Dominant-party system

Dominant-party system

Encyclopedia
A dominant-party system, or one-party dominant system, is a system where there is "a category of parties/political organizations that have successively won election victories and whose future defeat cannot be envisaged or is unlikely for the foreseeable future." A wide range of parties have been cited as being dominant at one time or another, including the Kuomintang
Kuomintang
The Kuomintang of China , sometimes romanized as Guomindang via the Pinyin transcription system or GMD for short, and translated as the Chinese Nationalist Party is a founding and ruling political party of the Republic of China . Its guiding ideology is the Three Principles of the People, espoused...

 in the Republic of China (Taiwan), the African National Congress
African National Congress
The African National Congress is South Africa's governing Africanist political party, supported by its tripartite alliance with the Congress of South African Trade Unions and the South African Communist Party , since the establishment of non-racial democracy in April 1994. It defines itself as a...

 (ANC) in South Africa
South Africa
The Republic of South Africa is a country in southern Africa. Located at the southern tip of Africa, it is divided into nine provinces, with of coastline on the Atlantic and Indian oceans...

, and the Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress
The Indian National Congress is one of the two major political parties in India, the other being the Bharatiya Janata Party. It is the largest and one of the oldest democratic political parties in the world. The party's modern liberal platform is largely considered center-left in the Indian...

 in India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

. Such dominance has not always been a matter of concern, with for example the dominance of the Indian National Congress being seen by some as source of stability supportive of the consolidation of democracy.

Opponents of the "dominant party" system or theory argue that it views the meaning of democracy
Democracy
Democracy is generally defined as a form of government in which all adult citizens have an equal say in the decisions that affect their lives. Ideally, this includes equal participation in the proposal, development and passage of legislation into law...

 as given, and that it assumes that only a particular conception of representative democracy
Representative democracy
Representative democracy is a form of government founded on the principle of elected individuals representing the people, as opposed to autocracy and direct democracy...

 (in which different parties alternate frequently in power) is valid. One author argues that "the dominant party 'system' is deeply flawed as a mode of analysis and lacks explanatory capacity. But it is also a very conservative approach to politics. Its fundamental political assumptions are restricted to one form of democracy, electoral politics and hostile to popular politics. This is manifest in the obsession with the quality of electoral opposition and its sidelining or ignoring of popular political activity organised in other ways. The assumption in this approach is that other forms of organisation and opposition are of limited importance or a separate matter from the consolidation of their version of democracy."

One of the dangers of dominant parties is "the tendency of dominant parties to conflate party and state and to appoint party officials to senior positions irrespective of their having the required qualities." However, in some countries this is common practice even when there is no dominant party. In contrast to single-party systems, dominant-party systems can occur within a context of a democratic system. In a single-party system other parties are banned, but in dominant-party systems other political parties are tolerated, and (in democratic dominant-party systems) operate without overt legal impediment, but do not have a realistic chance of winning; the dominant party genuinely wins the votes of the vast majority of voters every time (or, in authoritarian systems, claims to). Under authoritarian dominant-party systems, which may be referred to as "electoralism
Electoralism
Electoralism is a term first used by Terry Karl, professor of political science at Stanford University, to describe a "half-way" transition from authoritarian rule toward democratic rule...

" or "soft authoritarianism", opposition parties are legally allowed to operate, but are too weak or ineffective to seriously challenge power, perhaps through various forms of corruption
Political corruption
Political corruption is the use of legislated powers by government officials for illegitimate private gain. Misuse of government power for other purposes, such as repression of political opponents and general police brutality, is not considered political corruption. Neither are illegal acts by...

, constitutional quirks that intentionally undermine the ability for an effective opposition to thrive, institutional and/or organizational conventions that support the status quo, or inherent cultural values averse to change.

In some states opposition parties are subject to varying degrees of official harassment and most often deal with restrictions on free speech (such as press club), lawsuits against the opposition, rules or electoral systems (such as gerrymandering
Gerrymandering
In the process of setting electoral districts, gerrymandering is a practice that attempts to establish a political advantage for a particular party or group by manipulating geographic boundaries to create partisan, incumbent-protected districts...

 of electoral districts) designed to put them at a disadvantage. In some cases outright electoral fraud
Electoral fraud
Electoral fraud is illegal interference with the process of an election. Acts of fraud affect vote counts to bring about an election result, whether by increasing the vote share of the favored candidate, depressing the vote share of the rival candidates or both...

 keeps the opposition from power. On the other hand, some dominant-party systems occur, at least temporarily, in countries that are widely seen, both by their citizens and outside observers, to be textbook examples of democracy. The reasons why a dominant-party system may form in such a country are often debated: Supporters of the dominant party tend to argue that their party is simply doing a good job in government and the opposition continuously proposes unrealistic or unpopular changes, while supporters of the opposition tend to argue that the electoral system disfavors them (for example because it is based on the principle of first past the post), or that the dominant party receives a disproportionate amount of funding from various sources and is therefore able to mount more persuasive campaigns. In states with ethnic issues, one party may be seen as being the party for an ethnicity or race with the party for the majority ethnic, racial or religious group dominating, e.g., ANC in South Africa (governing since 1994) has strong support amongst Black South Africans, the Ulster Unionist Party
Ulster Unionist Party
The Ulster Unionist Party – sometimes referred to as the Official Unionist Party or, in a historic sense, simply the Unionist Party – is the more moderate of the two main unionist political parties in Northern Ireland...

 governed Northern Ireland from its creation in 1921 until 1972 with the support of the Protestant majority.

Sub-national entities are often dominated by one party due the area's demographic being on one end of the spectrum. For example Hawaii and DC have been governed by Democrats
Democratic Party (United States)
The Democratic Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. The party's socially liberal and progressive platform is largely considered center-left in the U.S. political spectrum. The party has the lengthiest record of continuous...

 since their creation, Bavaria by the Christian Social Union
Christian Social Union of Bavaria
The Christian Social Union in Bavaria is a Christian democratic and conservative political party in Germany. It operates only in the state of Bavaria, while its sister party, the Christian Democratic Union , operates in the other 15 states of Germany...

 since 1957, Alberta by Progressive Conservatives since 1971. In contrast some sub-national entities have comparatively more conservative or liberal forms of the parties in their entity, for example an Oklahoma Democrat is likely to be at least as conservative as a Minnesota Republican.

Africa


 Angola
  • Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola — Workers' Party
    Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola
    The People's Movement for the Liberation of Angola - Labour Party is a political party that has ruled Angola since the country's independence from Portugal in 1975...

    , Movimento Popular de Libertação de Angola — Partido do Trabalho (MPLA-PT)
  • Led by President José Eduardo dos Santos
    José Eduardo dos Santos
    José Eduardo dos Santos is an Angolan politician who has been the second and current President of Angola since 1979. As President, José Eduardo dos Santos is also the commander in chief of the Angolan Armed Forces and president of the MPLA , the party that has been ruling Angola since...

    , in office since 10 September 1979
  • In power since independence, 11 November 1975; sole legal party, 1977–91
  • Presidential election, 1992: José Eduardo dos Santos (MPLA-PT) 49.6% NB: As he had not attained absolute majority, a runoff against Jonas Savimbi (40,1%) was required, but did not take place, so that José Eduardo dos Santos has been since then in office without democratic legitimacy.
  • Parliamentary election, 1992: MPLA 53.7% and 129 of 220 seats
  • Parliamentary election, 2008: MPLA 81.6% and 191 of 220 seats
  • New constitution, 2010: popular election of president abolished in favour of election by parliament; presidency of José Eduardo dos Santos legitimated for the first tim
  • New parliamentaru elections announced for 2012; José Eduardo dos Santos declares he will not again be a candidate


 Botswana
  • Botswana Democratic Party
    Botswana Democratic Party
    The Botswana Democratic Party is the governing conservative party in Botswana. Its chairman is Daniel Kwelagobe.BDP was shaped by Sir Seretse Khama, who is celebrated for nurturing the economic and political success of Botswana. The party's base is in the traditional Setswana communities, and it...

     (BDP)
  • Led by President Ian Khama
    Ian Khama
    Lieutenant General Seretse Khama Ian Khama is a Botswana politician who has been the President of Botswana since 2008; he is also the Paramount Chief of the Bamangwato tribe...

