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E-2 Hawkeye

E-2 Hawkeye

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The Grumman E-2 Hawkeye is an American
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 all-weather, aircraft carrier
Aircraft carrier
An aircraft carrier is a warship designed with a primary mission of deploying and recovering aircraft, acting as a seagoing airbase. Aircraft carriers thus allow a naval force to project air power worldwide without having to depend on local bases for staging aircraft operations...

-capable tactical airborne early warning (AEW) aircraft. This twin-turboprop
Turboprop
A turboprop engine is a type of turbine engine which drives an aircraft propeller using a reduction gear.The gas turbine is designed specifically for this application, with almost all of its output being used to drive the propeller...

 aircraft was designed and developed during the late 1950s and early 1960s by the Grumman Aircraft Company for the United States Navy
United States Navy
The United States Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. The U.S. Navy is the largest in the world; its battle fleet tonnage is greater than that of the next 13 largest navies combined. The U.S...

 as a replacement for the earlier E-1 Tracer, which was rapidly becoming obsolete. E-2 performance has been upgraded with the E-2B, and E-2C versions, where most of the changes were made to the radar
Radar
Radar is an object-detection system which uses radio waves to determine the range, altitude, direction, or speed of objects. It can be used to detect aircraft, ships, spacecraft, guided missiles, motor vehicles, weather formations, and terrain. The radar dish or antenna transmits pulses of radio...

 and radio communications due to advances in electronic
Electronics
Electronics is the branch of science, engineering and technology that deals with electrical circuits involving active electrical components such as vacuum tubes, transistors, diodes and integrated circuits, and associated passive interconnection technologies...

 integrated circuit
Integrated circuit
An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit is an electronic circuit manufactured by the patterned diffusion of trace elements into the surface of a thin substrate of semiconductor material...

s and other electronics. The fourth version of the Hawkeye is the E-2D, which first flew in 2007.

The E-2 also received the nickname "Super Fudd" because it replaced the E-1 Tracer "Willy Fudd". In recent decades, the E-2 has been commonly referred to as the "Hummer" because of the distinctive sounds of its turboprop engines, quite unlike that of turbojet and turbofan
Turbofan
The turbofan is a type of airbreathing jet engine that is widely used for aircraft propulsion. A turbofan combines two types of engines, the turbo portion which is a conventional gas turbine engine, and the fan, a propeller-like ducted fan...

 jet engines. The E-2 and its sister, the C-2 Greyhound, are currently the only propeller
Propeller (aircraft)
Aircraft propellers or airscrews convert rotary motion from piston engines or turboprops to provide propulsive force. They may be fixed or variable pitch. Early aircraft propellers were carved by hand from solid or laminated wood with later propellers being constructed from metal...

 airplanes that operate from aircraft carriers. In addition to U.S. Navy service, smaller numbers of E-2s have been sold to the armed forces of Egypt
Egypt
Egypt , officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, Arabic: , is a country mainly in North Africa, with the Sinai Peninsula forming a land bridge in Southwest Asia. Egypt is thus a transcontinental country, and a major power in Africa, the Mediterranean Basin, the Middle East and the Muslim world...

, France
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

, Israel
Israel
The State of Israel is a parliamentary republic located in the Middle East, along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea...

, Japan
Japan
Japan is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south...

, Mexico
Mexico
The United Mexican States , commonly known as Mexico , is a federal constitutional republic in North America. It is bordered on the north by the United States; on the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; on the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and on the east by the Gulf of...

, Singapore
Singapore
Singapore , officially the Republic of Singapore, is a Southeast Asian city-state off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, north of the equator. An island country made up of 63 islands, it is separated from Malaysia by the Straits of Johor to its north and from Indonesia's Riau Islands by the...

 and Taiwan
Republic of China
The Republic of China , commonly known as Taiwan , is a unitary sovereign state located in East Asia. Originally based in mainland China, the Republic of China currently governs the island of Taiwan , which forms over 99% of its current territory, as well as Penghu, Kinmen, Matsu and other minor...

.

Background


Continual improvements in airborne radars up through 1956 led to the construction of AEW airplanes by several different countries and several different armed forces. The functions of command and control and sea & air surveillance were also added. The first carrier-based aircraft to perform these missions for the U.S. Navy and its allies was the Douglas AD Skyraider, which was replaced in US Navy service by the Grumman E-1 Tracer, which was a modified version of the S-2 Tracker
S-2 Tracker
The Grumman S-2 Tracker was the first purpose-built, single airframe anti-submarine warfare aircraft to enter service with the US Navy. The Tracker was of conventional design with twin engines, a high wing and tricycle undercarriage. The type was exported to a number of navies around the world...

 twin-engine anti-submarine warfare
Anti-submarine warfare
Anti-submarine warfare is a branch of naval warfare that uses surface warships, aircraft, or other submarines to find, track and deter, damage or destroy enemy submarines....

 aircraft, where the radar was carried in an aerofoil-shaped radome carried above the aircraft's fuselage. The E-1 was used by the U.S. Navy from 1958 to 1977.

E-2A and E-2B Hawkeye


In 1956, the U.S. Navy developed a requirement for an airborne early warning aircraft where its data could be integrated into the Naval Tactical Data System
Naval Tactical Data System
Naval Tactical Data System, commonly NTDS, refers to a computerized information processing system developed by the United States Navy in the 1950s and first deployed in the early 1960s for use in combat ships.- Reason for development :...

 aboard the Navy's ships, with a design from Grumann being selected to meet this requirement in March 1957. Its design, initially designated W2F-1, but later redesignated the E-2A Hawkeye, was the first carrier plane that had been designed from its wheels up as an AEW and command and control airplane. The problems facing the design engineers at Grumman were immense and were compounded by having to constrain the design to enable the aircraft to operate from the older ‘modified Essex class’ carriers. These ‘smaller’ carriers were all built during WW2 and later modified to allow them to operate jet aircraft. Consequently, various height, weight and length restrictions had to be factored into the E-2A design, resulting in some handling characteristics which were less than ideal. The E-2A only operated from the modified Essex class for a few years before the ships were scrapped. The design would have benefited considerably if this requirement had been had never been imposed.

