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Early Netherlandish painting

Early Netherlandish painting

Overview
Early Netherlandish painting (or Flemish Primitive, Late Gothic or Ars nova) refers to the work of artists active in the Low Countries
Low Countries
The Low Countries are the historical lands around the low-lying delta of the Rhine, Scheldt, and Meuse rivers, including the modern countries of Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg and parts of northern France and western Germany....

 during the 15th- and early 16th-century Northern renaissance
Northern Renaissance
The Northern Renaissance is the term used to describe the Renaissance in northern Europe, or more broadly in Europe outside Italy. Before 1450 Italian Renaissance humanism had little influence outside Italy. From the late 15th century the ideas spread around Europe...

, especially in the flourishing Burgundian
Burgundian Netherlands
In the history of the Low Countries, the Burgundian Netherlands refers to a number of Imperial and French fiefs ruled in personal union by the House of Valois-Burgundy and their Habsburg heirs in the period from 1384 to 1482...

 cities of Bruges
Bruges
Bruges is the capital and largest city of the province of West Flanders in the Flemish Region of Belgium. It is located in the northwest of the country....

 and Ghent
Ghent
Ghent is a city and a municipality located in the Flemish region of Belgium. It is the capital and biggest city of the East Flanders province. The city started as a settlement at the confluence of the Rivers Scheldt and Lys and in the Middle Ages became one of the largest and richest cities of...

. The period begins approximately with the career of Jan van Eyck
Jan van Eyck
Jan van Eyck was a Flemish painter active in Bruges and considered one of the best Northern European painters of the 15th century....

 in the early 1420s and ends with Gerard David
Gerard David
Gerard David was an Early Netherlandish painter and manuscript illuminator known for his brilliant use of color.-Life:...

's death in 1523. The artists of this era made significant advances in natural representation and illusionism
Illusionism (art)
For the performing art of magic, see Magic Illusionism in art history means either the artistic tradition in which artists create a work of art that appears to share the physical space with the viewer., or more broadly the attempt to represent physical appearances precisely - also called mimesis...

, and their work often features complex iconography
Iconography
Iconography is the branch of art history which studies the identification, description, and the interpretation of the content of images. The word iconography literally means "image writing", and comes from the Greek "image" and "to write". A secondary meaning is the painting of icons in the...

.
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Encyclopedia
Early Netherlandish painting (or Flemish Primitive, Late Gothic or Ars nova) refers to the work of artists active in the Low Countries
Low Countries
The Low Countries are the historical lands around the low-lying delta of the Rhine, Scheldt, and Meuse rivers, including the modern countries of Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg and parts of northern France and western Germany....

 during the 15th- and early 16th-century Northern renaissance
Northern Renaissance
The Northern Renaissance is the term used to describe the Renaissance in northern Europe, or more broadly in Europe outside Italy. Before 1450 Italian Renaissance humanism had little influence outside Italy. From the late 15th century the ideas spread around Europe...

, especially in the flourishing Burgundian
Burgundian Netherlands
In the history of the Low Countries, the Burgundian Netherlands refers to a number of Imperial and French fiefs ruled in personal union by the House of Valois-Burgundy and their Habsburg heirs in the period from 1384 to 1482...

 cities of Bruges
Bruges
Bruges is the capital and largest city of the province of West Flanders in the Flemish Region of Belgium. It is located in the northwest of the country....

 and Ghent
Ghent
Ghent is a city and a municipality located in the Flemish region of Belgium. It is the capital and biggest city of the East Flanders province. The city started as a settlement at the confluence of the Rivers Scheldt and Lys and in the Middle Ages became one of the largest and richest cities of...

. The period begins approximately with the career of Jan van Eyck
Jan van Eyck
Jan van Eyck was a Flemish painter active in Bruges and considered one of the best Northern European painters of the 15th century....

 in the early 1420s and ends with Gerard David
Gerard David
Gerard David was an Early Netherlandish painter and manuscript illuminator known for his brilliant use of color.-Life:...

's death in 1523. The artists of this era made significant advances in natural representation and illusionism
Illusionism (art)
For the performing art of magic, see Magic Illusionism in art history means either the artistic tradition in which artists create a work of art that appears to share the physical space with the viewer., or more broadly the attempt to represent physical appearances precisely - also called mimesis...

, and their work often features complex iconography
Iconography
Iconography is the branch of art history which studies the identification, description, and the interpretation of the content of images. The word iconography literally means "image writing", and comes from the Greek "image" and "to write". A secondary meaning is the painting of icons in the...

. Subjects are usually religious scenes or small portraits; narrative painting or mythological subjects are relatively rare. The artists produced mostly panel paintings, although illuminated manuscripts and sculptures were also common, especially at the higher end of the market. The paintings may comprise single panels or more complex altarpieces, usually in the form of hinged triptych
Triptych
A triptych , from tri-= "three" + ptysso= "to fold") is a work of art which is divided into three sections, or three carved panels which are hinged together and can be folded shut or displayed open. It is therefore a type of polyptych, the term for all multi-panel works...

s or polyptych
Polyptych
A polyptych generally refers to a painting which is divided into sections, or panels. The terminology that follows is in relevance to the number of panels integrated into a particular piece of work: "diptych" describes a two-part work of art; "triptych" describes a three-part work; "tetraptych"...

s.

The major Early Netherlandish artists include van Eyck, Robert Campin
Robert Campin
Robert Campin , now usually identified as the artist known as the Master of Flémalle, is usually considered the first great master of Early Netherlandish painting...

, Dirk Bouts
Dirk Bouts
Dieric Bouts was an Early Netherlandish painter. According to Karel van Mander in his Het Schilderboeck of 1604, Bouts was born in Haarlem and was mainly active in Leuven , where he was city painter from 1468...

, Rogier van der Weyden, Petrus Christus
Petrus Christus
Petrus Christus was an Early Netherlandish painter active in Bruges from 1444.-Life:Christus was born in Baarle, near Antwerp and Breda. Long considered a student of and successor to Jan van Eyck, his paintings have sometimes been confused with those of Van Eyck. At the death of Van Eyck in 1441,...

, Simon Marmion
Simon Marmion
Simon Marmion was a French or Burgundian Early Netherlandish painter of panels and illuminated manuscripts...

, Hans Memling
Hans Memling
Hans Memling was a German-born Early Netherlandish painter.-Life and works:Born in Seligenstadt, near Frankfurt in the Middle Rhein region, it is believed that Memling served his apprenticeship at Mainz or Cologne, and later worked in the Netherlands under Rogier van der Weyden...