    , in office since 1 April 2008
  • In power since 3 March 1965
  • Parliamentary election, 2009
    Botswana general election, 2009
    General elections were held in Botswana on 16 October 2009. They were the 10th general elections held since Botswana's independence in 1966. Botswana's parliament has 61 seats, of which 57 are elected using a single-member district plurality system, meaning there are 57 constituencies, each...

    : BDP 53.26% and 45 of 57 seats


 Burkina Faso
  • Congress for Democracy and Progress
    Congress for Democracy and Progress
    The Congress for Democracy and Progress is the ruling political party in Burkina Faso. Its President is Roch Marc Christian Kaboré....

     (Congrès pour la Démocratie et le Progrès, CDP)
  • Led by President Blaise Compaoré
    Blaise Compaoré
    Blaise Compaoré has been the President of Burkina Faso since 1987 following a coup d'état that ousted then-President Thomas Sankara. In 2011, a mutiny by soldiers over unpaid housing allowances forced him to flee the capital for his hometown...

    , in office since 15 October 1987
  • In power, under various names, since 24 December 1991
  • Presidential election, 2005
    Burkina Faso presidential elections, 2005
    A presidential election was held in Burkina Faso on November 13, 2005. The incumbent president, Blaise Compaoré, was currently leading with about 80% of the vote....

    : Blaise Compaoré (CDP) 80.4%
  • Parliamentary election, 2002: CDP 49.5% and 47 of 91 seats


 Cameroon
  • Cameroonian People's Democratic Movement
    Cameroon People's Democratic Movement
    The Cameroon People's Democratic Movement is the ruling political party in Cameroon.-History:Previously known as the Cameroon National Union, which had dominated Cameroon politics since independence in 1960, it was renamed in 1985...

     (Rassemblement Démocratique et Populaire du Cameroun, RDPC)
  • Led by President Paul Biya
    Paul Biya
    Paul Biya is a Cameroonian politician who has been the President of Cameroon since 6 November 1982. A native of Cameroon's south, Biya rose rapidly as a bureaucrat under President Ahmadou Ahidjo in the 1960s, serving as Secretary-General of the Presidency from 1968 to 1975 and then as Prime...

    , in office since 6 November 1982
  • In power, under various names, since independence, 1 January 1960 (Sole legal party, 1966–1990)
  • Presidential election, 2004: Paul Biya (RDPC) 70.9%
  • Parliamentary election, 2007
    Cameroonian parliamentary election, 2007
    A parliamentary election was held in Cameroon on 22 July 2007, with some polls held again on 30 September 2007. 1,274 candidates stood for the 180 seats in the National Assembly, with 41 parties participating...

    : RDPC 153 of 180 seats


 Chad
  • Patriotic Salvation Movement
    Patriotic Salvation Movement
    The Patriotic Salvation Movement is the ruling political party in Chad.After Idriss Déby, an army commander who participated in an unsuccessful plot against President Hissène Habré in 1989, fled to Sudan, he and his supporters, known as the April 1 Movement, operated from Sudan with Libyan backing...

     (Mouvement Patriotique de Salut de SMPS)
  • Led by President Idriss Déby Itno, in office since 2 December 1990
  • In power since 2 December 1990
  • Presidential election, 2006
    Chadian presidential election, 2006
    A presidential election took place in Chad on May 3, 2006. A 2005 constitutional referendum made it possible for President Idriss Déby to run for a third term; having come to power in December 1990, he previously won elections in 1996 and 2001...

    : Idriss Déby (MPS) 64.7%
  • Parliamentary election, 2002: MPS 110 of 155 seats


 Republic of the Congo
  • Congolese Labour Party (Parti Congolais du Travail, PCT)
  • Led by President Denis Sassou-Nguesso, in office from 8 February 1979 to 31 August 1992 and since 15 October 1997
  • In power, under various names, from 1963 to 1992 and since 1997 (Sole legal party, 1963–1990)
  • Presidential election, 2002: Denis Sassou-Nguesso (PCT) 89.4%
  • Parliamentary election, 2002: PCT 53 of 137 seats


 Djibouti
  • Popular Rally for Progress (Rassemblement Populaire pour de Progrès, RPP)
  • Led by President Ismail Omar Guelleh
    Ismail Omar Guelleh
    Ismaïl Omar Guelleh is the President of Djibouti. He succeeded his uncle, Hassan Gouled Aptidon, in 1999. He is often referred to in the region by his initials 'IOG'....

    , in office since 8 May 1999
  • In power since its formation in 1979 (Sole legal party, 1979–1992)
  • Presidential election, 2005: Ismail Omar Guelleh (RPP) re-elected unopposed
  • Parliamentary election, 2003: RPP in coalition, 62.4% and 65 of 65 seats


 Equatorial Guinea
  • Democratic Party of Equatorial Guinea
    Democratic Party of Equatorial Guinea
    The Democratic Party of Equatorial Guinea is the ruling political party in Equatorial Guinea. It was established by President Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo as the country's sole legal political organization on 11 October 1987...

     (Partido Democrático de Guinea Ecuatorial, PDGE)
  • Led by President Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo
    Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo
    Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo is an Equatoguinean politician who has been President of Equatorial Guinea since 1979. He ousted his uncle, Francisco Macías Nguema, in an August 1979 military coup and has overseen Equatorial Guinea's emergence as an important oil producer, beginning in the 1990s...

    , in office since 3 August 1979
  • In power since its formation in 1987 (Sole legal party, 1987–1991)
  • Presidential election, 2002: Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo (PDGE) 97.1%
  • Parliamentary election, 2004: PDGE 47.5% and 68 of 100 seats (91.9% and 98 of 100 seats including allies)


 Ethiopia
  • Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front
    Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front
    The Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front is the ruling political coalition in Ethiopia. It is an alliance of four other groups: the Oromo Peoples' Democratic Organization , the Amhara National Democratic Movement , the South Ethiopian Peoples' Democratic Front The Ethiopian People's...

     (EPRDF)
  • Led by Prime Minister Meles Zenawi
    Meles Zenawi
    Meles Zenawi Asres is the Prime Minister of Ethiopia. Since 1985, he has been chairman of the Tigrayan Peoples' Liberation Front , and is currently head of the ruling Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front .Meles was born in Adwa, Tigray in Northern Ethiopia, to an Ethiopian father from...

    , in office since 28 May 1991 (as prime minister since 22 August 1995)
  • In power since 28 May 1991
  • Parliamentary election, 2005
    Ethiopian general elections, 2005
    Ethiopia held general elections on May 15, 2005, for seats in both its national and in four regional government councils. Under pressure from the international community, Prime Minister Meles Zenawi promised that this election would be proof that more democracy would come in this multi-ethnic...

    : EPRDF 327 of 547 seats


 Gabon
  • Gabonese Democratic Party
    Gabonese Democratic Party
    The Gabonese Democratic Party , is the ruling and dominant political party of Gabon. Its motto is Dialogue, Tolerance, Peace.It has held power since independence, first under Léon M'ba , then under Omar Bongo...

     (Parti Démocratique Gabonais, PDG)
  • Led by President Ali Bongo Ondimba, in office since 16 October 2009
  • In power, under various names, since 28 November 1958 (Sole legal party, 1968–1991)
  • Presidential election, 2009
    Gabonese presidential election, 2009
    A presidential election was held in Gabon on 30 August 2009 after the incumbent President Omar Bongo Ondimba died on 8 June 2009. While the constitution stated that Interim President Rose Francine Rogombé should organise elections within 30 to 45 days, the Constitutional Court accepted the...

    : Ali Bongo Ondimba (PDG) 41.7%
  • Parliamentary election, 2006
    Gabonese legislative election, 2006
    A legislative election was held in Gabon on 17 December 2006 ....

    : PDG 82 of 120 seats (99 of 120 seats including allies)


 The Gambia
  • Alliance for Patriotic Reorientation and Construction
    Alliance for Patriotic Reorientation and Construction
    The Alliance for Patriotic Reorientation and Construction is a political party in The Gambia, founded by army officers who staged a coup in 1994. It was formed in 1996 to support army leader Yahya Jammeh's campaign for the 1996 elections....

     (APRC)
  • Led by President Yahya Jammeh
    Yahya Jammeh
    Alhaji Dr. Yahya Abdul-Aziz Jemus Junkung Jammeh is the President of The Gambia...

    , in office since 22 July 1994
  • In power since its formation in 1996
  • Presidential election, 2006
    Gambian presidential election, 2006
    The Gambian presidential election, 2006 was held on 22 September 2006. 670,000 Gambians registered to vote, and 59% of registered voters turned out to vote. Many of the 989 polling booths used marbles which were inserted into candidate drums instead of ballot papers due to the high illiteracy rate...