The first prototype, acting as an aerodynamic testbed only, flew on 21 October 1960, with the first fully equipped aircraft following on 19 April 1961. The E-2A entered U.S. Navy service on January 1964.

By 1965 the major development problems delaying the E-2A Hawkeye got so bad that the aircraft was actually cancelled after 59 aircraft had already been built. Particular difficulties were being experienced due to inadequate cooling in the closely packed avionics compartment. Early computer and complex avionics systems generated considerable heat; without proper ventilation this would lead to system failures. These failures continued long after the aircraft entered service and at one point reliability was so bad the entire fleet of aircraft was grounded. The airframe was also prone to corrosion, a serious problem in a carrier based aircraft.

After Navy officials had been forced to explain to Congress why four production contracts had been signed before avionics testing had been completed, action was taken; Grumman and the US Navy scrambled to improve the design. The unreliable rotary drum computer was replaced by a Litton L-304 digital computer and various avionic systems were replaced – the upgraded aircraft were designated E-2Bs. In total, 49 of the 59 E-2As were upgraded to E-2B standard. These aircraft replaced the E-1B Tracers in the various US Navy AEW squadrons and it was the E-2B that was to set a new standard for carrier based AEW aircraft.

E-2C Hawkeye and developments


Although the upgraded E-2B was a vast improvement on the unreliable E-2A, it was an interim measure. The US Navy knew the design had much greater capability and had yet to achieve the performance and reliability parameters set out in the original 1957 design. In April 1968 a reliability improvement program was instigated. In addition, now that the capabilities of the aircraft were starting to be realized, more were desired;28 new E-2Cs were ordered to augment the 49 E-2Bs that would be upgraded. Improvements in the new and upgraded aircraft were concentrated in the radar and computer performance.

Two E-2A test machines were modified as prototypes of the E-2C, with the first flying on 20 January 1971. Trials proved satisfactory and the E-2C was ordered into production, with the first production machine performing its initial flight on 23 September 1972. The original E-2C, known as Group 0, consisted of 55 aircraft with the first aircraft becoming operational in 1973. They began arriving on carriers in the 1980s, serving until the 1990s when they were replaced by Group II aircraft in first-line service. Some some ended up in the US Navy Reserve, being used to track drug smugglers.

After the experience with the E-2A/B, the E-2C Group 0 was an outstanding aircraft in operation and provided an effective partner to Grumman F-14 Tomcat fighters; monitoring the airspace and then vectoring Tomcats over the Link-4 datalink to destroy potential threat with long range Phoenix air-to-air missiles.

The next production run, between 1988 and 1991, saw 18 aircraft built to the Group I standard. Group I aircraft replaced the E-2's older APS-125 radar and T56-A-425 turboprops with their improvements; the APS-139 radar system and T56-A-427 turboprops. The first Group I aircraft entered service on August 1981.
Upgrading the Group 0 aircraft to Group 1 specifications was considered, but the cost was comparable to a new production aircraft, so upgrades were not conducted.
Group 1 aircraft were only only flown by the Atlantic fleet squadrons. This version of the E-2 was followed within a few years by the more-improved Group II, which had the improved APS-145 radar.
Group II aircraft have been incrementally upgraded with new navigation systems, better situational display, and computerized electronics; culminating in the E-2C Hawkeye 2000 variant (sometimes called the Group III). A total of 50 Group II aircraft were delivered, 12 being upgraded Group I aircraft. This new version entered service in June 1992 and served with the Pacific and Atlantic Fleet squadrons.

By 1997 the US Navy intended that all the front line squadrons would be equipped, for a total of 75 Group II aircraft. However Grumman merged with Northrop in 1994 and plans began on the next upgrade, known as the Group II Plus, which eventually became known as the Hawkeye 2000. The Hawkeye 2000 featured the APS-145 radar with a new mission computer and CIC (Combat Information Center
Combat Information Center
The Operations Room is the tactical center of a warship or AWAC aircraft providing processed information for command and control of the near battle space or 'area of operations'...

) workstations (Advanced Control Indicator Set or ACIS), and carries the U.S. Navy’s new CEC (cooperative engagement capability) data-link system
Data link
In telecommunication a data link is the means of connecting one location to another for the purpose of transmitting and receiving information. It can also refer to a set of electronics assemblies, consisting of a transmitter and a receiver and the interconnecting data telecommunication circuit...

. It is also fitted with a larger capacity vapor cycle avionics cooling system. A variant of the Group II with the upgrades to the mission computer and CIC workstations is referred to as the MCU/ACIS. All Group II aircraft have had their 1960s vintage computer-processors replaced by a mission computer with the same functionality but built using more modern computer technology. This is referred to as the GrIIM RePr (Group II Mission Computer Replacement Program, pronounced "grim reaper").

Starting in 2007 a hardware and software upgrade package began to be added to existing Hawkeye 2000 aircraft. This upgrade allows faster processing, double current trackfile capacity and access to satellite information networks. Hawkeye 2000 cockpits being upgraded include solid-state glass displays, modern weather detection systems and a GPS-approach capability.

E-2D Advanced Hawkeye


Though once considered for replacement by the "Common Support Aircraft
Common Support Aircraft
The Common Support Aircraft is a proposed concept, which has been considered by the United States Navy since at least the early 1990s, to replace a number of different fixed-wing aircraft capable of operating from an aircraft carrier and which serve a "support" function, with a single type of...

", this conception never went into production, and the Hawkeye will continue in its role as the Navy's primary AEW aircraft for years into the future in the E-2D version.

The latest version of the E-2, the E-2D Advanced Hawkeye, is currently under development and the first two aircraft, "Delta One" and "Delta Two" remain in flight testing and several other aircraft are currently undergoing Initial Operational Test and Evaluation with Test and Evaluation Squadron One at [NAS Patuxent River]. The E-2D features an entirely new avionics suite, including the new APY-9 radar, radio suite, mission computer, integrated satellite communications capability, flight management system, improved T56-A-427A turboprop engines, a new tactical glass cockpit and the potential capability for air-to-air refueling. The APY-9 radar features an Active Electronically Scanned Array
Active Electronically Scanned Array
An Active Electronically Scanned Array , also known as active phased array radar is a type of phased array radar whose transmitter and receiver functions are composed of numerous small solid-state transmit/receive modules . AESAs aim their "beam" by broadcasting radio energy that interfere...