, Hugo van der Goes
Hugo van der Goes
Hugo van der Goes was a Flemish painter. He was, along with Jan van Eyck, Rogier van der Weyden, Hans Memling and Gerard David, one of the most important of the Early Netherlandish painters.-Biography:...

, Geertgen tot Sint Jans
Geertgen tot Sint Jans
Geertgen tot Sint Jans , also known as Geertgen van Haarlem, Gerrit van Haarlem, Gerrit Gerritsz, Gheertgen, Geerrit, Gheerrit, or any other diminutive form of Gerald, was an Early Netherlandish painter from the northern Low Countries in the Holy Roman Empire...

 and David. The period corresponds to the early and high Italian Renaissance
Italian Renaissance
The Italian Renaissance began the opening phase of the Renaissance, a period of great cultural change and achievement in Europe that spanned the period from the end of the 13th century to about 1600, marking the transition between Medieval and Early Modern Europe...

 but is seen as an independent artistic culture, separate from the Renaissance humanism
Renaissance humanism
Renaissance humanism was an activity of cultural and educational reform engaged by scholars, writers, and civic leaders who are today known as Renaissance humanists. It developed during the fourteenth and the beginning of the fifteenth centuries, and was a response to the challenge of Mediæval...

 that characterises simultaneous developments in central Italy. Because these painters represent the culmination of the northern European Mediaeval
Middle Ages
The Middle Ages is a periodization of European history from the 5th century to the 15th century. The Middle Ages follows the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 and precedes the Early Modern Era. It is the middle period of a three-period division of Western history: Classic, Medieval and Modern...

 artistic heritage and incorporate Renaissance
Renaissance
The Renaissance was a cultural movement that spanned roughly the 14th to the 17th century, beginning in Italy in the Late Middle Ages and later spreading to the rest of Europe. The term is also used more loosely to refer to the historical era, but since the changes of the Renaissance were not...

 ideals, their art is categorized as belonging to both the Early Renaissance
Early Renaissance painting
Renaissance art is the painting, sculpture and decorative arts of that period of European history known as the Renaissance, emerging as a distinct style in Italy in about 1400, in parallel with developments which occurred in philosophy, literature, music and science...

 and the Late Gothic
International Gothic
International Gothic is a phase of Gothic art which developed in Burgundy, Bohemia, France and northern Italy in the late 14th century and early 15th century...

.

The work of the Early Netherlandish painters fell out of favour between the mid 1600s and mid 1900s, and so little is known about even the most significant artists. Their biographies are for the most part scant, reconstructed from scattered mentions in legal records, and in many instances the artist's names are not known or are contested. Many of the surviving panels are fragments or wings from lost larger altarpieces. The most significant early research on the early Netherlandish painters occurred in the 1920's, in Max Jakob Friedländer
Max Jakob Friedländer
Max Jakob Friedländer was a German art expert and art historian . He attained the rank and title of "Geheimrat" under the German Empire....

's pioneering Meisterwerke der niederländischen Malerei des 15. und 16. Jahrhunderts, which was followed by the analysis of Erwin Panofsky
Erwin Panofsky
Erwin Panofsky was a German art historian, whose academic career was pursued mostly in the U.S. after the rise of the Nazi regime. Panofsky's work remains highly influential in the modern academic study of iconography...

 in the 1950s and 60s. This research tended to focus on establishing biographies and interpreting the complex iconography, while more recent research, notably by Lorne Campbell of the National Gallery
National gallery
The National Gallery is an art gallery on Trafalgar Square, London, United Kingdom.National Gallery may also refer to:*Armenia: National Gallery of Armenia, Yerevan*Australia:**National Gallery of Australia, Canberra...

, London, relies on X-ray and infra-red photography to develop a understanding of the techniques and materials used by the painters.

Terminology and scope


Early Netherlandish painting and painters are known by a variety of of terms, "Late Gothic" and the "Flemish Primitives" being other common designations. Art historian Erwin Panofsky
Erwin Panofsky
Erwin Panofsky was a German art historian, whose academic career was pursued mostly in the U.S. after the rise of the Nazi regime. Panofsky's work remains highly influential in the modern academic study of iconography...

 applied the term "Ars nova" ("new art") and "Nouvelle pratique" ("new practices"), thereby linking the movement with innovative composers such as Guillaume Dufay
Guillaume Dufay
Guillaume Dufay was a Franco-Flemish composer of the early Renaissance. As the central figure in the Burgundian School, he was the most famous and influential composer in Europe in the mid-15th century.-Early life:From the evidence of his will, he was probably born in Beersel, in the vicinity of...

 and Gilles Binchois
Gilles Binchois
Gilles de Binche , also known as Gilles de Bins , was a Franco-Flemish composer, one of the earliest members of the Burgundian School, and one of the three most famous composers of the early 15th century...

 favoured by the Burgundian court of the time. "Late Gothic" emphasizes continuity with the Middle Ages, while "Flemish Primitives" is a traditional art historical term borrowed from the French "Primitif flamand". It came into fashion in the 19th century and is still the primary label in French as well as in Dutch, Italian and Spanish. "Primitives" in this case does not refer to a perceived lack of sophistication; rather it identifies the artists as the originators of a new tradition in painting, one noted, for example, for the use of oil paint
Oil paint
Oil paint is a type of slow-drying paint that consists of particles of pigment suspended in a drying oil, commonly linseed oil. The viscosity of the paint may be modified by the addition of a solvent such as turpentine or white spirit, and varnish may be added to increase the glossiness of the...

 instead of tempera
Tempera
Tempera, also known as egg tempera, is a permanent fast-drying painting medium consisting of colored pigment mixed with a water-soluble binder medium . Tempera also refers to the paintings done in this medium. Tempera paintings are very long lasting, and examples from the 1st centuries AD still exist...

. Following the lead of Friedländer
Max Jakob Friedländer
Max Jakob Friedländer was a German art expert and art historian . He attained the rank and title of "Geheimrat" under the German Empire....

, Panofsky, Pächt
Otto Pächt
Otto Pächt was an Austrian art historian.- Life and work :His father David Pächt was from Bukovina, and mother Josefine Freundlich was a member of the IKG Wien....

 and other German language art historians, English-language scholars typically describe the period as "Early Netherlandish painting" (German: Altniederländische Malerei).

