East Hopei Army

East Hopei Army

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The East Hopei Army was raised from the former soldiers of the Peace Preservation Corps that had been created by the Tangku Truce of 31 May 1933. The Demilitarized Zone Peace Preservation Corps
Demilitarized Zone Peace Preservation Corps
The Demilitarized Zone Peace Preservation Corps was a police force created by the Tanggu Truce to patrol and maintain order in the demilitarized zone extending from south of the Great Wall, to a line north east of the Bai River in Hebei province in northern China during the late 1930s.-Background...

 had been the "neutral" force policing the Demilitarized area south of the Great Wall when Yin Ju-keng
Yin Ju-keng
Yin Ju-keng; was a politician in the early Republic of China, later noted for his role as in the collaborationist Provisional Government of the Republic of China and Nanjing Nationalist Government during the Second Sino-Japanese War.-Biography:...

 at the instigation of the Japanese proclaimed an Autonomous Government of Eastern Hopei in November 1935, with its capital at Tungchow.

The Peace Preservation Corps was disbanded and absorbed by the East Hopei Army and was trained by Japanese advisors, officers from the Kwangtung Army, who drilled the men by day and gave them Anti-communist lectures by night. The Japanese officers had final say in all matters pertaining to the army. Trained for a year the Japanese believed they had created a reliable and well trained force. Intended for local policing they were only equipped with rifles and sidearms, and had no machine guns or artillery.

Organization


The East Hopei Army had 4 Corps divided into 3 Brigades each and a Training Corps. Each brigade (called "Divisions") was divided into 3 sub-brigades, each sub-brigade had an attached Japanese Advisor. Strength and organization July, 1937:

- East Hopei Army - Yin Ju-keng
Yin Ju-keng
Yin Ju-keng; was a politician in the early Republic of China, later noted for his role as in the collaborationist Provisional Government of the Republic of China and Nanjing Nationalist Government during the Second Sino-Japanese War.-Biography:...

 [2]

-- 1st Corps "Tungchow" - Chang Ching-yu 4,000 men—2nd Corps "Tsunhua" - Chang Yen-tien 4,000 men—3rd Corps "Tungchow" - Li Yen-sheng 4,000 men—4th Corps "Tsunhua" - Han Tze-hsi 4,000 men—Training Corps "Tungchow" - Yin Ju-keng 2,000 men

Operations


December 1935, 4th Detachment of the East Hopei Army attacked the Nationalist held towns of Taku and the port of Tangku. Forces from the 32nd Army killed two of the East Hopei soldiers and the rest retreated. Threats were made by the Japanese and the 32nd Army was withdrawn. The East Hopei Army then occupied the two towns.

July 1937 they were involved in the Marco Polo Bridge Incident
Marco Polo Bridge Incident
The Marco Polo Bridge Incident was a battle between the Republic of China's National Revolutionary Army and the Imperial Japanese Army, often used as the marker for the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War .The eleven-arch granite bridge, Lugouqiao, is an architecturally significant structure,...

 and Battle of Beiping-Tianjin
Battle of Beiping-Tianjin
The Battle of Beiping-Tianjin , also known as the “Peiking-Tientsin Operation” or by the Japanese as the was a series of battles of the Second Sino-Japanese War fought in the proximity of Beiping and Tianjin...

 until they revolted in the Tungchow Mutiny
Tungchow Mutiny
The , sometimes referred to as the Tōngzhōu Incident, was an assault on Japanese civilians and troops by East Hopei Army in Tōngzhōu, China on 29 July 1937 shortly after the Marco Polo Bridge Incident that marked the official beginning of the Second Sino-Japanese War.In early 1937, Tōngzhōu was...

on the morning of 29 July 1937. After the mutiny was put down by the Japanese the East Hopei Army was dissolved as was the Autonomous Government.

Sources

  • Jowett, Phillip S. , Rays of The Rising Sun, Armed Forces of Japan’s Asian Allies 1931-45, Volume I: China & Manchuria, 2004. Helion & Co. Ltd., 26 Willow Rd., Solihul, West Midlands, England.
  • Hsu Long-hsuen and Chang Ming-kai, History of The Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945) 2nd Ed. ,1971. Translated by Wen Ha-hsiung , Chung Wu Publishing; 33, 140th Lane, Tung-hwa Street, Taipei, Taiwan Republic of China.