, which adds electronic scanning to the mechanical rotation of the radar in its radome. The E-2D will include provisions for either one of the pilots to act as a Tactical 4th Operator, who will have access to the full range of the mission's acquired data. The E-2D's first flight occurred on 3 August 2007.
On May 8, 2009, an E-2D Advanced Hawkeye used its Cooperative Engagement Capability system to engage an overland cruise missile with a Standard Missile SM-6 fired from another platform in an integrated fire-control system
Fire-control system
A fire-control system is a number of components working together, usually a gun data computer, a director, and radar, which is designed to assist a weapon system in hitting its target. It performs the same task as a human gunner firing a weapon, but attempts to do so faster and more...

 test. Deliveries of initial production E-2Ds to Navy began in 2010.

On 4 February 2010, Delta One conducted the first E-2D carrier landing aboard the USS Harry S. Truman CV-75. It is currently continuing carrier suitability testing.

On 27 September 2011, an E-2D aircraft was successfully launched using the prototype Electromagnetic Aircraft Launch System (EMALS) at Naval Air Engineering Station Lakehurst
Naval Air Engineering Station Lakehurst
JB MDL Lakehurst is a United States Navy base located approximately south-southeast of Trenton, New Jersey. Lakehurst is under the jurisdiction of the Naval Air Systems Command...

.

Design


The E-2 is a high-wing airplane, with one turboprop engine in each wing, and tricycle landing gear. As with all carrier-borne airplanes, the E-2 is equipped with a tail hook
Tailhook
A tailhook, also arresting hook or arrester hook, is a device attached to the empennage of some military fixed wing aircraft...

 for landings, and it is capable of using the aircraft carrier's catapults
Aircraft catapult
An aircraft catapult is a device used to launch aircraft from ships—in particular aircraft carriers—as a form of assisted take off. It consists of a track built into the flight deck, below which is a large piston or shuttle that is attached through the track to the nose gear of the aircraft, or in...

 for take-off. A distinguishing feature of the Hawkeye is its 24-foot (7.3 m) diameter rotating dome that is mounted above its fuselage and wings. This carries the E-2's primary antennas
Antenna (radio)
An antenna is an electrical device which converts electric currents into radio waves, and vice versa. It is usually used with a radio transmitter or radio receiver...

 for its long-range radars. No other carrier-borne aircraft possesses one of these, and among land-based aircraft, they are mostly seen atop the Boeing
Boeing
The Boeing Company is an American multinational aerospace and defense corporation, founded in 1916 by William E. Boeing in Seattle, Washington. Boeing has expanded over the years, merging with McDonnell Douglas in 1997. Boeing Corporate headquarters has been in Chicago, Illinois since 2001...

's E-3 Sentry
E-3 Sentry
The Boeing E-3 Sentry is an airborne warning and control system developed by Boeing as the prime contractor. Derived from the Boeing 707, it provides all-weather surveillance, command, control and communications, and is used by the United States Air Force , NATO, Royal Air Force , French Air Force...

, a larger AEW airplane operated by the U.S. Air Force and NATO air forces in large numbers.

The aircraft is operated by a crew of five, with the pilot and co-pilot on the flight deck and the combat information center officer, air control officer and radar operator stations located in the rear fuselage directly beneath the rotodome.

In U.S. service, the E-2 Hawkeye provides all-weather airborne early warning
Airborne Early Warning
An airborne early warning and control system is an airborne radar system designed to detect aircraft at long ranges and control and command the battle space in an air engagement by directing fighter and attack plane strikes...

 and command and control
Command and Control (military)
Command and control, or C2, in a military organization can be defined as the exercise of authority and direction by a properly designated commanding officer over assigned and attached forces in the accomplishment of the mission...

 capabilities for all aircraft-carrier battle group
Carrier battle group
A carrier battle group consists of an aircraft carrier and its escorts, together composing the group. The first naval task forces built around carriers appeared just prior to and during World War II. The Imperial Japanese Navy was the first to assemble a large number of carriers into a single...

s. In addition, its other purposes include sea and land surveillance
Surveillance
Surveillance is the monitoring of the behavior, activities, or other changing information, usually of people. It is sometimes done in a surreptitious manner...

, the control of the aircraft carrier's fighter planes for air defense, the control of strike aircraft on offensive missions, the control of search and rescue missions for naval aviator
Naval Aviator
A United States Naval Aviator is a qualified pilot in the United States Navy, Marine Corps or Coast Guard.-Naming Conventions:Most Naval Aviators are Unrestricted Line Officers; however, a small number of Limited Duty Officers and Chief Warrant Officers are also trained as Naval Aviators.Until 1981...

s and sailors lost at sea, and for the relay of radio communications, air-to-air and ship-to-air.

The E-2C and E-2D Hawkeyes use advanced electronic sensors combined with digital computerized signal processing
Signal processing
Signal processing is an area of systems engineering, electrical engineering and applied mathematics that deals with operations on or analysis of signals, in either discrete or continuous time...

 especially its radars for early warning of enemy aircraft attacks and anti-ship missile
Anti-ship missile
Anti-ship missiles are guided missiles that are designed for use against ships and large boats. Most anti-ship missiles are of the sea-skimming type, many use a combination of inertial guidance and radar homing...

 attacks, and the control of the carrier's combat air patrol
Combat air patrol
Combat air patrol is a type of flying mission for fighter aircraft.A combat air patrol is an aircraft patrol provided over an objective area, over the force protected, over the critical area of a combat zone, or over an air defense area, for the purpose of intercepting and destroying hostile...

 (CAP) fighters, and secondarily for surveillance of the surrounding sea and land for enemy warship
Warship
A warship is a ship that is built and primarily intended for combat. Warships are usually built in a completely different way from merchant ships. As well as being armed, warships are designed to withstand damage and are usually faster and more maneuvrable than merchant ships...

s and guided-missile launchers, and any other electronic surveillance missions as directed.