The use of the term "Early Netherlandish painting", as well more general descriptors like "Ars nova" and the inclusive "Northern Renaissance art", allows for a broader geographical base for the artists associated with the period than the more exclusive "Flemish". The designation encompasses a broader geographical area than that referred to by 21st-century geopolitical designations of Flanders
Flanders
Flanders is the community of the Flemings but also one of the institutions in Belgium, and a geographical region located in parts of present-day Belgium, France and the Netherlands. "Flanders" can also refer to the northern part of Belgium that contains Brussels, Bruges, Ghent and Antwerp...

 and the Netherlands
Netherlands
The Netherlands is a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, located mainly in North-West Europe and with several islands in the Caribbean. Mainland Netherlands borders the North Sea to the north and west, Belgium to the south, and Germany to the east, and shares maritime borders...

. During the 15th to mid 16th centuries, the modern national borders of France, Germany, Belgium and the Netherlands did not exist. Flanders
County of Flanders
The County of Flanders was one of the territories constituting the Low Countries. The county existed from 862 to 1795. It was one of the original secular fiefs of France and for centuries was one of the most affluent regions in Europe....

 - a term that now refers specifically to distinct parts of Belgium - and other areas of the region were under the control of the Dukes of Burgundy
Burgundian Netherlands
In the history of the Low Countries, the Burgundian Netherlands refers to a number of Imperial and French fiefs ruled in personal union by the House of Valois-Burgundy and their Habsburg heirs in the period from 1384 to 1482...

 and later the Habsburg dynasty
Seventeen Provinces
The Seventeen Provinces were a personal union of states in the Low Countries in the 15th century and 16th century, roughly covering the current Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, a good part of the North of France , and a small part of Western Germany.The Seventeen Provinces were originally held by...

. Painters and merchants both native and foreign congregated in the Flemish cities of Bruges
Bruges
Bruges is the capital and largest city of the province of West Flanders in the Flemish Region of Belgium. It is located in the northwest of the country....

 and Ghent
Ghent
Ghent is a city and a municipality located in the Flemish region of Belgium. It is the capital and biggest city of the East Flanders province. The city started as a settlement at the confluence of the Rivers Scheldt and Lys and in the Middle Ages became one of the largest and richest cities of...

, the main regional centres of international banking, trade and art. Commentators often used the terms Flemish and Netherlandish (that is, "of the Low Countries") interchangeably: to 16th-century Italian painter Giorgio Vasari
Giorgio Vasari
Giorgio Vasari was an Italian painter, writer, historian, and architect, who is famous today for his biographies of Italian artists, considered the ideological foundation of art-historical writing.-Biography:...

, all northern painters were "fiamminghi", or "Flemmings". Later art historians often included the artistic traditions of Cologne
Cologne
Cologne is Germany's fourth-largest city , and is the largest city both in the Germany Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia and within the Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Area, one of the major European metropolitan areas with more than ten million inhabitants.Cologne is located on both sides of the...

 and other Lower Rhine
Lower Rhine
The Lower Rhine flows from Bonn, Germany, to the North Sea at Hoek van Holland, Netherlands.Almost immediately after entering the Netherlands, the Rhine splits into many branches. The main branch is called the Waal which flows from Nijmegen to meet the river Meuse; after which it is called Merwede...

 centres within the same context.

A number of the artists traditionally associated with the movement were had linguistic origins that were neither Dutch nor Flemish. The Francophone
Francophone
The adjective francophone means French-speaking, typically as primary language, whether referring to individuals, groups, or places. Often, the word is used as a noun to describe a natively French-speaking person....

 Rogier van der Weyden was born Rogier de le Pasture. The German Hans Memling
Hans Memling
Hans Memling was a German-born Early Netherlandish painter.-Life and works:Born in Seligenstadt, near Frankfurt in the Middle Rhein region, it is believed that Memling served his apprenticeship at Mainz or Cologne, and later worked in the Netherlands under Rogier van der Weyden...

 and the Estonian Michael Sittow
Michael Sittow
Michael Sittow, also known as Master Michiel, Michel Sittow, Michiel, Miguel and many other variants was a painter from Reval who was trained in the tradition of Early Netherlandish painting...

 both worked in the Netherlands in a fully Netherlandish style.

Relation to the Italian Renaissance


The new style emerged in Flanders almost simultaneously with the beginning of the Italian Renaissance. The masters were very much admired in Italy, and may have had a bigger influence in Italy than the other way around in the 15th century. Hugo van der Goes
Hugo van der Goes
Hugo van der Goes was a Flemish painter. He was, along with Jan van Eyck, Rogier van der Weyden, Hans Memling and Gerard David, one of the most important of the Early Netherlandish painters.-Biography:...

's Portinari Altarpiece played an important role in introducing Florentine painters to trends in the north, and artists like Antonello da Messina
Antonello da Messina
Antonello da Messina, properly Antonello di Giovanni di Antonio was an Italian painter from Messina, Sicily, active during the Italian Renaissance...

 probably came under the influence of Netherlandish painters working in Sicily, Naples and later Venice. Early Netherlandish painters were not immune to the innovations in art that were occurring south of the Alps, however. Jan van Eyck, for example, might have travelled to Italy around 1426 to 1428, a trip that would have affected his work on the Ghent Altarpiece
Ghent Altarpiece
The Ghent Altarpiece or Adoration of the Mystic Lamb is a very large and complex Early Netherlandish polyptych panel painting which is considered to be one of Belgium's masterpieces and one of the world's treasures.It was once in the Joost Vijdt chapel at Saint Bavo Cathedral, Ghent, Belgium, but...

, and the international importance of cities like Bruges meant a great influx of foreign influence.

Religious paintings - church decoration or altarpieces for churches and private use, for example - remained popular subjects in both Early Netherlandish and Italian Renaissance painting. The role of Renaissance humanism, however, was not as strong in the north as it was in Italy. Instead, local trends, such as Devotio Moderna
Devotio Moderna
Devotio Moderna, or Modern Devotion, was a 14th century new religious movement, with Gerard Groote as a key founder. Other well known members included Thomas à Kempis who was the likely author of the book The Imitation of Christ which proved to be highly influential for centuries.Groote's initial...

 are more apparent and had an impact on the subject and format of many artworks. For example, emphasis on the suffering of Christ and other emphatic subject matter was more popular.