    : Yahya A. J. J. Jammeh (APRC) 67.3%
  • Parliamentary election, 2007
    Gambian parliamentary election, 2007
    A parliamentary election was held in The Gambia on 25 January 2007. Forty-eight members of the National Assembly were elected, with another five being appointed by the President. 103 candidates had been approved by the Independent Electoral Commission, and only the ruling party, the Alliance for...

    : APRC 42 of 48 seats


 Lesotho
  • Lesotho Congress for Democracy
    Lesotho Congress for Democracy
    The Lesotho Congress for Democracy is a political party in Lesotho.In 1997, Prime Minister Ntsu Mokhehle left the Basutoland Congress Party to form with his faction the new Lesotho Congress for Democracy. The new party won the 1998 elections with 60.7% of the popular vote and 79 out of 80 seats....

     (LCD)
  • Led by Prime Minister Pakalitha Mosisili
    Pakalitha Mosisili
    Bethuel Pakalitha Mosisili has been the Prime Minister of Lesotho since May 29, 1998. He led his party, the Lesotho Congress for Democracy , to a near-total victory in the 1998 election, and under his leadership the party also won majorities in the 2002 and 2007 elections...

    , in office since 29 May 1998
  • In power since its formation in 1997
  • Parliamentary election, 2007: LCD 61 of 120 seats


 Mozambique
  • Mozambican Liberation Front
    Mozambican Liberation Front
    The Liberation Front of Mozambique, , from the Portuguese Frente de Libertação de Moçambique, was a liberation movement which was founded in 1962 to fight for the independence of the Portuguese Overseas Province of Mozambique...

     (FRELIMO)
  • Led by President Armando Guebuza
    Armando Guebuza
    Armando Emílio Guebuza is a Mozambican politician and the President of Mozambique since 2005.- Career :Armando Emílio Guebuza was born in 20 January 1943 in Portuguese East Africa...

    , in office since 2 February 2005
  • In power since independence, 25 June 1975 (Sole legal party, 1975–1990)
  • Presidential election, 2004
    Mozambique presidential election, 2004
    General elections were held in Mozambique on 1 and 2 December 2004 to elect a president and the Assembly of the Republic. Incumbent president Joaquim Chissano stepped down after 18 years in power, with five candidates running to succeed him. Armando Guebuza of the ruling FRELIMO party won, with...

    : Armando Guebuza (FRELIMO) 63.7%
  • Parliamentary election, 2004: FRELIMO 62.0% and 160 of 250 seats


 Namibia
  • South-West Africa People's Organisation
    South-West Africa People's Organisation
    The South West Africa People's Organization is a political party and former liberation movement in Namibia. It has been the governing party in Namibia since achieving independence in 1990...

     (SWAPO)
  • Led by President Hifikepunye Pohamba
    Hifikepunye Pohamba
    Hifikepunye Lucas Pohamba is the second and current President of Namibia. He won the 2004 and 2009 presidential elections overwhelmingly as the candidate of the South West Africa People's Organisation ruling party, taking office in March 2005. He has also been the President of SWAPO since...

    , in office since 21 March 2005
  • In power since independence, 21 March 1990
  • Presidential election, 2004: Hifikepunye Pohamba (SWAPO) 76.4%
  • Parliamentary election, 2004: SWAPO 55 of 72 seats


 Nigeria
  • People's Democratic Party
    People's Democratic Party (Nigeria)
    The People's Democratic Party is a political party in Nigeria. Its policies generally lie towards the right wing of the political spectrum. It has won every single Presidential elections since 1999, namely: 1999, 2003, 2007, and 2011, and is the dominant party in the Fourth Republic.-History:In...

     (PDP)
  • Led by President Goodluck Jonathan
    Goodluck Jonathan
    Goodluck Ebele Azikiwe Jonathan, GCFR, BNER, GCON is the 14th Head of State and current President of Nigeria.He was Governor of Bayelsa State from 9 December 2005 to 28 May 2007, and was sworn in as Vice President of the Federal Republic of Nigeria on 29 May 2007. Jonathan is a member of the...

    , in office since 5 May 2010
  • In power since 29 May 1999
  • Presidential election, 2011: Goodluck Jonathan (PDP) 58.9%
  • Parliamentary election, 2003: PDP 54.8% and 198 of 318 seats


 Rwanda
  • Rwandan Patriotic Front
    Rwandan Patriotic Front
    The Rwandan Patriotic Front abbreviated as RPF is the current ruling political party of Rwanda, led by President Paul Kagame. It governs in a coalition with other parties...

     (RPF)
  • Led by President Paul Kagame
    Paul Kagame
    Paul Kagame is the sixth and current President of the Republic of Rwanda. He rose to prominence as the leader of the Rwandan Patriotic Front , whose victory over the incumbent government in July 1994 effectively ended the Rwandan genocide...

    , in office since 24 March 2000
  • In power since 19 July 1994
  • Presidential election, 2003
    Rwandan presidential election, 2003
    A presidential election was held in Rwanda on 25 August 2003. Paul Kagame easily won the election against a weak opposition.-Source:*...

    : Paul Kagame (RPF) 95.1%
  • Parliamentary election, 2003: RPF 73.8% and 40 of 53 seats


 Seychelles
  • People's Party
  • Led by President James Michel
    James Michel
    Colonel James Alix Michel is a Seychellois politician who has been President of Seychelles since April 16, 2004. He previously served as Vice-President under his predecessor, France-Albert René, from 1996 to 2004...

    , in office since 14 April 2004
  • In power since 5 June 1977 (Sole legal party, 1979–1991)
  • Presidential election, 2006: James Michel (SPPF) 53.7%
  • Parliamentary election, 2007
    Seychellois parliamentary election, 2007
    A parliamentary election was held in Seychelles from 10 May until 12 May 2007. The result was a landslide victory for the ruling Seychelles People's Progressive Front, which held all 23 of its seats in the 34 seat National Assembly.-Results:...

    : SPPF 56.2% and 23 of 34 seats


 South Africa
  • African National Congress
    African National Congress
    The African National Congress is South Africa's governing Africanist political party, supported by its tripartite alliance with the Congress of South African Trade Unions and the South African Communist Party , since the establishment of non-racial democracy in April 1994. It defines itself as a...

     (ANC)
  • Led by President Jacob Zuma
    Jacob Zuma
    Jacob Gedleyihlekisa Zuma is the President of South Africa, elected by parliament following his party's victory in the 2009 general election....

    , in office since 9 May 2009
  • In power since 10 May 1994
  • Parliamentary election, 2009
    South African general election, 2009
    South Africa held national and provincial elections to elect a new National Assembly as well as the provincial legislature in each province on 22 April 2009....

    : ANC 65.90% and 264 of 400 seats


  • Sudan People's Liberation Movement (SPLM)
  • Led by President Salva Kiir, in office since 11 August 2005
  • In power since 9 July 2005
  • Presidential election, 2010: Salva Kiir (SPLM) 93%


 Sudan
  • National Congress
    National Congress (Sudan)
    The National Congress or National Congress Party ' is the governing official political party of Sudan. It is headed by Omar al-Bashir, who has been President of Sudan since he seized power in a military coup on 30 June 1989, and began institutionalizing Sharia law at a national level...

     (NC)
  • Led by President Omar Hassan Ahmad al-Bashir, in office since 30 June 1989
  • In power since its formation, 16 October 1993
  • Presidential election, 2010: Omar Hassan Ahmad al-Bashir (NC) 68.24%
  • Parliamentary election, 2010: NC 306 of 450 seats


 Tanzania
  • Chama Cha Mapinduzi
    Chama Cha Mapinduzi
    The Chama cha Mapinduzi is the ruling political party of Tanzania.- History :The party was created February 5, 1977, under the leadership of Julius Nyerere as the merger of the Tanganyika African National Union , the then ruling party in Tanganyika, and the Afro-Shirazi Party , the then ruling...

     (CCM)
  • Led by President Jakaya Kikwete
    Jakaya Kikwete
    Jakaya Mrisho Kikwete is the 4th and current President of the United Republic of Tanzania. Kikwete was born in Msoga, Bagamoyo District, Tanganyika in present day Tanzania...