US Navy


The E-2A entered U.S. Navy service on January 1964, and in April 1964 with VAW-11 at NAS North Island. The first deployment was aboard the USS Kitty Hawk (CVA-63) during 1965.

Since entering combat during the Vietnam War
Vietnam War
The Vietnam War was a Cold War-era military conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975. This war followed the First Indochina War and was fought between North Vietnam, supported by its communist allies, and the government of...

, the E-2 has served the US Navy around the world, acting as the electronic "eyes of the fleet". Hawkeyes from the air wing VAW-123 aboard the aircraft carrier directed a group of F-14 Tomcat
F-14 Tomcat
The Grumman F-14 Tomcat is a supersonic, twin-engine, two-seat, variable-sweep wing fighter aircraft. The Tomcat was developed for the United States Navy's Naval Fighter Experimental program following the collapse of the F-111B project...

 fighters flying the Combat Air Patrol during Operation El Dorado Canyon
Operation El Dorado Canyon
The 1986 United States bombing of Libya, code-named Operation El Dorado Canyon, comprised the joint United States Air Force, Navy and Marine Corps air-strikes against Libya on April 15, 1986. The attack was carried out in response to the 1986 Berlin discotheque bombing.-Origins:Shortly after his...

, the joint strike of two Carrier Battle Groups in the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean surrounded by the Mediterranean region and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Anatolia and Europe, on the south by North Africa, and on the east by the Levant...

 against Libya
Libya
Libya is an African country in the Maghreb region of North Africa bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south, and Algeria and Tunisia to the west....

n terrorist targets during 1986. More recently, E-2Cs provided the command and control for both aerial warfare
Aerial warfare
Aerial warfare is the use of military aircraft and other flying machines in warfare, including military airlift of cargo to further the national interests as was demonstrated in the Berlin Airlift...

 and land-attack missions during the Persian Gulf War
Gulf War
The Persian Gulf War , commonly referred to as simply the Gulf War, was a war waged by a U.N.-authorized coalition force from 34 nations led by the United States, against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait.The war is also known under other names, such as the First Gulf...

. Hawkeyes have supported the U.S. Coast Guard, the U.S. Customs Service, and American federal and state police forces during anti-drug operations.

In the mid-1980s, several E-2Cs were borrowed from the U.S. Navy and given to the U.S. Coast Guard and the U.S. Customs Service for counternarcotics (CN) and maritime interdiction operations (MIO). This also led to the Coast Guard building a small cadre of Naval Flight Officer
Naval Flight Officer
A Naval Flight Officer is an aeronautically designated commissioned officer in the United States Navy or United States Marine Corps that specializes in airborne weapons and sensor systems. NFOs are not pilots per se, but they may perform many "co-pilot" functions, depending on the type of aircraft...

s (NFOs), starting with the recruitment and interservice transfer of Navy flight officers with E-2 flight experience and the flight training of other junior Coast Guard officers as NFOs. A fatal aircraft mishap on 24 August 1990 involving a Coast Guard E-2C at the former Naval Station Roosevelt Roads in Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico , officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico , is an unincorporated territory of the United States, located in the northeastern Caribbean, east of the Dominican Republic and west of both the United States Virgin Islands and the British Virgin Islands.Puerto Rico comprises an...

 prompted the Coast Guard to discontinue flying E-2Cs and to return its E-2Cs to the Navy. The U.S Customs Service also returned its E-2Cs to the Navy and concentrated on the use of former U.S. Navy P-3 Orion
P-3 Orion
The Lockheed P-3 Orion is a four-engine turboprop anti-submarine and maritime surveillance aircraft developed for the United States Navy and introduced in the 1960s. Lockheed based it on the L-188 Electra commercial airliner. The aircraft is easily recognizable by its distinctive tail stinger or...

 aircraft in the CN role.

E-2C Hawkeye squadrons played a critical role in air operations during Operation Desert Storm. In one instance, a Hawkeye crew provided critical air control direction to two F/A-18 Hornet aircrew, resulting in the shootdown of two Iraqi MiG-21s. During Operations Southern Watch and Desert Fox, Hawkeye crews continued to provide thousands of hours of air coverage, while providing air-to-air and air-to-ground command and control in a number of combat missions.

The E-2 Hawkeye is a crucial component of all U.S. Navy carrier air wing
Carrier air wing
A Carrier Air Wing is an operational naval aviation organization composed of several aircraft squadrons and detachments of various types of fixed wing and rotary wing aircraft...

s, and each carrier is equipped with four Hawkeyes (five in some situations), allowing for continuous 24-hour-a-day operation of at least one Hawkeye, and allowing for one or two of them to be undergoing maintenance in the aircraft carrier's hangar deck
Aircraft carrier
An aircraft carrier is a warship designed with a primary mission of deploying and recovering aircraft, acting as a seagoing airbase. Aircraft carriers thus allow a naval force to project air power worldwide without having to depend on local bases for staging aircraft operations...

 at all times. Until 2005 the US Navy Hawkeye’s were organised into East and West coast wings, supporting the respective fleets. However, the East coast wing was disestablished and all aircraft are now organised into a single wing based at Point Mugu, California. Six E-2C Hawkeye aircraft are deployed by the US Naval Reserve for drug interdiction and homeland security operations.

During Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom all ten Regular Navy Hawkeye squadrons flew overland sorties. They provided battle management for attack of enemy ground targets, close-air-support coordination, combat search and rescue control, airspace management, as well as datalink and communication relay for both land and naval forces. During the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina
Hurricane Katrina
Hurricane Katrina of the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season was a powerful Atlantic hurricane. It is the costliest natural disaster, as well as one of the five deadliest hurricanes, in the history of the United States. Among recorded Atlantic hurricanes, it was the sixth strongest overall...