Like Florence, where banking and trade led to numerous private commissions, wealthy merchants commissioned religious paintings for private devotion (often including themselves in the form of donor portrait
Donor portrait
A donor portrait or votive portrait is a portrait in a larger painting or other work showing the person who commissioned and paid for the image, or a member of his, or her, family...

s) as well as secular portraits. Additionally, the presence of the Burgundian court, like the situation in Urbino
Urbino
Urbino is a walled city in the Marche region of Italy, south-west of Pesaro, a World Heritage Site notable for a remarkable historical legacy of independent Renaissance culture, especially under the patronage of Federico da Montefeltro, duke of Urbino from 1444 to 1482...

 and other Italian cities, allowed court artist
Court painter
A court painter was an artist who painted for the members of a royal or noble family, sometimes on a fixed salary and on an exclusive basis where the artist was not supposed to undertake other work. Especially in the late Middle Ages, they were often given the office of valet de chambre...

s to flourish. Painters were increasingly self-aware of their position in society: they signed their works more often, painted self portraits, and become well-known figures because of their artistic activities alone.

One of the most obvious differences is the influence of classical antiquity. It is far less pronounced in the north, only fully entering Netherlandish painting in the 16th century. Moreover, while in Italy saw radical changes in architecture, sculpture and philosophy, the revolution in Netherlandish art was largely restricted to painting. Gothic architecture, for example, remains the dominant style through the 16th century, and even informs the local style of Italian Renaissance architecture when the Italian influences do eventually appear.

As Bruges diminished as an artistic center around 1500, and Antwerp's position increased, one manifestation of the shift is seen in the artists identified as Antwerp Mannerists
Antwerp Mannerism
Antwerp Mannerism is the name given to the style of a largely anonymous group of painters from Antwerp in the beginning of the 16th century. The style bore no direct relation to Renaissance or Italian Mannerism, but the name suggests a peculiarity that was a reaction to the "classic" style of the...

. Although largely anonymous, and only active from about 1500 to 1530, they mark the end of Early Netherlandish painting and instigate the shift to the next stage. The Antwerp Mannerists are so-called because, although incorporating Italian influence, they were thought to represent a "latent Gothic" still informed by Netherlandish traditions of the preceding century.

Timeline


A number of different schools of painting developed across northern Europe in the early 15th century. By 1400, the International Gothic
International Gothic
International Gothic is a phase of Gothic art which developed in Burgundy, Bohemia, France and northern Italy in the late 14th century and early 15th century...

 era was waning and giving way to the influence of the Italian Renaissance
Renaissance
The Renaissance was a cultural movement that spanned roughly the 14th to the 17th century, beginning in Italy in the Late Middle Ages and later spreading to the rest of Europe. The term is also used more loosely to refer to the historical era, but since the changes of the Renaissance were not...

. New and distinctive painterly traditions and innovations were springing up across the region, with Ulm
Ulm
Ulm is a city in the federal German state of Baden-Württemberg, situated on the River Danube. The city, whose population is estimated at 120,000 , forms an urban district of its own and is the administrative seat of the Alb-Donau district. Ulm, founded around 850, is rich in history and...

, Nuremberg
Nuremberg
Nuremberg[p] is a city in the German state of Bavaria, in the administrative region of Middle Franconia. Situated on the Pegnitz river and the Rhine–Main–Danube Canal, it is located about north of Munich and is Franconia's largest city. The population is 505,664...

, Vienna
Vienna
Vienna is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austria's primary city, with a population of about 1.723 million , and is by far the largest city in Austria, as well as its cultural, economic, and political centre...

 and Munich
Munich
Munich The city's motto is "" . Before 2006, it was "Weltstadt mit Herz" . Its native name, , is derived from the Old High German Munichen, meaning "by the monks' place". The city's name derives from the monks of the Benedictine order who founded the city; hence the monk depicted on the city's coat...

 being the most important artistic centers at the turn of the century. A number of vital technical innovations and new media emerged, including printmaking
Printmaking
Printmaking is the process of making artworks by printing, normally on paper. Printmaking normally covers only the process of creating prints with an element of originality, rather than just being a photographic reproduction of a painting. Except in the case of monotyping, the process is capable...

 (using woodcuts or copper engravings), coupled with innovations borrowed from France and southern Italy profoundly changed the art of the region. A consolidating change in approach came with van Eyck's manipulation
of paint using the oil medium, a technique quickly addopted and developed by Campin and van der Weyden. These three artists are considered the first rank and most influential of the first generation of Early Netherlandish painters, although there were other, less immediate, responses in regions of northern Europe, from Swabia
Swabia
Swabia is a cultural, historic and linguistic region in southwestern Germany.-Geography:Like many cultural regions of Europe, Swabia's borders are not clearly defined...

 to Austria.

Technique and material


The work of van Eyck
Jan van Eyck
Jan van Eyck was a Flemish painter active in Bruges and considered one of the best Northern European painters of the 15th century....

, Campin
Robert Campin
Robert Campin , now usually identified as the artist known as the Master of Flémalle, is usually considered the first great master of Early Netherlandish painting...

 and van der Weyden from the mid 1430s marked a revolution in naturalism and realism
Realism (arts)
Realism in the visual arts and literature refers to the general attempt to depict subjects "in accordance with secular, empirical rules", as they are considered to exist in third person objective reality, without embellishment or interpretation...

 in Northern European painting. Artists sought to more closely reflect the natural world. Figures were depicted with a visual realism that made them more human looking and allowed a greater complexly of emotions than had been seen before. The artists became interested in accurately reproducing physical objects (according to Panofsky they painted "gold that looked like gold") and both optical or natural phenomena such a beams of light or the plays of reflection
Reflection (physics)
Reflection is the change in direction of a wavefront at an interface between two differentmedia so that the wavefront returns into the medium from which it originated. Common examples include the reflection of light, sound and water waves...

. They abandoned the flat spaces
Perspective (visual)
Perspective, in context of vision and visual perception, is the way in which objects appear to the eye based on their spatial attributes; or their dimensions and the position of the eye relative to the objects...

 and outlined figuration of earlier painting in favour of more complex three-dimensional pictorial spaces, while the position of the viewers and how they might relate to the scene became important for the first time. Van Eyck positions viewers of the Arnolfini Portrait
Arnolfini portrait
The Arnolfini Portrait is an oil painting on oak panel dated 1434 by the Early Netherlandish painter Jan van Eyck. It is also known as The Arnolfini Wedding, The Arnolfini Marriage, The Arnolfini Double Portrait or the Portrait of Giovanni Arnolfini and his Wife, among other titles...

as if they have just entered the room containing the two figures.