    , in office since 21 December 2005
  • In power, under various names, since independence, 9 December 1961 (Sole legal party, 1964–1992)
  • Presidential election, 2005
    Tanzanian elections, 2005
    Tanzania held presidential and parliamentary elections on 14 December 2005. Originally scheduled for 30 October, the elections were postponed due to the death of a vice-presidential candidate. These polls were the third since the country returned to multiparty rule in 1992...

    : Jakaya Kikwete (CCM) 80.3%
  • Parliamentary election, 2005: CCM 206 of 232 seats


 Togo
  • Rally of the Togolese People
    Rally of the Togolese People
    The Rally of the Togolese People is the ruling political party in Togo. The President of Togo, Faure Gnassingbé, is also the National President of the RPT....

     (RPT)
  • Led by President Faure Gnassingbé
    Faure Gnassingbé
    Faure Essozimna Gnassingbé has been the President of Togo since May 4, 2005. A son of President Gnassingbé Eyadéma, he was appointed to the government by his father, serving as Minister of Equipment, Mines, Posts, and Telecommunications from 2003 to 2005...

    , in office since 5 February 2005
  • In power since its formation in 1969 (Sole legal party, 1969–1991)
  • Presidential election, 2005
    Togolese presidential election, 2005
    A presidential election was held in Togo on April 24, 2005, following the death in office of long-time president Gnassingbé Eyadéma. The main candidates were Eyadéma's son, Faure Gnassingbé, and opposition leader Emmanuel Bob-Akitani. The election and the period preceding it were marked by...

    : Faure Gnassingbé
    Faure Gnassingbé
    Faure Essozimna Gnassingbé has been the President of Togo since May 4, 2005. A son of President Gnassingbé Eyadéma, he was appointed to the government by his father, serving as Minister of Equipment, Mines, Posts, and Telecommunications from 2003 to 2005...

     (RPT) 60.2%
  • Parliamentary election, 2007
    Togolese parliamentary election, 2007
    A parliamentary election was held in Togo on October 14, 2007 for the 81 seats in the National Assembly. There were over 2,000 candidates, with 32 parties and 41 lists of independent candidates competing. The ruling Rally of the Togolese People was victorious, winning a majority of 50 seats...

    : RPT 50 of 81 seats


 Zimbabwe
  • Zimbabwe African National Union — Patriotic Front (ZANU-PF)
  • Led by President Robert Mugabe
    Robert Mugabe
    Robert Gabriel Mugabe is the President of Zimbabwe. As one of the leaders of the liberation movement against white-minority rule, he was elected into power in 1980...

    , in office since 18 April 1980 (as president since 31 December 1987)
  • In power since independence, 17 April 1980
  • Presidential election, 2002: Robert Mugabe (ZANU-PF) 56.2%
  • House of Assembly election, 2005: ZANU-PF 59.6% and 78 of 120 elective seats (30 additional seats reserved for appointees)
  • Senate election, 2005: ZANU-PF 73.7% and 43 of 50 elective seats (16 additional seats reserved for appointees and traditional chiefs)


 Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic
  • Polisario Front
    Polisario Front
    The POLISARIO, Polisario Front, or Frente Polisario, from the Spanish abbreviation of Frente Popular de Liberación de Saguía el Hamra y Río de Oro is a Sahrawi rebel national liberation movement working for the independence of Western Sahara from Morocco...

  • In power since 1976
  • Led by Secretary General Mohamed Abdelaziz
    Mohamed Abdelaziz
    Mohamed Abdelaziz is the 3rd and current Secretary General of the Polisario Front and President of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic since 1976...

  • General Popular Congress 2002
    Elections in Western Sahara
    Elections in the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic gives information on election and election results in the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic.The Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic claims the Western Sahara, a territory largely administered by Morocco since Spain abandoned it in 1975...

    : 100%
  • In 2004, a splinter group, the Front Polisario Khat al-Shahid
    Front Polisario Khat al-Shahid
    Front Polisario Khat al-Shahid is a minor faction within the Front Polisario...

     was announced.

Americas


'
  • The Barbuda People's Movement
    Barbuda People's Movement
    The Barbuda People's Movement is a political party in Antigua and Barbuda allied with the ruling United Progressive Party.-History:The party first contested a general election in 1989, in which they won a single seat. They held the seat in the 1994 and 1999. In the 2004 elections the candidates of...

     has ruled the island of Barbuda
    Barbuda
    Barbuda is an island in the Eastern Caribbean, and forms part of the state of Antigua and Barbuda. It has a population of about 1,500, most of whom live in the town of Codrington.-Location:...

     since 1979, and has won every election for the island's seat in the national House of Representatives
    House of Representatives of Antigua and Barbuda
    The House of Representatives of Antigua and Barbuda is the lower chamber of the country's bicameral parliament.The current House of Representatives, formed following elections held on 12 March 2009, has a total of 19 members. 17 members are directly elected to five year terms from single member...

    .


Canada
Canada
Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, and northward into the Arctic Ocean...

  • The Canadian province of Alberta
    Alberta
    Alberta is a province of Canada. It had an estimated population of 3.7 million in 2010 making it the most populous of Canada's three prairie provinces...

     has been ruled continuously by the Progressive Conservatives
    Progressive Conservative Association of Alberta
    The Progressive Conservative Association of Alberta is a provincial centre-right party in the Canadian province of Alberta...

     since August 30, 1971. Prior to that, the Social Credit Party
    Social Credit Party of Alberta
    The Alberta Social Credit Party is a provincial political party in Alberta, Canada, that was founded on the social credit monetary policy and conservative Christian social values....

     held power for 36 years starting on August 22, 1935.


 Bermuda
  • The Progressive Labour Party
    Progressive Labour Party (Bermuda)
    The Progressive Labour Party is a political party in Bermuda. It has been in power since 1998, winning subsequent elections in 2003 and 2007.- Formation :...

     has been in power continuously since November 1998.


United States has been continuously ruled by the Democratic Party
Democratic Party (United States)
The Democratic Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. The party's socially liberal and progressive platform is largely considered center-left in the U.S. political spectrum. The party has the lengthiest record of continuous...

 since the Home Rule Act
District of Columbia Home Rule Act
The District of Columbia Home Rule Act is a United States federal law passed on December 24, 1973 which devolved certain congressional powers of the District of Columbia to local government, furthering District of Columbia home rule...

 of 1973, which granted D.C. an elected city government.
  • The Mayoralty
    Mayor of Chicago
    The Mayor of Chicago is the chief executive of Chicago, Illinois, the third largest city in the United States. He or she is charged with directing city departments and agencies, and with the advice and consent of the Chicago City Council, appoints department and agency leaders.-Appointment...

     of Chicago
    Chicago
    Chicago is the largest city in the US state of Illinois. With nearly 2.7 million residents, it is the most populous city in the Midwestern United States and the third most populous in the US, after New York City and Los Angeles...

     has been held by a member of the Democratic Party
    Democratic Party (United States)
    The Democratic Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. The party's socially liberal and progressive platform is largely considered center-left in the U.S. political spectrum. The party has the lengthiest record of continuous...

     since 1927. In addition, , all aldermen
    Alderman
    An alderman is a member of a municipal assembly or council in many jurisdictions founded upon English law. The term may be titular, denoting a high-ranking member of a borough or county council, a council member chosen by the elected members themselves rather than by popular vote, or a council...

     on the Chicago City Council
    Chicago City Council
    The Chicago City Council is the legislative branch of the government of the City of Chicago in Illinois. It consists of 50 aldermen elected from 50 wards to serve four-year terms...

     save one (Brian Doherty
    Brian Doherty (politician)
    Brian G. Doherty was the alderman of the 41st Ward of the City of Chicago from 1991 to 2011. First elected to the Chicago City Council in 1991 when he defeated longtime incumbent Roman Pucinski, Doherty represented portions of the city's Northwest Side, including O'Hare International Airport...

    ) are Democrats. has had an unbroken Democratic majority in its legislature since the late 1950s; the Governorship
    Governor of Massachusetts
    The Governor of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts is the executive magistrate of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, United States. The current governor is Democrat Deval Patrick.-Constitutional role:...

    , however, has seen fairly even distribution between Republicans and Democrats.
  • During "Era of Good Feelings
    Era of Good Feelings
    The Era of Good Feelings was a period in United States political history in which partisan bitterness abated. It lasted approximately from 1815 to 1825, during the administration of U.S...

