a decorated evergreen coniferous tree, real or artificial, and a tradition associated with the celebration of Christmas. The tradition of decorating an evergreen tree at Christmas started in Livonia and Germany in the 16th century...

 recycling
Recycling
Recycling is processing used materials into new products to prevent waste of potentially useful materials, reduce the consumption of fresh raw materials, reduce energy usage, reduce air pollution and water pollution by reducing the need for "conventional" waste disposal, and lower greenhouse...

 program. The trees are collected each January and put through a woodchipper
Woodchipper
A tree chipper or wood chipper is a machine used for reducing wood into smaller parts, such as wood chips or sawdust. They are often portable, being mounted on wheels on frames suitable for towing behind a truck or van. Power is generally provided by an internal combustion engine from to...

; this material is used as an addition to the composting process. In addition, the wood chips
Woodchipping
Woodchipping is the act and industry of chipping wood for pulp, processed wood products, and mulch.-Papermaking:Timber is converted to woodchips and sold, primarily, for pulp production used in paper manufacture...

 absorb much of the odour produced by the compost by providing a biofilter
Biofilter
Biofiltration is a pollution control technique using living material to capture and biologically degrade process pollutants. Common uses include processing waste water, capturing harmful chemicals or silt from surface runoff, and microbiotic oxidation of contaminants in air...

 element to trap odour causing gaseous results of the process.
Together, the Waste Management Centre and Wastewater Treatment plant are known as the Edmonton Waste Management Centre of Excellence. Research partners include the University of Alberta, the Alberta Research Council, the Northern Alberta Institute of Technology
Northern Alberta Institute of Technology
The Northern Alberta Institute of Technology is located in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada and provides technical training and applied education designed to meet the demands of Alberta's industries...

, and Olds College
Olds College
Olds College is an Alberta public post-secondary institution located in Olds, Alberta, established in 1913 as Olds Agricultural College. The College opened its first satellite campus in Calgary in 2006 in partnership with the Calgary Stampede Board....

.

Electricity and water distribution systems


Edmonton's first power company established itself in 1891 and installed streetlights along the city's main avenue, Jasper Avenue. The power company was bought by the Town of Edmonton in 1902 and remains under municipal ownership today as EPCOR
EPCOR
EPCOR Utilities Inc., formerly known as Aqualta and Eltec, is a utility company based in Edmonton, Alberta, which manages numerous municipal water and wastewater treatment facilities throughout Alberta and British Columbia...

. Also in charge of water treatment
Water treatment
Water treatment describes those processes used to make water more acceptable for a desired end-use. These can include use as drinking water, industrial processes, medical and many other uses. The goal of all water treatment process is to remove existing contaminants in the water, or reduce the...

, in 2002 EPCOR installed the world's largest ultraviolet (UV) water treatment
Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation
Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation is a sterilization method that uses ultraviolet light at sufficiently short wavelength to kill microorganisms. It is used in a variety of applications, such as food, air and water purification. UV has been a known mutagen at the cellular level for more than...

 or ultraviolet disinfection system at its E.L. Smith Water Treatment Plant.

Health care


There are four main hospital
Hospital
A hospital is a health care institution providing patient treatment by specialized staff and equipment. Hospitals often, but not always, provide for inpatient care or longer-term patient stays....

s serving Edmonton: University of Alberta Hospital
University of Alberta Hospital
The University of Alberta Hospital is a research and teaching hospital in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. The hospital is affiliated with the University of Alberta and run by Alberta Health Services, formerly Capital Health, the health authority for Alberta...

, Royal Alexandra Hospital
Royal Alexandra Hospital, Edmonton
The Royal Alexandra Hospital is one of Alberta Health Services, formerly Capital Health, largest and longest serving hospitals. Located in the heart of Edmonton's city centre, the Royal Alex serves a diverse community stretching from downtown Edmonton to western and northern Canada.They operate...

, Misericordia Community Hospital
Misericordia Community Hospital
The Misericordia Community Hospital is an acute care hospital located in west Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. The Misericordia is home to the Institute for Reconstructive Sciences in Medicine , a facility for reconstruction of the face, head and neck....

, and Grey Nuns Community Hospital
Grey Nuns Community Hospital, Edmonton
The Grey Nuns Community Hospital is an acute care hospital located in the Mill Woods area of south Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. The Grey Nuns Community Hospital provides a full range of services including a 24-hour Emergency Department...