Innovations in the use of materials and painterly techniques allowed far richer, more luminous and closer detailed representations of people, landscapes, interiors and objects than had been seen before. The chief innovation came from the handling of oil paint
Oil paint
Oil paint is a type of slow-drying paint that consists of particles of pigment suspended in a drying oil, commonly linseed oil. The viscosity of the paint may be modified by the addition of a solvent such as turpentine or white spirit, and varnish may be added to increase the glossiness of the...

. Oil is known to have been used as a medium in painting in Northern Europe from the 12th century, however until the 1430s egg tempera
Tempera
Tempera, also known as egg tempera, is a permanent fast-drying painting medium consisting of colored pigment mixed with a water-soluble binder medium . Tempera also refers to the paintings done in this medium. Tempera paintings are very long lasting, and examples from the 1st centuries AD still exist...

 dominated. Egg when used as a binder
Binder (material)
-See also:*Adhesive or Glue*Cement*Paint...

 tends to dry quickly and produce bright and light colours, therefore it is a difficult medium in which to achieve naturalistic texture or deep shadow.
In contrast, oil creates smooth translucent surfaces, and can be applied in a range of thicknesses, from fine lines to thick broad strokes. It dries slowly and thus can be manipulated while still wet, giving the artist more time to add subtle detail and allow hatching
Hatching
Hatching is an artistic technique used to create tonal or shading effects by drawing closely spaced parallel lines...

, wet-on-wet
Wet-on-wet
Wet-on-wet is a painting technique in which layers of wet paint are applied to previous layers of wet paint. This technique requires a fast way of working, because the art work has to be finished before the first layers have dried....

 painting and the ability to achieve smooth transition of colours and tones by removing layers of paint to expose those below. In addition oil allows differentiation between degrees of reflective light, from shadow to bright beams as well as minute depictions of light effects through use of transparent glazes. This new freedom in controlling light gave rise to more minute and realistic depiction of surface textures, seen notably in van Eyck portrayals of light falling on jewellery, wooden floors, rich textiles and household objects.

Glue
Glue-size
Glue-size refers to a technique in painting where pigment is bound to cloth with glue extracted from animal skin. Typically the unvarnished linen was in turn fixed to its frame using the same glue...

 was often used as an inexpensive alternative to oil. Although a large number of works using this medium were produced, few survive today, mainly due to both the high perishability of linen cloth to which the pigment was applied and the solubility of the hide glue from which the binder was derived. Well-known and relatively well-preserved—though substantially damaged—examples include Quentin Matsys
Quentin Matsys
Quentin Matsys was a painter in the Flemish tradition and a founder of the Antwerp school. He was born at Leuven, where legend states he was trained as an ironsmith before becoming a painter...

' c. 1415-25 The Virgin and Child with Saints Barbara and Catherine and Dirk Bouts
Dirk Bouts
Dieric Bouts was an Early Netherlandish painter. According to Karel van Mander in his Het Schilderboeck of 1604, Bouts was born in Haarlem and was mainly active in Leuven , where he was city painter from 1468...

' c 1440-55 Entombment
The Entombment (Bouts)
The Entombment is a glue-size painting on linen attributed to the Early Netherlandish painter Dirk Bouts. It shows a scene from the biblical entombment of Christ, probably completed between 1440 and 1455 as a wing panel for a large hinged polyptych altarpiece...

.

The paint was generally handled with brushes, but sometimes applied with the thin sticks or the handles of the brushes. The contours of shadows were sometimes softened by spreading the paint with the artist's thumb (eg van Eyck used his thumb in his Arnolfini portrait to shape the dogs shadow), while the artists fingers and or the palm of his hand could be used to blott or reduce the glaze
Glaze (painting technique)
Glazes can change the chroma, value, hue and texture of a surface. Drying time will depend on the amount and type of paint medium used in the glaze. The medium, base, or vehicle is the mixture to which the dry pigment is added...

.

Patronage and status


The majority of the major Netherlandish painters of the first generation were literate and well educated and came from middle-class backgrounds, for example van Eyck used elements of the Greek alphabet
Greek alphabet
The Greek alphabet is the script that has been used to write the Greek language since at least 730 BC . The alphabet in its classical and modern form consists of 24 letters ordered in sequence from alpha to omega...

 in his signature, while a number of Ghent
Ghent
Ghent is a city and a municipality located in the Flemish region of Belgium. It is the capital and biggest city of the East Flanders province. The city started as a settlement at the confluence of the Rivers Scheldt and Lys and in the Middle Ages became one of the largest and richest cities of...

 painters thought members of their workshops to read and write. Within their lifetimes many achieved great financial success, being much sought after both in the Low Countries and from foreign patrons from as far as Spain and Italy. Van der Weyden was able to send his son to the University of Louvain, while many, including Gerard David
Gerard David
Gerard David was an Early Netherlandish painter and manuscript illuminator known for his brilliant use of color.-Life:...

, Dirk Bouts
Dirk Bouts
Dieric Bouts was an Early Netherlandish painter. According to Karel van Mander in his Het Schilderboeck of 1604, Bouts was born in Haarlem and was mainly active in Leuven , where he was city painter from 1468...

 and van der Weyden were able to afford to donate large works to churches, monasteries and convents of their choosing. Vrancke van der Stockt was able to invest in land. Jan van Eyck was a valet de chambre
Valet de chambre
Valet de chambre , or varlet de chambre, was a court appointment introduced in the late Middle Ages, common from the 14th century onwards. Royal Households had many persons appointed at any time...

 at the Burgundian court, and appears to have had easy access to Philip the Good. Although most of the masters lived in towns, rather than in cities or at court, they still had access to the huge demand from both domestic and central European patrons. The merchant and banker classes were in their ascendancy, and patronage was sought from such far flung regions as the north German cities and Baltic
Baltic
-Northern Europe:* The Baltic Sea* Baltic states : Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia* The Baltic region, an ambiguous term referring to the general area surrounding the Baltic Sea...

 coast, the Iberian
Iberian
Iberian refers to Iberia, which has two basic meanings, the disused, of Caucasian Iberia , and the modern sense of someone or something originating in the Iberian Peninsula, namely from Portugal and Spain...

 cities, to Venice, Milan and Florence in Italy, and the powerful families in England and Scotland.

The taste of the Burgundy dukes tended towards opulence and luxury goods. They favoured cups lined with pearls and rubies and gold-edged tapestries. This taste for finery trickled down through their court and nobles, to the people who for the large part commissioned the local artists of the era. While the Early Netherlandish paintings did not contain gold or jewelery and so did not contain the same intrinsic value, their perceived value was seen by those that mattered as approaching the same worth. A 1425 document written by Philip the Good explains why he hired the painter for his "excellent work that he does in his craft" (pour cause de l'excellent ouvrage de son mėtier qu'il fait).