    " the Democratic Republican Party dominated with no effective opposition from the Federalists, allowing James Monroe to run unopposed in the 1820 presidential election
    United States presidential election, 1820
    The United States presidential election of 1820 was the third and last presidential election in United States history in which a candidate ran effectively unopposed. In 1820, President James Monroe and Vice President Daniel D...

    . poltics have been dominated by the Democratic Party
    Democratic Party (United States)
    The Democratic Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. The party's socially liberal and progressive platform is largely considered center-left in the U.S. political spectrum. The party has the lengthiest record of continuous...

     since the Democratic Revolution of 1954. Texas statewide been increasingly dominated by the Republican
    Republican Party (United States)
    The Republican Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Democratic Party. Founded by anti-slavery expansion activists in 1854, it is often called the GOP . The party's platform generally reflects American conservatism in the U.S...

     since the 1970s. Some counties haven't voted for a Democratic presidential candidate since 1948. Republicans have held all statewide offices since 1994 and they currently hold a super-majority in the Texas House of Representatives
    Texas House of Representatives
    The Texas House of Representatives is the lower house of the Texas Legislature. The House is composed of 150 members elected from single-member districts across the state. The average district has about 150,000 people. Representatives are elected to two-year terms with no term limits...

    .


 Venezuela
  • United Socialist Party of Venezuela
    United Socialist Party of Venezuela
    The United Socialist Party of Venezuela is the name of a democratic socialist political party in Venezuela which resulted from the fusion of some of the political and social forces that support the Bolivarian Revolution led by incumbent President Hugo Chávez...

     (PSUV), previously Fifth Republic Movement
    Fifth Republic Movement
    The Fifth Republic Movement was a left-wing, Socialist political party in Venezuela. It was founded in July 1997, following a national congress of the Revolutionary Bolivarian Movement-200, to support the candidacy of Hugo Chávez, the current President of Venezuela, in the Venezuelan presidential...

    , formed by a coalition of nearly all pro-Chávez parties.
  • Led by President Hugo Chávez
    Hugo Chávez
    Hugo Rafael Chávez Frías is the 56th and current President of Venezuela, having held that position since 1999. He was formerly the leader of the Fifth Republic Movement political party from its foundation in 1997 until 2007, when he became the leader of the United Socialist Party of Venezuela...

    , in office since 2 February 1999
  • Presidential election, 2006
    Venezuelan presidential election, 2006
    The Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela held presidential elections on 3 December 2006, to choose a president for the six-year term to begin on 10 January 2007...

    : Hugo Chávez 62.84%
  • Parliamentary election, 2010
    Venezuelan parliamentary election, 2010
    The 2010 parliamentary election in Venezuela took place on 26 September 2010 to elect the 165 deputies to the National Assembly. Venezuelan opposition parties, which had boycotted the previous election, thus allowing the governing United Socialist Party of Venezuela to gain a two-thirds...

    : 96 of 167 seats

Asia / Oceania


 Cambodia
  • Cambodian People's Party
    Cambodian People's Party
    The Cambodian People's Party is the current ruling party of Cambodia.This party was formerly known as Kampuchean People's Revolutionary Party...

     (KPK)
  • Led by Prime Minister
    Prime Minister of Cambodia
    The Prime Minister of Cambodia , is the head of government of the Kingdom of Cambodia. Prime Minister is appointed by the King under Article 119 of the Constitution and is responsible for leading the government of the Kingdom.-Constitutional powers:The powers of the Prime Minister are established...

     Hun Sen
    Hun Sen
    Hun Sen is the current Prime Minister of Cambodia.He has been the sole leader of the Cambodian People's Party , which has governed Cambodia since the Vietnamese-backed overthrow of the Khmer Rouge in 1979...

    , in office since 14 January 1985
  • In power since 1981


 Kazakhstan
  • Nur Otan is headed by President Nursultan Nazarbayev
    Nursultan Nazarbayev
    Nursultan Abishuly Nazarbayev has served as the President of Kazakhstan since the nation received its independence in 1991, after the fall of the Soviet Union...

     and holds all seats in the Majilis
    Majilis
    The Majilis is the lower house of the bicameral Parliament of Kazakhstan, known as the Parlamenti, in the Government of Kazakhstan. The upper house of Parliament is the Senate of Kazakhstan. There are 77 seats, 67 in single seat constituencies and 10 by proportional representation, in the Majilis...

    .


 Malaysia
  • Barisan Nasional
    Barisan Nasional
    Barisan Nasional is a major political coalition in Malaysia, formed in 1973 as the successor to the Alliance . Along with its predecessor, it has been Malaysia's federal ruling political force since independence...

     (National Front), a coalition of 14 parties led by the United Malays National Organization (UMNO)
  • Led by Prime Minister
    Prime Minister of Malaysia
    The Prime Minister of Malaysia is the indirectly elected head of government of Malaysia. He is officially appointed by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, the head of state, who in HM's judgment is likely to command the confidence of the majority of the members of that House of Representatives , the...

     Najib Tun Razak
    Najib Tun Razak
    Dato' Sri Haji Mohd Najib bin Tun Haji Abdul Razak is the sixth, and since 2009, Prime Minister of Malaysia. He previously held the post of Deputy Prime Minister from 7 January 2004 until he succeeded Tun Abdullah Ahmad Badawi as Prime Minister on 3 April 2009. Najib is President of the United...

    , in office since 3 April 2009 http://www.channelnewsasia.com/stories/afp_asiapacific/view/419844/1/.html
  • In power since independence, 28 August 1957
  • Parliamentary election, 2008: UMNO 29.33% and 79 out of 222 seats, total for Barisan Nasional 50.27% and 140 out of 222 seats

 Samoa'
  • Human Rights Protection Party
    Human Rights Protection Party
    The Human Rights Protection Party is a Samoan political party. It has been the dominant party in Samoan politics since 1982.The party was co-founded in May 1979 by Va'ai Kolone and Tofilau Eti Alesana in opposition to the government of Tupuola Efi...

     (HRPP)
  • Led by Prime Minister
    Prime Minister of Samoa
    This is a list of Prime Ministers of Samoa from the establishment of that office in 1875 until the present day.-List of Prime Ministers of Samoa :-See also:*Samoa**Politics of Samoa...

     Tuila'epa Sailele Malielegaoi, in office since 23 November 1998
  • In power since 1982
  • Parliamentary election, 2006: HRPP 35 of 49 seats


 Singapore
  • People's Action Party
    People's Action Party
    The People's Action Party is the leading political party in Singapore. It has been the city-state's ruling political party since 1959....

     (PAP)
  • Led by Prime Minister
    Prime Minister of Singapore
    The Prime Minister of the Republic of Singapore is the head of the government of the Republic of Singapore. The President of Singapore appoints as Prime Minister a Member of Parliament who, in his opinion, is most likely to command the confidence of a majority of MPs.The office of Prime Minister...

     Lee Hsien Loong
    Lee Hsien Loong
    Lee Hsien Loong is the third and current Prime Minister of Singapore. He is married to Ho Ching, who is the Executive Director and Chief Executive Officer of Temasek Holdings. He is the eldest son of Singapore's first Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew....

    , in office since 12 August 2004
  • In power since 3 June 1959
  • Parliamentary election, 2011: PAP won 60.1% of the popular vote and 81 out of 87 seats (of which 5 were uncontested)


 Tajikistan
  • People's Democratic Party of Tajikistan
    People's Democratic Party of Tajikistan
    The People's Democratic Party of Tajikistan is a political party in Tajikistan. It is the ruling party, and is led by Emomalii Rahmon, the current President of Tajikistan. At the last legislative elections, 27 February and 13 March 2005 , the party won 74% of the popular vote and 52 out of 63 seats...

     (PDPT)
  • Led by President Emomalii Rahmon
  • In power since 1992


 Yemen
  • General People's Congress
    General People's Congress
    The General People's Congress is the ruling political party in Yemen.Was founded in August 24, 1982 in Sana'a, YemenAt the last legislative elections, 27 April 2003, the party won 58.0% of the popular vote and 238 out of 301 seats in the Assembly of Representatives of Yemen....

     (GPC)
  • Led by President
    President of Yemen
    The President of the Republic of Yemen is the head of state of Yemen.Under the Constitution of Yemen, the president is also the supreme commander of the armed forces and head of the executive branch of the Yemeni government....

     Ali Abdullah Saleh
    Ali Abdullah Saleh
    Field Marshal Ali Abdullah Saleh is the first President of the Republic of Yemen. Saleh previously served as President of the Yemen Arab Republic from 1978 until 1990, at which time he assumed the office of chairman of the Presidential Council of a post-unification Yemen. He is the...