, three Hawkeye squadrons (two Regular Navy and one Navy Reserve) were deployed in support of civilian relief efforts including Air Traffic Control
Air traffic control
Air traffic control is a service provided by ground-based controllers who direct aircraft on the ground and in the air. The primary purpose of ATC systems worldwide is to separate aircraft to prevent collisions, to organize and expedite the flow of traffic, and to provide information and other...

 responsibilities spanning three states, and the control of U.S. Army, U.S. Navy, U.S. Air Force, U.S. Marine Corps, U.S. Coast Guard, and Army National Guard and Air National Guard helicopter
Helicopter
A helicopter is a type of rotorcraft in which lift and thrust are supplied by one or more engine-driven rotors. This allows the helicopter to take off and land vertically, to hover, and to fly forwards, backwards, and laterally...

 rescue units.
Hawkeye 2000s first deployed in 2003 aboard with VAW-117, the "Wallbangers", and CVW-11. U.S. Navy E-2C Hawkeyes have been upgraded with eight-bladed propellers as part of the NP2000 program; the first squadron to cruise with the new propellers was VAW-124 "Bear Aces". The Hawkeye 2000 version can track more than 2,000 targets simultaneously (while at the same time, detecting 20,000 simultaneously) to a range greater than 400 mi (643.7 km) and simultaneously guide 40–100 air to air intercepts or air to surface engagements.

VAW-120, the E-2C fleet replacement squadron began receiving E-2D Advanced Hawkeyes for training use in July 2010. Initial operating capability for an E-2D fleet squadron ready for operational deployment has slipped to October 2014.

Other operators


E-2 Hawkeyes have been sold by the U.S. Federal Government
Federal government of the United States
The federal government of the United States is the national government of the constitutional republic of fifty states that is the United States of America. The federal government comprises three distinct branches of government: a legislative, an executive and a judiciary. These branches and...

 under Foreign Military Sales
Foreign Military Sales
The U.S. Department of Defense's Foreign Military Sales program facilitates sales of U.S. arms, defense equipment, defense services, and military training to foreign governments...

 (FMS) procedures to the armed forces of Egypt
Egypt
Egypt , officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, Arabic: , is a country mainly in North Africa, with the Sinai Peninsula forming a land bridge in Southwest Asia. Egypt is thus a transcontinental country, and a major power in Africa, the Mediterranean Basin, the Middle East and the Muslim world...

, France
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

, Israel
Israel
The State of Israel is a parliamentary republic located in the Middle East, along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea...

, Japan
Japan
Japan is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south...

, Singapore
Singapore
Singapore , officially the Republic of Singapore, is a Southeast Asian city-state off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, north of the equator. An island country made up of 63 islands, it is separated from Malaysia by the Straits of Johor to its north and from Indonesia's Riau Islands by the...

 and Taiwan
Republic of China
The Republic of China , commonly known as Taiwan , is a unitary sovereign state located in East Asia. Originally based in mainland China, the Republic of China currently governs the island of Taiwan , which forms over 99% of its current territory, as well as Penghu, Kinmen, Matsu and other minor...

 (in alphabetical order).

French Naval Aviation


The French Naval Aviation (Aeronavale) operates three E-2C Hawkeyes and has been the only operator of the E-2 Hawkeye from an aircraft carrier besides the U.S. Navy. The French nuclear-powered carrier, the Charles De Gaulle
Charles de Gaulle (R 91)
Charles de Gaulle is the flagship of the French Navy and the largest Western European aircraft carrier. She is the tenth French aircraft carrier, the first French nuclear-powered surface vessel, and the first and so far only nuclear-powered carrier completed outside of the United States Navy...

, currently carries two E-2C Hawkeyes on her combat patrols offshore. The three French E-2C Hawkeye have been upgraded with eight-bladed propellers as part of the NP2000 program. In April 2007, France requested the foreign military sale (FMS) of an additional aircraft.

The Flotille 4F of the French Navy's Aeronavale flies its E-2C Hawkeyes from its naval air station at Lann-Bihoue or the «Charles de Gaulle» aircraft carrier. They took part in operations in Afghanistan and Libya.

Japan Air Self-Defense Force


The Japan Air Self-Defense Force
Japan Air Self-Defense Force
The , or JASDF, is the aviation branch of the Japan Self-Defense Forces responsible for the defense of Japanese airspace and other aerospace operations. The JASDF carries out combat air patrols around Japan, while also maintaining an extensive network of ground and air early warning radar systems...

 bought thirteen E-2C to improve its Early warning capabilities. The E-2C was put into service with the Airborne Early Warning Group (A.E.W.G.) at Misawa Air Base in January 1987.

On September 6, 1976, Soviet Air Force pilot Viktor Belenko
Viktor Belenko
Viktor Ivanovich Belenko is Soviet defector and aerospace engineer and lecturer. Belenko was sentenced to death in the Soviet Union for state treason. He was born in Nalchik, Russian SFSR in a Ukrainian family...

 successfully defected, landing his MiG-25 'Foxbat'
Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-25
The Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-25 is a supersonic interceptor and reconnaissance aircraft that was among the fastest military aircraft to enter service. Designed by the Soviet Union's Mikoyan-Gurevich bureau the first prototype flew in 1964 with entry into service in 1970...

 at Hakodate Airport
Hakodate Airport
, is an airport located east of Hakodate Station in Hakodate, a city in Hokkaidō, Japan. It is operated by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport. It serves as the hub for airtransse.- History :...

, Japan. During this incident, the Japan Self-Defense Forces' radar lost track of the aircraft when Belenko flew his MiG-25 at a low altitude, prompting the J.A.S.D.F to consider procurement of airborne early warning aircraft.

Initially, the E-3 Sentry airborne warning and control system aircraft was considered to be the prime candidate for the airborne early warning mission by the J.A.S.D.F. However, the Japanese Defense Agency realized that the E-3 would not be readily available due to U.S.A.F. needs and opted to procure E-2 Hawkeye AWACS aircraft.

Mexico


In 2004, three former Israel Air Force E-2C aircraft were sold to the Mexican Navy to perform maritime and shore surveillance missions. These aircraft were upgraded locally by IAI. The first Mexican E-2C was rolled out in January 2004.

Singapore


The Republic of Singapore Air Force
Republic of Singapore Air Force
The Republic of Singapore Air Force is the air arm of the Singapore Armed Forces. It was first established in 1968 as the Singapore Air Defence Command...

 acquired four Grumman E-2C Hawkeye airborne early warning aircraft in 1987, which are assigned to the 111 Squadron "Jaeger" based at Tengah Air Base. Its primary function is to perform airborne surveillance and early warning. Other functions include aircraft intercept control, surface surveillance, air traffic control and airborne coordination for search and rescue operations.