. Other area hospitals include Sturgeon Community Hospital
Sturgeon Community Hospital
Located just north of Edmonton, the Sturgeon Community Hospital is a 167 bed hospital provides a wide variety of health services to the community of St...

 in St. Albert, Leduc Community Hospital
Leduc Community Hospital
The Leduc Community Hospital located 20 kilometres south of Edmonton. There are a total of 70 beds, 34 acute care beds, plus 22 subacute beds and 14 transition beds.-Main Services:The hospital provides may services including.*Surgical Care,...

 in Leduc, Westview Health Centre in Stony Plain
Stony Plain, Alberta
Stony Plain is a large town in rural Alberta, Canada, just west of Edmonton.Stony Plain is a rapidly growing town with strong historical roots. It is located west of Spruce Grove and surrounded by Parkland County. The town is governed by one mayor and six councillors. The region is dominated by...

, and Fort Saskatchewan Health Centre in Fort Saskatchewan. Dedicated psychiatric care is provided at the Alberta Hospital
Alberta Hospital Edmonton
Alberta Hospital Edmonton is a psychiatric hospital operating under the governance of Alberta Health Services. It is located in the northeastern portion of Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, and was founded on 1 July 1923....

. The Northeast Community Health Centre
Northeast Community Health Centre
The Northeast Community Health Centre is a community health centre located in Northeast-Edmonton. It provide medical services through the Caritas Health Group providing hospital like care.-Services and Programs:...

 offers a 24-hour emergency room with no inpatient ward services. The University of Alberta Hospital is the centre of a larger complex of hospitals and clinics located adjacent to the university campus which comprises the Stollery Children's Hospital, Mazankowski Alberta Heart Institute, Cross Cancer Institute, Zeidler Gastrointestinal Health Centre, Ledcor Clinical Training Centre, and Edmonton Clinic, which is currently under construction. Several health research institutes, including the Heritage Medical Research Centre, Medical Sciences Building, Katz Group Centre for Pharmacy and Health Research, and Li Ka Shing Centre for Health Research Innovation, are also located at this site. A similar set-up is also evident at the Royal Alexandra Hospital, which is connected to the Lois Hole Hospital for Women and Orthopaedic Surgery Centre. All hospitals are under the administration of Alberta Health Services
Alberta Health Services
Alberta Health Services is the province-wide organization responsible for providing hospital and other health care in the Canadian province of Alberta. Known as the "superboard", it was created in May 2008, with the abolition of nine previous regional health authorities, the Alberta Mental Health...

, although Misericordia and Grey Nuns are run separately by the Covenant Health.

Military


Edmonton is home to 1 Canadian Mechanized Brigade Group
1 Canadian Mechanized Brigade Group
1 Canadian Mechanized Brigade Group is a Canadian Forces brigade group that is part of Land Forces Western Area of the Canadian army...

 (1 CMBG), the Regular Force army brigade group of Land Force Western Area
Land Force Western Area
Land Force Western Area is one of four operational commands of the Canadian Army. LFWA is responsible for all Canadian Army administration and operations in western Canada from the Pacific Ocean to Thunder Bay, Ontario...

 of the Canadian Forces Land Force Command
Canadian Forces Land Force Command
The Canadian Army , previously called Land Force Command, is responsible for army operations within the Canadian Forces. The current size of the Army is 19,500 regular soldiers and 16,000 reserve soldiers, for a total of around 35,500 soldiers...

. Units in 1 CMBG include Lord Strathcona's Horse (Royal Canadians)
Lord Strathcona's Horse (Royal Canadians)
Lord Strathcona's Horse is a regular armoured regiment of the Canadian Forces. Currently based in Edmonton, Alberta, the regiment is part of Land Force Western Area's 1 Canadian Mechanized Brigade Group...

; 1 Combat Engineer Regiment
1 Combat Engineer Regiment (Canada)
1 Combat Engineer Regiment is a regular force regiment of the Canadian Military Engineers commanded by a lieutenant-colonel. It is currently located in the Patton Building at CFB Edmonton , Alberta, and is assigned to 1 Canadian Mechanized Brigade Group.-Organization:-Armoured engineers:1 CER is...

; two of the three regular force battalions of Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry
Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry
Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry is one of the three regular force infantry regiments of the Canadian Army. The regiment is composed of four battalions including a primary reserve battalion, for a total of 2,000 soldiers...