    , in office since 22 May 1990
  • In power since the unification of North Yemen
    North Yemen
    North Yemen is a term currently used to designate the Yemen Arab Republic , its predecessor, the Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen , and their predecessors that exercised sovereignty over the territory that is now the north-western part of the state of Yemen in southern Arabia.Neither state ever...

     and South Yemen in 1990
  • Presidential Election, 2006: Ali Abdullah Saleh (GPC) 77.2%
  • Parliamentary Election, 2003
    Yemeni parliamentary election, 2003
    Parliamentary elections were held in Yemen on 27 April, 2003. Originally scheduled for 2001, they were won by President Ali Abdullah Saleh's General People's Congress, who took 58% of the vote...

    : GPC 58.0% and 238 out of 301 seats

Europe


 Armenia
  • The Republican Party of Armenia
    Republican Party of Armenia
    The Republican Party of Armenia is a national conservative political party in Armenia. It was the first political party in independent Armenia to be founded and registered . It is the largest party of the centre-right in Armenia, and claims to have 140,000 members...

     is the dominant party in Armenia since the election of Robert Kocharyan as President, continuing under his successor Serzh Sargsyan.


 Azerbaijan
  • New Azerbaijan Party
    New Azerbaijan Party
    The New Azerbaijan Party is the ruling political party in Azerbaijan. It was formed on 18 December 1992 by the former President of Azerbaijan Heydar Aliyev, who led it until his retirement and death in 2003...

     (YAP) has been in power essentially continuously since 1993.


 Kingdom of Bavaria (Germany)
  • Christian Social Union
    Christian Social Union of Bavaria
    The Christian Social Union in Bavaria is a Christian democratic and conservative political party in Germany. It operates only in the state of Bavaria, while its sister party, the Christian Democratic Union , operates in the other 15 states of Germany...

     has dominated politics in the state of Bavaria
    Bavaria
    Bavaria, formally the Free State of Bavaria is a state of Germany, located in the southeast of Germany. With an area of , it is the largest state by area, forming almost 20% of the total land area of Germany...

     since 1957. Forming the government on their own for most of this period, they are now in a coalition government.


 Georgia (country)
  • United National Movement is seen as dominant, having been the primary sponsor of the Rose Revolution
    Rose Revolution
    The "Revolution of Roses" was a change of power in Georgia in November 2003, which took place after having widespread protests over the disputed parliamentary elections...

     of 2003.


 Luxembourg
  • The Christian Social People's Party
    Christian Social People's Party
    The Christian Social People's Party , abbreviated to CSV or PCS, is the largest political party in Luxembourg. The party follows a Christian Democratic and conservative ideology and, like most parties in Luxembourg, it is strongly pro-European...

     (CSV), with its predecessor Party of the Right
    Party of the Right
    Party of the Right may refer to:* The Party of the Right , a defunct conservative party* The Party of the Right , an elective membership intellectual, fraternal, and political society which holds debates and participates in the Yale Political Union* The Party of Rights , a Croatian political party...

    , has governed Luxembourg continuously since 1917, except for 1974–79. However, Luxembourg has a coalition system, and the CSV has been in coalition with at least one of the two next two leading parties for all but four years. It has always won a plurality of seats in parliamentary elections, although it has lost the popular vote in 1964
    Luxembourgian legislative election, 1964
    Legislative elections were held in Luxembourg on 7 June 1964. Voters elected all 56 members of the Grand Duchy's unicameral national legislature, the Chamber of Deputies.-Results:...

     and 1974
    Luxembourgian legislative election, 1964
    Legislative elections were held in Luxembourg on 7 June 1964. Voters elected all 56 members of the Grand Duchy's unicameral national legislature, the Chamber of Deputies.-Results:...

    .


 Malta
  • The Partit Nazzjonalista has democratically been the sole governing party in Malta since 1987, except for a brief 22-month period between 1996 and 1998. It won elections held in 1987, 1992, 1998, 2003 and 2008, each time defeating the left-of-centre Malta Labour Party
    Malta Labour Party
    The Labour Party is, along with the Nationalist Party, one of two major contemporary political parties in Malta. It is the party of opposition in the Maltese House of Representatives where it has thirty-four of the sixty-nine seats.- Party Structure :...

    . Since 1966 there have only been these two parties represented in the Maltese Parliament.


 Kingdom of Montenegro
  • Democratic Party of Socialists of Montenegro
    Democratic Party of Socialists of Montenegro
    The Democratic Party of Socialists of Montenegro is the ruling social-democratic political party in Montenegro....

    , founded in 1943 as Communist Party of Montenegro, part of the Communist Party of Yugoslavia
  • Led by Milo Đukanović, five time Prime Minister
    Prime Minister of Montenegro
    The Prime Minister of Montenegro , is the head of the Government of Montenegro. The role of the Prime Minister is to direct the work of the Government, and to submit to the Parliament the Government's Program, including a list of proposed ministers...

     (1991–1998, 2003–2006, 2008–2010) and former President
    President of Montenegro
    -Presidents of Montenegro:-See also:*President of Serbia and Montenegro*President of Yugoslavia*List of Presidents of Montenegro*Prime Minister of Montenegro-External links:*...

     (1998–2002)
  • In power since establishment of Communist
    Communism
    Communism is a social, political and economic ideology that aims at the establishment of a classless, moneyless, revolutionary and stateless socialist society structured upon common ownership of the means of production...

     rule in Montenegro/Yugoslavia
    Yugoslavia
    Yugoslavia refers to three political entities that existed successively on the western part of the Balkans during most of the 20th century....

     in 1944/5 (Sole legal party, 1945–1990)
  • Presidential election, 2008
    Montenegrin presidential election, 2008
    A presidential election was held in Montenegro on 6 April 2008; it was the country's first since independence. According to a compromise with the opposition, local elections in Herceg-Novi and Tivat were held at the same time. The law on presidential elections was passed on 27 December 2007....

    : Filip Vujanović
    Filip Vujanovic
    Filip Vujanović is a Montenegrin politician who, since 2003, has served as the President of Montenegro. He is the first President of Montenegro since it split ties with Serbia and became an independent nation in June 2006...

     (DPS CG), 51.89%
  • Parliamentary election, 2009
    Montenegrin parliamentary election, 2009
    Pre-term parliamentary elections in Montenegro were scheduled by President of Montenegro Filip Vujanović on 27 January 2009 by the Decree of Scheduling Elections for the Assembly of Montenegro, in accordance with Article 92 point 5 of the Montenegrin Constitution:..and Article 95:As well as Article...

    : DPS CG in coalition, 51.94% and 48 (35) of 81 seats


 Russia
  • United Russia
    United Russia
    United Russia is a centrist political party in Russia and the largest party in the country, currently holding 315 of the 450 seats in the State Duma. The party was founded in December 2001, through a merger of the Unity and Fatherland-All Russia parties...

  • Led by Prime Minister
    Prime Minister of Russia
    The Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation The use of the term "Prime Minister" is strictly informal and is not allowed for by the Russian Constitution and other laws....

     Vladimir Putin
    Vladimir Putin
    Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin served as the second President of the Russian Federation and is the current Prime Minister of Russia, as well as chairman of United Russia and Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Union of Russia and Belarus. He became acting President on 31 December 1999, when...

     (President 1999–2008 and Prime Minister since 2008), nominated President Dmitry Medvedev
    Dmitry Medvedev
    Dmitry Anatolyevich Medvedev is the third President of the Russian Federation.Born to a family of academics, Medvedev graduated from the Law Department of Leningrad State University in 1987. He defended his dissertation in 1990 and worked as a docent at his alma mater, now renamed to Saint...

     (since 2008)
  • In power since 2003
  • Presidential election, 2008
    Russian presidential election, 2008
    The Russian Presidential election of 2008, held on March 2, 2008 resulted in the election of Dmitry Medvedev as the third President of Russia. Medvedev, whose candidacy was supported by incumbent president Vladimir Putin and five political parties , received 71% of the vote, and defeated...

    : Dmitry Medvedev 70.28%
  • Parliamentary election, 2007
    Russian legislative election, 2007
    Legislative elections were held in the Russian Federation on 2 December 2007. At stake were the 450 seats in the State Duma, the lower house of the Federal Assembly of Russia . Eleven parties were included in the ballot, including Russia's largest party, United Russia, which was supported by...