In April 2007, it was announced that the 4 E-2C Hawkeyes were to be replaced with 4 Gulfstream G550s which would become the primary early warning aircraft of the Singapore Air Force.

Israel


Israel was the first export customer, its four Hawkeyes were delivered during 1981, complete with the folding wings characteristic of carrier borne aircraft. The four examples were soon put into active service before and during the 1982 Lebanon War
1982 Lebanon War
The 1982 Lebanon War , , called Operation Peace for Galilee by Israel, and later known in Israel as the Lebanon War and First Lebanon War, began on 6 June 1982, when the Israel Defense Forces invaded southern Lebanon...

 during which they won a resounding victory over Syrian air defenses and fighter control. They were central to the Israeli victory in the air battles over the Bekaa Valley during which more than 90 Syrian fighters were downed. The Hawkeyes were also the linchpins of the operation in which the IAF destroyed the SAM array in the Bekaa, coordinating the various stages of the operation, vectoring planes into bombing runs and directing intercepts. Under the constant defense of F-15 Eagles, there were always two Hawkeyes on station off the Lebanese coast, controlling the various assets in the air and detecting any Syrian aircraft upon their takeoff, eliminating any chance of surprise.

The Israeli Air Force
Israeli Air Force
The Israeli Air Force is the air force of the State of Israel and the aerial arm of the Israel Defense Forces. It was founded on May 28, 1948, shortly after the Israeli Declaration of Independence...

 (IAF) operated four E-2s for its homeland AEW protection through 1994. The IAF was the first user of the E-2 to install air-to-air refueling
Aerial refueling
Aerial refueling, also called air refueling, in-flight refueling , air-to-air refueling or tanking, is the process of transferring fuel from one aircraft to another during flight....

 equipment.

Three of the four Israeli-owned Hawkeyes were sold to Mexico
Mexico
The United Mexican States , commonly known as Mexico , is a federal constitutional republic in North America. It is bordered on the north by the United States; on the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; on the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and on the east by the Gulf of...

 in 2002 after they had been upgraded with new systems, and the remaining example was sent to be displayed in the Israeli Air Force Museum
Israeli Air Force Museum
The Israeli Air Force Museum is located at Hatzerim Airbase in the Negev desert.The museum was established in 1977 and is open to the public since 1991. The museum display a variety of Israeli Air Force and foreign aircraft, as well as anti aircraft arms....

. In 2010, Singapore began retiring its E-2Cs as well. Both Israel and Singapore now employ the IAI Eitam, a Gulfstream G550-based platform utilizing Elta's EL/W-2085 sensor package (a newer derivative of the airborne Phalcon system) for their national AEW programmes.

Taiwan


Taiwan acquired four Grumman E-2T aircraft from the US on 22 November 1995, which has extended the advance warning time of any attack from five to 25 minutes, bolstering Taiwan's limited protection against naval or air attack from mainland China. On 15 April 2006 Taiwan commissioned two new E-2K Hawkeye at an official ceremony at the Republic of China Air Force (ROCAF) base in Pingdong in southern Taiwan.

Egypt


Egypt purchased five E-2C Hawkeye, that entered service in 1987 the E-2C Hawkeye Airborne Early Warning (AEW) and were upgraded to Hawkeye 2000 standard. One additional upgraded E-2C was purchased. The first upgraded aircraft was delivered in March 2003 and deliveries were concluded in late 2008. Egypt requested two additional excess E-2C aircraft in October 2007, that were not sold. They all operate in 601 AEW Brigade, Cairo-West.

Offers

  • In December 2007, the United Arab Emirates requested the sale of three upgraded E-2C aircraft.
  • In August 2009, the U.S. Navy and Northrop Grumman
    Northrop Grumman
    Northrop Grumman Corporation is an American global aerospace and defense technology company formed by the 1994 purchase of Grumman by Northrop. The company was the fourth-largest defense contractor in the world as of 2010, and the largest builder of naval vessels. Northrop Grumman employs over...

     briefed the Indian Navy
    Indian Navy
    The Indian Navy is the naval branch of the armed forces of India. The President of India serves as the Commander-in-Chief of the Navy. The Chief of Naval Staff , usually a four-star officer in the rank of Admiral, commands the Navy...

     on the E-2D Advanced Hawkeye. This covered potential use of this platform to satisfy its current shore-based and future carrier-based Airborne Early Warning and Control (AEW&C) requirements. The Indian Navy reportedly expressed interest in acquiring up to six Hawkeyes.

Variants




W2F-1 : Original designation of the Hawkeye, changed to E-2A in 1962.
E-2A : Initial production version, was W2F-1 before 1962. 59 built.
TE-2A : Two E-2As converted as crew trainers.
YC-2A : Two E-2As, BUNOs 148147 and 148148, converted as prototypes of the C-2 Greyhound
E-2B : As E-2A but fitted with improved computing, enlarged outer fins. 52 converted from E-2A.
YE-2C : Two E-2As, BUNOs 148712 and 148713, converted as E-2C prototypes. Designated as YE-2C and NE-2C respectively. These airframes then finished out their useful life being used as TE-2C pilot trainers.
E-2C : As the E-2B but with all new electronics, surveillance radar and search radar, 63 built. In "plus-models" the E-2C also has upgraded turboprop engines.
E-2C Group 0
: Initial production version of E-2C, fitted with AN/APS-120 or AN/APS-125 radar. Lengthened nose compared to earlier version
E-2C Group I
:New radar (AN/APS-139), plus ungraded mission computer and upgraded engines. 18 new build aircraft
E-2C Group 2
:AN/APS-145 radar, further improved electronics
E-2C Hawkeye 2000
:New mission computer, Cooperative Engagement Capability (CEC and additional satellite communications aerial. Originally designated Group 2+

E-2D : Currently undergoing flight testing and Initial Operational Test and Evaluation. This version will feature an entirely new avionics suite, improved engines, a new "glass cockpit" and the potential for air-to-air refueling.
E-2T : E-2C variant for Republic of China
Republic of China
The Republic of China , commonly known as Taiwan , is a unitary sovereign state located in East Asia. Originally based in mainland China, the Republic of China currently governs the island of Taiwan , which forms over 99% of its current territory, as well as Penghu, Kinmen, Matsu and other minor...