The prestige held by the Burgundian princes impressed foreign royalty as far as Italy and Spain, and a market development of the paintings for export; by the 1460's they were being commissioned specifically for export to to Naples or Florence. Campbell notes that the works that works that were exported tend to have had a higher survival rate; mainly due to the local mid 16th iconoclasm
Iconoclasm
Iconoclasm is the deliberate destruction of religious icons and other symbols or monuments, usually with religious or political motives. It is a frequent component of major political or religious changes...

 and the devastation of the second world war. Such wealthy foreign patronage and the development of international trade afforded the established masters to build up workshops of assistants; who were normally either younger apprentices earning entry into the painters guild
Guild
A guild is an association of craftsmen in a particular trade. The earliest types of guild were formed as confraternities of workers. They were organized in a manner something between a trade union, a cartel, and a secret society...

 or journeymen artists who were fully trained but had not earned the dues required to establish their own workshop.

Often the master would paint the focal and important portions of the work, such as the face or fingers (especially in single panel portraits) of the figures, the fingers, richly embroidered clothing. The more prosaic sections would be left to the assistants, and in many works it is possible to discern from abrupt shifts in style the areas of the surface separating those worked on by the master from those by his workshop. If the master was secure enough financially, as van Eyck was, he could dedicate his workshop to the production of copies of his commercially successful works, or on new compositions in his style. In this case, usually the master would produce the underdrawing
Underdrawing
Underdrawing is the drawing done on a painting ground before paint is applied, for example, an imprimatura or an underpainting. Underdrawing was used extensively by 15th century painters like Jan van Eyck and Rogier van der Weyden. These artists "underdrew" with a brush, using hatching strokes for...

, or at least the design. It is because of this practice that so many surviving works are today attributed to The workshop of...".

The mid 1400s saw a huge increase on demand for art works, which were sold either from the workshop or or at market stalls specialising in luxury goods. The period saw the rise of art dealers; some masters acted as dealers, attending fairs where they could also buy frames, panels and pigments.

Portraits


Before 1430, dedicated portrait panels showing known historical figures in secular European art were rare. A large number of independent panels showing saints and biblical figures were being produced, but the practice of depicting historically real and known individuals did not begin until the era of the Netherlandish painters, with van Eyck being the pioneer. His 1432 Portrait of a Man is the earliest surviving example, and is emblematic of the new style. It is noted as marking a new approach to representation in a number of ways; primarily in its realism and acute observation of the small details of the (unknown) man's appearance, including his narrow shoulders, pursed lips and thin eyebrows, down to the moisture of his blue eyes.
In 1508-09 Albrecht Dürer
Albrecht Dürer
Albrecht Dürer was a German painter, printmaker, engraver, mathematician, and theorist from Nuremberg. His prints established his reputation across Europe when he was still in his twenties, and he has been conventionally regarded as the greatest artist of the Northern Renaissance ever since...

 described the basic function of portraiture as "preserving a person's appearance after his death" (Awch behelt daz gemell dy gestalt der menschen nach jrem sterben). During the fifteenth century portraits were status objects, and served to ensure that the individuals personal success was recorded and would endure after their death.

Before 1500, most portraits tended to exclusively show royalty, the upper nobility or princes of the church. However the new affluence in the Burgundian Netherlands saw a wider variety of clientele as members of the upper middle class were now able to afford to commission a portrait, or more usually commission a religious work in which their likeness would be inserted. These latter portraits, known as Donor portrait
Donor portrait
A donor portrait or votive portrait is a portrait in a larger painting or other work showing the person who commissioned and paid for the image, or a member of his, or her, family...

s, generally show the individual kneeling to one side in the foreground. Although the Netherlandish artists saw portraiture as a very different and seperate activity to painting religious subjects, more depictions of the Virgin and Child may have been intended are belonging to the portrait tradition. The painters guild
Guild
A guild is an association of craftsmen in a particular trade. The earliest types of guild were formed as confraternities of workers. They were organized in a manner something between a trade union, a cartel, and a secret society...

 across Europe was under the protection of Saint Luke, the patron saint
Patron saint
A patron saint is a saint who is regarded as the intercessor and advocate in heaven of a nation, place, craft, activity, class, clan, family, or person...

 of artists. Luke is said to have painted at least on portrait of the Virgin, and depictions of Saint Luke painting the Virgin
Saint Luke painting the Virgin
Saint Luke painting the Virgin, , is a devotional subject in art showing Saint Luke painting the Virgin Mary with the Baby Jesus. Such paintings were often painted for chapels of Saint Luke in European churches during the Renaissance, and often include the pose of the Salus Populi Romani, based on...

 became common during the period.
The Netherlandish artists replaced the traditional profile view, popular since Roman coinage
Roman currency
The Roman currency during most of the Roman Republic and the western half of the Roman Empire consisted of coins including the aureus , the denarius , the sestertius , the dupondius , and the as...

 and medals, with the three-quarters view . In this pose, more than one side of the face is visible, as the sitters body is, almost but not quite, directly facing the viewer, while the far ear is generally not visible. The three-quarters pose allows a better view of the shape and features of the head and allows the sitter to look out directly at the viewer. van Eyck's 1433 Portrait of a Man
Portrait of a Man (Self Portrait?)
The Portrait of a Man , also often known as Portrait of a Man in a Turban, or in a red turban, etc, is an oil painting by the Early Netherlandish master Jan van Eyck, from 1433...

is an early example of the method, and is all the more notable as the panel is probably a self-portrait, that it its likely van Eyck himself who stares out at us. Yet the gaze of the sitter rarely engages the viewer. Although there is direct eye contact between subject and viewer, normally the look is detached, aloof and uncommunicative, perhaps to reflect the subject's high social position. There are exceptions, typically in bridal portraits or in the case of potential betrothals where the object of the works is to make the sitter as attractive as possible to the intended assessors. In these cases the sitter was often shown smiling with an engaging, fresh and radiant facial expression.

Although van Eyck was the innovator in the new approach to portraiture, Rogier van der Weyden developed the technique and was arguably more influential on the following generations of painters. Rather than follow van Eyck's meticulous attention to detail, van der Weyden's focus was on providing a more abstract and sensual representation. He was highly sought after as a portraitist, a there is a noticeable similarity in his portraits, likely because, as a labour-saving device, he used and reused the same underdrawings, that met a common ideal of rank and piety, for his works. He would then add finishing touches to highlight the facial expressions of the particular sitter.