    : 64.1% and 315 of 450 seats


 Wales (United Kingdom)
  • Welsh Labour Party
  • Led by First Minister Carwyn Jones
    Carwyn Jones
    Carwyn Howell Jones is a Welsh politician and the First Minister of Wales. The third official to lead the Welsh Government, Jones has been Assembly Member for Bridgend since 1999. In the coalition government of Welsh Labour and Plaid Cymru, he was appointed Counsel General for Wales and Leader of...

     (First Minister since 2009)
  • In power since 1999
  • UK general election, 2010 in Wales
    2010 United Kingdom general election results in Wales
    These are the results of the United Kingdom general election, 2010 for the country of Wales. The election was held on 6 May 2010, and all 40 parliamentary seats in Wales were contested. The Labour Party remained the party with the most seats in Wales, however it suffered a net loss of 4 seats and...

    : Won 26 of 40 Welsh seats to the House of Commons of the United Kingdom
  • National Assembly for Wales election, 2011
    National Assembly for Wales election, 2011
    The National Assembly for Wales election 2011 was the most recent election for the National Assembly. The poll was held on Thursday, 5 May 2011 and decided the incumbency for all the assembly's seats...

    : 42.3% and 30 of 60 seats

North America

  • The Democratic-Republican Party
    Democratic-Republican Party (United States)
    The Democratic-Republican Party or Republican Party was an American political party founded in the early 1790s by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison. Political scientists use the former name, while historians prefer the latter one; contemporaries generally called the party the "Republicans", along...

     was the dominant party nationwide in the United States
    United States
    The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

     during the Era of Good Feelings
    Era of Good Feelings
    The Era of Good Feelings was a period in United States political history in which partisan bitterness abated. It lasted approximately from 1815 to 1825, during the administration of U.S...

     (1816–1824). Also, the Democratic Party
    Democratic Party (United States)
    The Democratic Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. The party's socially liberal and progressive platform is largely considered center-left in the U.S. political spectrum. The party has the lengthiest record of continuous...

     was dominant in the Southern United States
    Southern United States
    The Southern United States—commonly referred to as the American South, Dixie, or simply the South—constitutes a large distinctive area in the southeastern and south-central United States...

     from the end of Reconstruction to the 1960s and 1970s (the Solid South
    Solid South
    Solid South is the electoral support of the Southern United States for the Democratic Party candidates for nearly a century from 1877, the end of Reconstruction, to 1964, during the middle of the Civil Rights era....

    ) and across much of the nation during the presidency of Franklin D. Roosevelt
    Franklin D. Roosevelt
    Franklin Delano Roosevelt , also known by his initials, FDR, was the 32nd President of the United States and a central figure in world events during the mid-20th century, leading the United States during a time of worldwide economic crisis and world war...

    . Republicans won 14 out of 19 presidential elections from 1860 to 1932, while the Democrats won five consecutive elections from 1932 to 1948.
  • The Liberal Party of Canada
    Liberal Party of Canada
    The Liberal Party of Canada , colloquially known as the Grits, is the oldest federally registered party in Canada. In the conventional political spectrum, the party sits between the centre and the centre-left. Historically the Liberal Party has positioned itself to the left of the Conservative...

    , in Canada
    Canada
    Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, and northward into the Arctic Ocean...

     for much of the twentieth century, and nineteenth, was the dominant party, so much so that it earned the moniker natural governing party.
  • The Progressive Conservative Party of Ontario
    Progressive Conservative Party of Ontario
    The Progressive Conservative Party of Ontario , is a right-of-centre political party in Ontario, Canada. The party was known for many years as "Ontario's natural governing party." It has ruled the province for 80 of the years since Confederation, including an uninterrupted run from 1943 to 1985...

    , in Ontario
    Ontario
    Ontario is a province of Canada, located in east-central Canada. It is Canada's most populous province and second largest in total area. It is home to the nation's most populous city, Toronto, and the nation's capital, Ottawa....

     (in Canada
    Canada
    Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, and northward into the Arctic Ocean...

    ) from 1943 to 1985.
  • The Revolutionary Institutional Party (PRI) in Mexico
    Mexico
    The United Mexican States , commonly known as Mexico , is a federal constitutional republic in North America. It is bordered on the north by the United States; on the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; on the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and on the east by the Gulf of...

     from the 1920s until 2000.

Caribbean and Central America

  • The Popular Democratic Party
    Popular Democratic Party of Puerto Rico
    The Popular Democratic Party of Puerto Rico is a political party that supports Puerto Rico's right to self-determination and sovereignty, through the enhancement of Puerto Rico's current status as a commonwealth....

     in Puerto Rico
    Puerto Rico
    Puerto Rico , officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico , is an unincorporated territory of the United States, located in the northeastern Caribbean, east of the Dominican Republic and west of both the United States Virgin Islands and the British Virgin Islands.Puerto Rico comprises an...

     from 1949 to 1969.
  • The Antigua Labour Party
    Antigua Labour Party
    The Antigua Labour Party is the former ruling political party in Antigua and Barbuda. It has long been led by Lester Bird, who was chairman of the party since 1971, and became Prime Minister and political leader in 1994. The party was founded by Lester's father, V.C. Bird...

     in Antigua and Barbuda
    Antigua and Barbuda
    Antigua and Barbuda is a twin-island nation lying between the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. It consists of two major inhabited islands, Antigua and Barbuda, and a number of smaller islands...

    , 1960–1971 and 1976–2004.
  • The Nationalist Liberal Party
    Nationalist Liberal Party
    The Nationalist Liberal Party is a centre-right political party in Nicaragua. It was established by Anastasio Somoza García in the 1930s. When it was formed, it drew its members mainly from factions within the Conservative Party and the Liberal Party....

     in Nicaragua
    Nicaragua
    Nicaragua is the largest country in the Central American American isthmus, bordered by Honduras to the north and Costa Rica to the south. The country is situated between 11 and 14 degrees north of the Equator in the Northern Hemisphere, which places it entirely within the tropics. The Pacific Ocean...

     from 1937 to 1979.
  • The United Bermuda Party
    United Bermuda Party
    The United Bermuda Party was a political party in Bermuda. It represented itself as centrist party in favor of a moderate social and fiscal agenda...

     in Bermuda
    Bermuda
    Bermuda is a British overseas territory in the North Atlantic Ocean. Located off the east coast of the United States, its nearest landmass is Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, about to the west-northwest. It is about south of Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, and northeast of Miami, Florida...

     from 1968 to 1998.

South America

  • The Liberal Party
    Colombian Liberal Party
    The Colombian Liberal Party is a center-left party in Colombia that adheres to social democracy and social liberalism.The Party was founded in 1848 and, together with the Colombian Conservative Party, subsequently became one of the two main political forces in the country for over a century.After...

     of Colombia
    Colombia
    Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia , is a unitary constitutional republic comprising thirty-two departments. The country is located in northwestern South America, bordered to the east by Venezuela and Brazil; to the south by Ecuador and Peru; to the north by the Caribbean Sea; to the...

     from 1863 to 1880
  • The National Autonomist Party (PAN)
    National Autonomist Party
    The National Autonomist Party was an Argentine political party during the 1874-1916 period. Created on March 15, 1874 by the union of the Autonomist Party of Adolfo Alsina and the National Party of Nicolás Avellaneda...

     of Argentina
    Argentina
    Argentina , officially the Argentine Republic , is the second largest country in South America by land area, after Brazil. It is constituted as a federation of 23 provinces and an autonomous city, Buenos Aires...

     from 1874 to 1916
  • The Colorado Party
    Colorado Party (Uruguay)
    The Colorado Party is a political party in Uruguay.- Aims :It unites Conservative, Moderate and Social democratic groups. It was the dominant party of government almost without exception during the stabilisation of the Uruguayan republic....

     of Uruguay
    Uruguay
    Uruguay ,officially the Oriental Republic of Uruguay,sometimes the Eastern Republic of Uruguay; ) is a country in the southeastern part of South America. It is home to some 3.5 million people, of whom 1.8 million live in the capital Montevideo and its metropolitan area...

    , between 1868 and 1959
  • The Colorado Party
    Colorado Party (Paraguay)
    The National Republican Association – Colorado Party is a political party in Paraguay, founded in 1887 by Bernardino Caballero. It is usually known as the Colorado Party...

     of Paraguay
    Paraguay
    Paraguay , officially the Republic of Paraguay , is a landlocked country in South America. It is bordered by Argentina to the south and southwest, Brazil to the east and northeast, and Bolivia to the northwest. Paraguay lies on both banks of the Paraguay River, which runs through the center of the...