 (Taiwan), with parts taken from retired E-2Bs (USN BuNos 151709, 151710, 151724, 152479) in order to please objections from the People's Republic of China
People's Republic of China
China , officially the People's Republic of China , is the most populous country in the world, with over 1.3 billion citizens. Located in East Asia, the country covers approximately 9.6 million square kilometres...

 and to make it appear as a sale of four rebuilt E-2As or E-2Bs. However, these aircraft have the same level of electronics as the E-2C Group II Hawkeyes with their APS-145 radars.

Operators


  • Egyptian Air Force
    Egyptian Air Force
    The Egyptian Air Force, or EAF , is the aviation branch of the Egyptian Armed Forces. The EAF is headed by an Air Marshal . Currently, the commander of the Egyptian Air Force is Air Marshal Reda Mahmoud Hafez Mohamed...

     has six E-2s, which were to be converted E-2 Hawkeye 2000 standard by the end of 2008.

  • French Navy
    French Navy
    The French Navy, officially the Marine nationale and often called La Royale is the maritime arm of the French military. It includes a full range of fighting vessels, from patrol boats to a nuclear powered aircraft carrier and 10 nuclear-powered submarines, four of which are capable of launching...

    )
    • French Naval Aviation  fleet has three E-2C Hawkeye 2000s, and is seeking a fourth.

  • Israeli Air Force
    Israeli Air Force
    The Israeli Air Force is the air force of the State of Israel and the aerial arm of the Israel Defense Forces. It was founded on May 28, 1948, shortly after the Israeli Declaration of Independence...

     operated four Hawkeyes through 1999.
    • 192 Squadron IDFAF

  • Japan Air Self-Defense Force
    Japan Air Self-Defense Force
    The , or JASDF, is the aviation branch of the Japan Self-Defense Forces responsible for the defense of Japanese airspace and other aerospace operations. The JASDF carries out combat air patrols around Japan, while also maintaining an extensive network of ground and air early warning radar systems...

    • 601 Hikotai JASDF operates 13 E-2C Hawkeyes.

  • Mexican Navy
    Mexican Navy
    The Mexican Navy is the naval branch of the Mexican military responsible for conducting naval operations. Its stated mission is "to use the naval force of the federation for the exterior defense, and to help with internal order". The Navy consists of about 56,000 men and women plus reserves, over...

     has three E-2C which were purchased from Israel.

  • Republic of Singapore Air Force
    Republic of Singapore Air Force
    The Republic of Singapore Air Force is the air arm of the Singapore Armed Forces. It was first established in 1968 as the Singapore Air Defence Command...

    • 111 Squadron
      111 Squadron, Republic of Singapore Air Force
      The 111 Squadron "Jaeger" was formed when the Republic of Singapore Air Force acquired four Grumman E-2C Hawkeye Airborne Early Warning aircraft in 1987. Based at Tengah Air Base, its primary function is to perform airborne surveillance and early warning...

       operates four E-2Cs. They are currently in the process of being phased out with the newer Gulfstream G550 AEW as their replacement.

  • Republic of China Air Force
    Republic of China Air Force
    The Republic of China Air Force is the aviation branch of the Republic of China Armed Forces. The ROCAF's primary mission is the defense of the airspace over and around Taiwan...

     has four E-2Ts and two E-2C Hawkeye 2000s. The four E-2Ts had been approved to be upgraded to Hawkeye 2000 configuration.
    • 2nd Early Warning Squadron ROCAF



  • United States Navy
    United States Navy
    The United States Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. The U.S. Navy is the largest in the world; its battle fleet tonnage is greater than that of the next 13 largest navies combined. The U.S...

    • VAW-77
      VAW-77
      The Nightwolves of Carrier Airborne Early Warning Squadron 77 based at Naval Air Station Joint Reserve Base New Orleans, comprise the U.S. Navy's only fully dedicated counter-narcotics squadron. VAW-77's beginnings go back to 1995, when the U.S. Congress created the reserve squadron as a result of...

       Night Wolves (Navy Reserve Force Squadron)
    • VAW-78 Fighting Escargot (Navy Reserve Force Squadron; disestablished)
    • VAW-88 Cottonpickers (Navy Reserve Force Squadron; disestablished)
    • VAW-110 Firebirds (Fleet Replacement Squadron - Pacific Fleet FRS; disestablished)
    • VAW-111 Graybirds (Disestablished)
    • VAW-112
      VAW-112
      Carrier Airborne Early Warning Squadron One One Two is a United States Navy airborne early warning squadron. Nicknamed Golden Hawks, they fly the E-2 Hawkeye...

       Golden Hawks
    • VAW-113
      VAW-113
      VAW-113, known as "The World Famous Black Eagles", was commissioned as a squadron on April 29, 1967. One week later, VAW-113 deployed to the Western Pacific flying the E-2 Hawkeye aboard USS Constellation . VAW-113 served in Vietnamese Operations every year from 1967 to 1975...

       Black Eagles
    • VAW-114 Hormel Hawgs (Disestablished, April 1995)
    • VAW-115
      VAW-115
      Carrier Airborne Early Warning Squadron 115 , also known as the "Liberty Bells", is a United States Navy squadron based at Naval Air Facility Atsugi that flies the E-2C Hawkeye 2000...

       Liberty Bells
    • VAW-116
      VAW-116
      VAW-116 is a US Navy Command and Control Squadron that deploys aboard USS Abraham Lincoln as part of Carrier Air Wing Two. VAW-116 flies the E-2C Hawkeye 2000 aircraft. The VAW-116 Commanding Officer is Commander Mike S. Fitzpatrick. The "Sun Kings" of VAW-116 are stationed at Naval Base Ventura...

       Sun Kings
    • VAW-117
      VAW-117
      Carrier Airborne Command and Control Squadron One One Seven is a United States Navy airborne early warning squadron. Nicknamed The Wallbangers , it flies the Grumman E-2 Hawkeye, the USN’s only carrier-based command and control platform...