; and various headquarters, service, and support elements. Although not part of 1 CMBG, 408 Tactical Helicopter Squadron and 1 Field Ambulance
1 Field Ambulance
1 Field Ambulance is a medical unit with the Canadian Forces situated in Edmonton, Alberta. 1 Field Ambulance sent a contingent to Kandahar Province in Afghanistan in the fall of 2009.- Notable members :* Master Corporal Paul Franklin...

 are located with the brigade group; all of these units are located at Lancaster Park, immediately north of the city. From 1943, as CFB Namao
CFB Edmonton
CFB Edmonton is a Canadian Forces base located in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. It is also known as Edmonton Garrison or "Steele Barracks".-History:...

 (now CFB Edmonton/Edmonton Garrison), it was a major air force base, and in 1996, the aviation units were transferred to CFB Cold Lake
CFB Cold Lake
Canadian Forces Base Cold Lake , commonly referred to as CFB Cold Lake, is a Canadian Forces Base located within the City of Cold Lake, Alberta. It is operated as an air force base by the Royal Canadian Air Force and is one of two bases in the country using the CF-18 Hornet fighter/interceptor...

.

The Canadian Airborne Training Centre had been located in the city in the 1980s. The move of 1 CMBG and component units from Calgary occurred in 1996 in what was described as a cost-saving measure. The brigade had existed in Calgary since the 1950s, and Lord Strathcona's Horse had traditionally been a Calgary garrison unit dating back to before the First World War
World War I
World War I , which was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter, was a major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918...

.

Edmonton also has a large army reserve element from 41 Canadian Brigade Group
41 Canadian Brigade Group
41 Canadian Brigade Group is a brigade group that is part of Land Forces Western Area of the Canadian Army. It is a reserve formation and is headquartered in Calgary, Alberta, at the former location of CFB Calgary....

 (41 CBG), including The Loyal Edmonton Regiment (4th Battalion, Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry)
The Loyal Edmonton Regiment (4th Battalion, Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry)
The Loyal Edmonton Regiment , or LER, is a Primary Reserve infantry unit of the Canadian Forces based in Edmonton, Alberta. The LER is part of Land Force Western Area's 41 Canadian Brigade Group...

; 41 Combat Engineer Regiment; HQ Battery, 20th Field Artillery Regiment
20th Field Regiment, Royal Canadian Artillery
The 20th Field Artillery Regiment, RCA, is a Canadian Forces Primary Reserve artillery regiment of the 41 Canadian Brigade Group, composed of two batteries, the 61st Field Battery, RCA, based in Edmonton and 78th Field Battery, RCA, based in Red Deer, Alberta....

; and B Squadron of The South Alberta Light Horse
The South Alberta Light Horse
The South Alberta Light Horse, or SALH, is an armoured reconnaissance unit of the Canadian Forces Army Reserve based in Medicine Hat and Edmonton, Alberta...

, one of Alberta's oldest army reserve units. Despite being far from Canada's coasts, Edmonton is also the home of HMCS Nonsuch, a Naval Reserve division. There are numerous cadet corps of the different elements (Sea, Army and Air Force) within Edmonton as well.

Media



Edmonton has eight local broadcast television stations shown on basic cable TV or over-the-air
Over-the-air programming
Over-the-air programming refers to various methods of distributing new software updates or configuration settings to devices like cellphones and set-top boxes...

. Most of Edmonton's conventional television stations have made the switch to over-the-air digital broadcasting. The cable television
Cable television
Cable television is a system of providing television programs to consumers via radio frequency signals transmitted to televisions through coaxial cables or digital light pulses through fixed optical fibers located on the subscriber's property, much like the over-the-air method used in traditional...

 providers in Edmonton are Telus
TELUS
Telus is a national telecommunications company in Canada that provides a wide range of telecommunications products and services including internet access, voice, entertainment, video, and satellite television. The company is based in Burnaby, British Columbia, part of Greater Vancouver...

 (for IPTV
IPTV
Internet Protocol television is a system through which television services are delivered using the Internet protocol suite over a packet-switched network such as the Internet, instead of being delivered through traditional terrestrial, satellite signal, and cable television formats.IPTV services...