Diptychs


Diptych
Diptych
A diptych di "two" + ptychē "fold") is any object with two flat plates attached at a hinge. Devices of this form were quite popular in the ancient world, wax tablets being coated with wax on inner faces, for recording notes and for measuring time and direction.In Late Antiquity, ivory diptychs with...

s originated in the Netherlands in the mid 15th century and were especially popular from the 1430s to the 1560s as a new pictorial device for engaging prospective buyers. Usually small in scale, they comprise two panels of the same size each painted on either side and joined together with flexible hinges. so that they could be opened and closed like a book. Typically the primary image is painted on the interior panels: when the wings are closed, the paintings on the exterior can be seen. They are distinct to pendants in that they are joined by hinges and not just two paintings hung side-by-side. The exterior panels were typically auxiliary, and usually formed from such motifs as the coats of arms of the donors. Diptychs were usually devotional in nature but were sometimes contained commissioned portraits. The format was used most notably by as Jan van Eyck, Rogier van der Weyden, Hugo van der Goes
Hugo van der Goes
Hugo van der Goes was a Flemish painter. He was, along with Jan van Eyck, Rogier van der Weyden, Hans Memling and Gerard David, one of the most important of the Early Netherlandish painters.-Biography:...

, Hans Memling
Hans Memling
Hans Memling was a German-born Early Netherlandish painter.-Life and works:Born in Seligenstadt, near Frankfurt in the Middle Rhein region, it is believed that Memling served his apprenticeship at Mainz or Cologne, and later worked in the Netherlands under Rogier van der Weyden...

 and Jan van Scorel
Jan van Scorel
Jan van Scorel was an influential Dutch painter credited with the introduction of High Italian Renaissance art to the Netherlands.-Biography:He was born in Schoorl, north of Alkmaar and close to Egmond Abbey...

.

Triptychs and altarpieces


Altarpieces produced in the Low Countries became popular across Europe from the late 14th c, and there was a high level of demand until the early 1500s. The Burgundian empire was at the height of it's influence, and the innovations made by the Netherlandish painters were soon recognised accross the continent. The earliest know altarpieces of the era are compound works incorporating both engraving
Engraving
Engraving is the practice of incising a design on to a hard, usually flat surface, by cutting grooves into it. The result may be a decorated object in itself, as when silver, gold, steel, or glass are engraved, or may provide an intaglio printing plate, of copper or another metal, for printing...

 and painting; usually a carved central corpus
Corpus
Corpus is Latin for body. It may refer to:* Corpus Christi * Corpus, the figure of Christ on a crucifix.* Corpus linguistics...

 which could be folded over by two painted wings. Such types were being commissioned by German patrons by the 1380's, however large scale export did not begin until around 1400. Due to the iconoclasm
Iconoclasm
Iconoclasm is the deliberate destruction of religious icons and other symbols or monuments, usually with religious or political motives. It is a frequent component of major political or religious changes...

 of the 1560's in which many of thoes kept in the Low Countries were destroyed, examples dating from pre 1400 mostly come from German churches and monasteries.

Rediscovery, acquisition and research


The Flemish "primitives" fell out of fashion and were forgotten during the 17th and 18th centuries. When Johanna Schopenhauer
Johanna Schopenhauer
Johanna Schopenhauer, née Trosiener , was a German author. She is today known primarily for being the mother of Arthur Schopenhauer.- Biography :...

, mother of the great philosopher, became interested in the work of Jan Van Eyck
Jan van Eyck
Jan van Eyck was a Flemish painter active in Bruges and considered one of the best Northern European painters of the 15th century....

 and his followers (also published in 1822), having seen early Netherlandish and Flemish paintings in the collection of the brothers Sulpiz and Melchior Boisserée in Heidelberg, she had to undertake fundamental archival searches. Specialist German collectors were in the vanguard, and Edward Solly
Edward Solly
Edward Walter Solly was an English cricketer who played eight first-class games for Worcestershire as a professional between 1903 and 1907....

's unusually far-sighted 1818 purchase of six panels from van Eyck's Ghent Altarpiece
Ghent Altarpiece
The Ghent Altarpiece or Adoration of the Mystic Lamb is a very large and complex Early Netherlandish polyptych panel painting which is considered to be one of Belgium's masterpieces and one of the world's treasures.It was once in the Joost Vijdt chapel at Saint Bavo Cathedral, Ghent, Belgium, but...

 hung in Berlin. When in 1848 the paintings of Prince Ludwig of Oettingen-Wallerstein at Schloss Wallerstein were forced onto the market, his cousin Prince Albert arranged a viewing at Kensington Palace
Kensington Palace
Kensington Palace is a royal residence set in Kensington Gardens in the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea in London, England. It has been a residence of the British Royal Family since the 17th century and is the official London residence of the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge, the Duke and...

; though a catalogue of works attributed to the School of Cologne, Jan Van Eyck and Rogier Van der Weyden was compiled by Waagen, there were no takers; the Prince Consort purchased them himself.

In 1860, when Charles Eastlake
Charles Eastlake
Charles Locke Eastlake was a British architect and furniture designer. Trained by the architect Philip Hardwick , he popularised William Morris's notions of decorative arts in the Arts and Crafts style, becoming one of the principal exponents of the revived Early English or Modern Gothic style...

 purchased for the National Gallery
National gallery
The National Gallery is an art gallery on Trafalgar Square, London, United Kingdom.National Gallery may also refer to:*Armenia: National Gallery of Armenia, Yerevan*Australia:**National Gallery of Australia, Canberra...

 Rogier van der Weyden's panel The Magdalen Reading
The Magdalen Reading
The Magdalen Reading is one of three surviving fragments of a large mid-15th century oil-on-oak altarpiece by the early Netherlandish painter Rogier van der Weyden. Completed some time between 1435 and 1438, it has been in the National Gallery, London since 1860...

from Edmond Beaucousin's "small but choice" collection of early Netherlandish paintings that also included two Robert Campin
Robert Campin
Robert Campin , now usually identified as the artist known as the Master of Flémalle, is usually considered the first great master of Early Netherlandish painting...

 portraits and panels by Simon Marmion
Simon Marmion
Simon Marmion was a French or Burgundian Early Netherlandish painter of panels and illuminated manuscripts...