       Wallbangers
    • VAW-120
      VAW-120
      The Carrier Airborne Command and Control Squadron One One Seven are a United States Navy airborne early warning squadron. Nicknamed The Greyhawks, they fly the E-2 Hawkeye along with the C-2A Greyhound in order to provide early warning and battlefield information back to the carrier...

       Greyhawks (Fleet Replacement Squadron)
    • VAW-121
      VAW-121
      Carrier Airborne Early Warning Squadron 121 , also known as the "Bluetails", is an Airborne Early Warning squadron operating the E-2C Hawkeye based at Naval Air Station Norfolk...

       Bluetails
    • VAW-122
      VAW-122
      VAW-122 was an East Coast VAW squadron that was stood up on 1 April 1967 and dis-established March 30, 1996...

       Steeljaws (Disestablished)
    • VAW-123
      VAW-123
      Carrier Airborne Early Warning Squadron 123 also known as the World Famous "Screwtops" is a United States Navy Carrier Airborne Early Warning Squadron based at Naval Air Station Norfolk, Virginia. The "Screwtops" are an operational fleet squadron flying the E-2C Hawkeye...

       Screwtops
    • VAW-124 Bear Aces
    • VAW-125
      VAW-125
      VAW-125, known as the “Torch Bearers” or “Tigertails,” was established on October 1, 1968, at Naval Air Station, Norfolk . The squadron’s initial supporting command was Carrier Air Wing Three deploying aboard USS Saratoga . While with CVW-3, VAW-125 became the first East Coast squadron to take...

       Tigertails
    • VAW-126
      VAW-126
      Carrier Airborne Early Warning Squadron 126 , also known as the "Seahawks", is a carrier airborne early warning squadron operating the E-2C Hawkeye based at Naval Air Station Norfolk...

       Seahawks
    • VAW-127
      VAW-127
      Airborne Early Warning Squadron 127 , nicknamed the "Seabats", was an aviation unit of the United States Navy in service from 1983 to 1991...

       Seabats (Disestablished)
    • VX-20
      VX-20
      VX-20, Air Test and Evaluation Squadron Twenty, is a United States Navy air test and evaluation squadron based at Naval Air Station Patuxent River, Maryland.-Operations:...

       Force Aircraft Test
    • VX-1 Pioneers
    • Carrier Airborne Early Warning Weapons School (CAEWWS; merged into NSAWC)
    • Naval Strike and Air Warfare Center
      Naval Strike and Air Warfare Center
      The Naval Strike and Air Warfare Center at Naval Air Station Fallon located in the city of Fallon in western Nevada is the center of excellence for naval aviation training and tactics development...

       (NSAWC)

  • U.S. Coast Guard
    • CGAW-1 (Disestablished)

Aircraft on display

  • E-2B, BuNo 150540, National Museum of Naval Aviation
    National Museum of Naval Aviation
    The National Museum of Naval Aviation is a military and aerospace museum located at Naval Air Station Pensacola, Florida. The museum opened in 1962....

    , NAS Pensacola, Florida
  • E-2B, BuNo 152476, Patuxent River Naval Air Museum, NAS Patuxent River, Maryland
  • E-2B, BuNo 152484, Air Victory Museum, Medford, New Jersey
  • E-2B, BuNo 150541, NAS Norfolk Air Park (adjacent Gate 4), Naval Station Norfolk
    Naval Station Norfolk
    Naval Station Norfolk, in Norfolk, Virginia, is a base of the United States Navy, supporting naval forces in the United States Fleet Forces Command, those operating in the Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea, and Indian Ocean...

    /Chambers Field (former NAS Norfolk), Virginia. Early E-2C variant nose cap installed for static display.
  • E-2C, BuNo 159496, Naval Air Station Fallon
    Naval Air Station Fallon
    Naval Air Station Fallon or NAS Fallon is the United States Navy's premier air-to-air and air-to-ground training facility. It is located southeast of the city of Fallon in western Nevada in the United States. Since 1996, it has been home to the Naval Fighter Weapons School , and the surrounding...

    , Nevada.
  • E-2C, BuNo 160012, Garden City, NY as part of Cradle of Naval Aviation Display
  • E-2C, NuNo 160701, nose used as flight simulator aboard USS Midway
    USS Midway
    USS Midway may refer to:, which was the Oritani and then the Tyree before being chartered as a general auxiliary in 1942, renamed to Panay in 1943, and returned to her owner in 1946...

     Museum, San Diego, California
    San Diego, California
    San Diego is the eighth-largest city in the United States and second-largest city in California. The city is located on the coast of the Pacific Ocean in Southern California, immediately adjacent to the Mexican border. The birthplace of California, San Diego is known for its mild year-round...

  • E-2C, BuNo 160772,Israeli Air Force Museum
    Israeli Air Force Museum
    The Israeli Air Force Museum is located at Hatzerim Airbase in the Negev desert.The museum was established in 1977 and is open to the public since 1991. The museum display a variety of Israeli Air Force and foreign aircraft, as well as anti aircraft arms....

    , Hatzerim Air Base, Israel
  • E-2C, BuNo 160992, on base memorial display,NAS Point Mugu, California
  • E-2C, BuNo 161227, flight deck display aboard USS Midway (CV-41)
    USS Midway (CV-41)
    USS Midway was an aircraft carrier of the United States Navy, the lead ship of her class, and the first to be commissioned after the end of World War II...

     Museum, San Diego, California
    San Diego, California
    San Diego is the eighth-largest city in the United States and second-largest city in California. The city is located on the coast of the Pacific Ocean in Southern California, immediately adjacent to the Mexican border. The birthplace of California, San Diego is known for its mild year-round...

  • E-2C, BuNo 161098, on display at NAS Atlanta, GA
  • E-2C, BuNo 161344, awaiting resoration at Yanks Air Museum
    Yanks Air Museum
    The Yanks Air Museum is a non-profit 501 organization dedicated to exhibiting, preserving and restoring American aircraft and artifacts.-Chino facility and exhibits:...

    , Chino, CA

Specifications (E-2C/D)



See also


External links