) and Shaw Cable
Shaw Communications
Shaw Communications is Canada's largest telecommunications company that provides telephone, Canada's fastest Internet and television services as well as broadcasting and soon Wifi. Shaw is headquartered in Calgary, Alberta...

. Previously, network programming from the United States was received on cable via affiliates from Spokane, Washington
Spokane, Washington
Spokane is a city located in the Northwestern United States in the state of Washington. It is the largest city of Spokane County of which it is also the county seat, and the metropolitan center of the Inland Northwest region...

, but local viewers now have more choice, given the advances with cable or satellite television that are now being offered as digital or HD (high definition)
High-definition television
High-definition television is video that has resolution substantially higher than that of traditional television systems . HDTV has one or two million pixels per frame, roughly five times that of SD...

 service. Broadcasts from both eastern and western locations in the United States can be viewed.

Twenty-one FM and eight AM radio stations are based in Edmonton.

Edmonton has two large-circulation daily newspapers, the Edmonton Journal
Edmonton Journal
The Edmonton Journal is a daily newspaper in Edmonton, Alberta. It is part of the Postmedia Network.-History:The Journal was founded in 1903 by three local businessmen — John Macpherson, Arthur Moore and J.W. Cunningham — as a rival to Alberta's first newspaper, the 23-year-old...

and the Edmonton Sun
Edmonton Sun
The Edmonton Sun is a daily newspaper published in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. It is a division of Sun Media, a Quebecor company.It began publishing in 1978 and shares many characteristics typical of Sun Media tabloids, including an emphasis on local news stories, its conservative editorial stance,...

. Other city-wide weekday publications include Metro
Metro International
Metro International is a Swedish media company based in Luxembourg that publishes the Metro newspapers. Metro International's advertising sales have grown at a compound annual growth rate of 41% since launch of the first newspaper edition in 1995. It is a freesheet, meaning that distribution is...

and 24 Hours. See Magazine
SEE Magazine
See Magazine was a free alternative weekly published in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. It was published every Thursday, distributing an average of 20,849 copies each week at more than 1,250 locations including street boxes, libraries, and local retail stores....

and Vue Weekly
Vue Weekly
Vue Weekly is an alternative weekly newspaper published in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada and with new issues coming out every Thursday.Vue was founded in 1995 by former employees and owners of SEE Magazine, upset over losing control of SEE to creditors...

are both published on a weekly basis. The Edmonton Examiner is a city-wide community based paper also published weekly. There are also a number of smaller weekly and community newspapers.

Sister cities


Edmonton has four sister cities, as designated by Sister Cities International
Sister Cities International
Sister Cities International is a nonprofit citizen diplomacy network that creates and strengthens partnerships between United States and international communities. More than 2,000 cities, states and counties are partnered in 136 countries around the world...

: Gatineau
Gatineau
Gatineau is a city in western Quebec, Canada. It is the fourth largest city in the province. It is located on the northern banks of the Ottawa River, immediately across from Ottawa, Ontario, and together they form Canada's National Capital Region. Ottawa and Gatineau comprise a single Census...

, Canada
Canada
Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, and northward into the Arctic Ocean...

, since 1967 Harbin
Harbin
Harbin ; Manchu language: , Harbin; Russian: Харби́н Kharbin ), is the capital and largest city of Heilongjiang Province in Northeast China, lying on the southern bank of the Songhua River...

, China
People's Republic of China
China , officially the People's Republic of China , is the most populous country in the world, with over 1.3 billion citizens. Located in East Asia, the country covers approximately 9.6 million square kilometres...

, since 1985 Nashville
Nashville, Tennessee
Nashville is the capital of the U.S. state of Tennessee and the county seat of Davidson County. It is located on the Cumberland River in Davidson County, in the north-central part of the state. The city is a center for the health care, publishing, banking and transportation industries, and is home...

, United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

, since 1990 Wonju
Wonju
Wonju is the most populous city in Gangwon province, South Korea.Wonju is a city approximately east of Seoul and the capital can be reached within 1hr 30minutes by bus or train. Wonju is home to three major universities which attract many students from Seoul and elsewhere. They provide facilities...

, South Korea
South Korea
The Republic of Korea , , is a sovereign state in East Asia, located on the southern portion of the Korean Peninsula. It is neighbored by the People's Republic of China to the west, Japan to the east, North Korea to the north, and the East China Sea and Republic of China to the south...

, 1998

See also



External links