, it was a ground-breaking acquisition. The opening phase of the rediscovery of early Netherlandish painting climaxed in Max Jakob Friedländer
Max Jakob Friedländer
Max Jakob Friedländer was a German art expert and art historian . He attained the rank and title of "Geheimrat" under the German Empire....

's two works, Meisterwerke der niederländischen Malerei des 15. und 16. Jahrhundert, 1903 ("Masterpieces of Netherlandish painting of the 15th and 16th centuries"), 1903, and Von Jan van Eyck bis Bruegel, ("From Jan van Eyck to Bruegel"), 1916.

Sources


  • Bauman, Guy. "Early Flemish Portraits 1425–1525". The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, Vol. 43, no. 4, Spring, 1986.
  • Borchert, Till-Holger. Van Eych to Durer: The Influence of Early Netherlandish painting on European Art, 1430-1530. London: Thames & Hudson, 2011. ISBN 978-0-500-23883-7
  • Campbell, Lorne. The Fifteenth-Century Netherlandish Paintings. London, National Gallery. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1998. ISBN 0-300-07701-7
  • Friedländer, Max J
    Max Jakob Friedländer
    Max Jakob Friedländer was a German art expert and art historian . He attained the rank and title of "Geheimrat" under the German Empire....

    . Early Netherlandish Painting. Translated by Heinz Norden. Leiden: Praeger, 1967-76. AISN B0006BQGOW
  • Hand, John Oliver; Metzger, Catherine; Spron, Ron. Prayers and Portraits: Unfolding the Netherlandish Diptych. Yale University Press, 2006. ISBN 0-3001-2155-5
  • "The International Style: The Arts in Europe around 1400". Baltimore, Md: Walters Art Gallery, 1962.
  • Jones, Susan Frances. Van Eyck to Gossaert. National Gallery, 2011. ISBN 978-1-85709-504-3
  • Kemperdick, Stephan. The Early Portrait, from the Collection of the Prince of Liechtenstein and the Kunstmuseum Basel. Munich: Prestel, 2006. ISBN 3-7913-3598-7
  • Panofsky, Erwin
    Erwin Panofsky
    Erwin Panofsky was a German art historian, whose academic career was pursued mostly in the U.S. after the rise of the Nazi regime. Panofsky's work remains highly influential in the modern academic study of iconography...

    . Renaissance and Renascences in Western Art. New York: Harper & Row, 1969
  • Panofsky, Erwin. Early Netherlandish Painting. London: Harper Collins, 1971. ISBN 0-06-430002-1
  • Ridderbos, Bernhard; Van Buren, Anne; Van Veen, Henk. Early Netherlandish Paintings: Rediscovery, Reception and Research. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2005. ISBN 0-89236-816-0
  • Smith, Jeffrey Chips. The Northern Renaissance (Art and Ideas). Phaidon Press, 2004. ISBN 0-7148-3867-5
  • Spronk, Ron. "More than Meets the Eye: An Introduction to Technical Examination of Early Netherlandish Paintings at the Fogg Art Museum". Harvard University Art Museums Bulletin, Vol. 5, no. 1, Autumn 1996.


Further reading



General - Introductory
  • Frere, Jean-Claude. Early Flemish Painting. Vilo International, 1997 ISBN 2-87939-120-2
  • Harbison, Craig. The Mirror of the Artist: Northern Renaissance Art. Prentice Hall, 2003. ISBN 0-13-183322-7
  • Snyder, James. The Northern Renaissance: Painting, Sculpture, the Graphic Arts from 1350 to 1575. 2nd ed. Prentice Hall, 2004. ISBN 0-13-189564-8
  • de Vos, Dirk. The Flemish Primitives: The Masterpieces. Princeton University Press, 2003 ISBN 0-691-11661-X


General - in depth
  • Ainsworth, Maryan (ed.) Early Netherlandish Painting at the Crossroads: A Critique of Current Methodologies. New York, # Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2002. ISBN 0-300-09368-3
  • Pächt, Otto. Van Eyck and the Founders of Early Netherlandish Painting. New York: Harvey Miller, 2000. ISBN 1-872501-28-1
  • Pächt, Otto. Early Netherlandish Painting from Rogier van der Weyden to Gerard David. New York: Harvey Miller, 1997 ISBN 1-872501-84-2
  • Rothstein, Bret Sight and Spirituality in Early Netherlandish Painting (Studies in Netherlandish Visual Culture). Cambridge University Press, 2005. ISBN 0-521-83278-0


Museum catalogs
  • Ainsworth, Maryan M. and Keith Christiansen, eds. From Van Eyck to Bruegel Early Netherlandish Painting in The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1998. ISBN 0-300-08609-1
  • Hand, John Oliver. Early Netherlandish Painting (The Collections of the National Gallery of Art Systematic Catalogue). Cambridge University Press, 1987. ISBN 0-521-34016-0
  • Hand, John Oliver and Spronk, Ron. Unfolding the Netherlandish Diptych: Essays in Context.Harvard University Art Museums, 2006. ISBN 0-300-12140-7
  • Die schönsten Diptychen der Flämischen Primitiven/Les plus beaux diptyques, Royal Museum of Fine Arts, Antwerp, Belgium 2007. ISBN 978-90-5544-660-5


Relation to contemporary European art
  • Belozerskaya, Marina. Rethinking the Renaissance: Burgundian Arts Across Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002 ISBN 0-521-80850-2
  • Borchert, Till-Holger ed. Age of Van Eyck: The Mediterranean World and Early Netherlandish Painting, 1430-1530. Exh. cat. Groeningemuseum, Stedelijke Musea Brugge. Bruges: Luidon, 2002. ISBN 0-500-23795-6
  • Nuttall, Paula. From Flanders to Florence: The Impact of Netherlandish Painting 1400-1500. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2004. ISBN 0-300-10244-5


Historical information about the 15th-century Burgundian Court
  • Calmette, Joseph. The Golden Age of Burgundy: The Magnificent Dukes and their Courts.Phoenix Press; New ed., 2001. ISBN 1-84212-459-5
  • Huizinga, Johan. (aka "the Waning of the Middle Ages" in an earlier translation - Penguin etc.) The Autumn of the Middle Ages. Translated by Rodney J. Payton and Ulrich Mammitzsch. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996. ISBN 0-226-35994-8
  • Vaughan, Philip R. The Apogee of Burgundy 1419-1467. UK: Boydell & Brewer, 2004. ISBN 0-85115-917-6


External links