    , 1880–1904 and 1947–2008. They were the sole legal party from 1947 to 1962.
  • The Revolutionary Nationalist Movement (MNR)
    Revolutionary Nationalist Movement
    The Revolutionary Nationalist Movement is a Bolivian political party, perhaps the most important in the country during the 20th century. At the legislative elections in 2002, the party won, in an alliance with the Free Bolivia Movement, 26.9% of the popular vote and 36 out of 130 seats in the...

     in Bolivia
    Bolivia
    Bolivia officially known as Plurinational State of Bolivia , is a landlocked country in central South America. It is the poorest country in South America...

     from 1952 to 1964.

Europe

  • The Portuguese Republican Party
    Portuguese Republican Party
    The Portuguese Republican Party was a Portuguese political party formed during the late years of monarchy that proposed and conducted the substitution of the Constitutional Monarchy by the Portuguese First Republic....

    , during most of the Portuguese First Republic
    Portuguese First Republic
    The Portuguese First Republic spans a complex 16 year period in the history of Portugal, between the end of the period of constitutional monarchy marked by the 5 October 1910 revolution and the 28 May coup d'état of 1926...

    's existence (1910–1926). After the coup that put an end to the constitutional monarchy in 1910, the electoral system, which had always ensured victory to the party in government, was not changed. Before 1910, it was the king's task to ensure that no one party remain too long in government, by disbanding parliament and calling for new elections. The republic's constitution added no such proviso, and the Portuguese Republican Party was able to keep the other minor republican parties (monarchic parties had been declared illegal) from winning elections. On the rare occasions when it was ousted from power, it was overtrown by force and was again by the means of a counter-coup that it returned to power, until its final fall, with the republic itself, in 1926.
  • The Party of the Right
    Party of the Right
    Party of the Right may refer to:* The Party of the Right , a defunct conservative party* The Party of the Right , an elective membership intellectual, fraternal, and political society which holds debates and participates in the Yale Political Union* The Party of Rights , a Croatian political party...

     in Luxembourg
    Luxembourg
    Luxembourg , officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg , is a landlocked country in western Europe, bordered by Belgium, France, and Germany. It has two principal regions: the Oesling in the North as part of the Ardennes massif, and the Gutland in the south...

     (1917–1925)
  • The Ulster Unionist Party
    Ulster Unionist Party
    The Ulster Unionist Party – sometimes referred to as the Official Unionist Party or, in a historic sense, simply the Unionist Party – is the more moderate of the two main unionist political parties in Northern Ireland...

     in the former devolved administration
    Parliament of Northern Ireland
    The Parliament of Northern Ireland was the home rule legislature of Northern Ireland, created under the Government of Ireland Act 1920, which sat from 7 June 1921 to 30 March 1972, when it was suspended...

     of Northern Ireland
    Northern Ireland
    Northern Ireland is one of the four countries of the United Kingdom. Situated in the north-east of the island of Ireland, it shares a border with the Republic of Ireland to the south and west...

     between 1921 to 1972.
  • The Swedish Social Democratic Party
    Swedish Social Democratic Party
    The Swedish Social Democratic Workers' Party, , contesting elections as 'the Workers' Party – the Social Democrats' , or sometimes referred to just as 'the Social Democrats' and most commonly as Sossarna ; is the oldest and largest political party in Sweden. The party was founded in 1889...

     in Sweden
    Sweden
    Sweden , officially the Kingdom of Sweden , is a Nordic country on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe. Sweden borders with Norway and Finland and is connected to Denmark by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund....

     from 1932 to 1976 except only for some months in 1936 (1936–1939 and 1951–1957 in coalition with the Farmers' League
    Centre Party (Sweden)
    The Centre Party is a centrist political party in Sweden. The party maintains close ties to rural Sweden and describes itself as "a green social liberal party". The ideology is sometimes called agrarian, but in a European context, the Centre Party can perhaps best be characterized as social...

    , 1939–1945 at the head of a government of national unity) It has also held the power the vast majority of elections even after 1976, and is still the largest party in Sweden.
  • The Norwegian Labour Party
    Norwegian Labour Party
    The Labour Party is a social-democratic political party in Norway. It is the senior partner in the current Norwegian government as part of the Red-Green Coalition, and its leader, Jens Stoltenberg, is the current Prime Minister of Norway....

     ruling from 1935 to 1965, though it has been the biggest party in Norway
    Norway
    Norway , officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic unitary constitutional monarchy whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula, Jan Mayen, and the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard and Bouvet Island. Norway has a total area of and a population of about 4.9 million...

     since 1927 and has been in power many other times.
  • The Scottish Labour Party
    Scottish Labour Party
    The Scottish Labour Party is the section of the British Labour Party which operates in Scotland....

     won every election in Scotland between the 1960s and 2007
    Scottish Parliament election, 2007
    The 2007 Scottish Parliament election was held on Thursday 3 May 2007 to elect members to the Scottish Parliament. It was the third general election to the devolved Scottish Parliament since it was created in 1999...

  • Convergència i Unió coalition (federated political party after 2001) in Catalonia
    Catalonia
    Catalonia is an autonomous community in northeastern Spain, with the official status of a "nationality" of Spain. Catalonia comprises four provinces: Barcelona, Girona, Lleida, and Tarragona. Its capital and largest city is Barcelona. Catalonia covers an area of 32,114 km² and has an...

     governed the autonomous Catalan government from 1980 to 2003 under the leadership of Jordi Pujol
    Jordi Pujol i Soley
    Jordi Pujol i Soley is a Catalan politician who was the leader of the party Convergència Democràtica de Catalunya from 1974 to 2003, and President of the Generalitat de Catalunya from 1980 to 2003.-Early life:...

     with parliamentary absolute majority or in coalition with other smaller parties.
  • The Socialist Party of Serbia
    Socialist Party of Serbia
    The Socialist Party of Serbia is officially a democratic socialist political party in Serbia. It is also widely recognized as a de facto Serbian nationalist party, though the party itself does not officially acknowledge this...

     in FR Yugoslavia from 1992 to 2000.
  • Ireland's Fianna Fáil
    Fianna Fáil
    Fianna Fáil – The Republican Party , more commonly known as Fianna Fáil is a centrist political party in the Republic of Ireland, founded on 23 March 1926. Fianna Fáil's name is traditionally translated into English as Soldiers of Destiny, although a more accurate rendition would be Warriors of Fál...

     was the largest party in Dáil Éireann
    Dáil Éireann
    Dáil Éireann is the lower house, but principal chamber, of the Oireachtas , which also includes the President of Ireland and Seanad Éireann . It is directly elected at least once in every five years under the system of proportional representation by means of the single transferable vote...

     between 1932 to 2011 and in power for 61 of those 79 years. However, the party were heavily defeated in the Irish general election, 2011, coming third.
  • Italy's Christian Democracy
    Christian Democracy (Italy)
    Christian Democracy was a Christian democratic party in Italy. It was founded in 1943 as the ideological successor of the historical Italian People's Party, which had the same symbol, a crossed shield ....

     dominated the politics of Italy for almost 50 years as the major party in every coalition that governed the country from 1944 until its demise amid a welter of corruption allegations in 1992–1994.

Asia

  • The Nacionalista Party in the Philippines
    Philippines
    The Philippines , officially known as the Republic of the Philippines , is a country in Southeast Asia in the western Pacific Ocean. To its north across the Luzon Strait lies Taiwan. West across the South China Sea sits Vietnam...

     was the dominant party during various times in the nation's history from 1916
    4th Philippine Legislature
    The Fourth Philippine Legislature was the meeting of the legislature of the Philippine Islands under the sovereign control of the United States from October 16, 1916 to March 8, 1919.-Sessions:...

    1941
    2nd National Assembly of the Philippines
    The Second National Assembly of the Philippines was the meeting of the legislature of the Commonwealth of the Philippines, from January 24, 1939 until December 16, 1941.-Sessions:...

    , and on 1945
    1st Congress of the Commonwealth of the Philippines
    The First Congress of the Commonwealth of the Philippines , also known as the "Postwar Congress" and the "Liberation Congress", refers to the meeting of the bicameral legislature composed of the Senate and House of Representatives, from 1945 to 1946...

  • The Indian National Congress
    Indian National Congress
    The Indian National Congress is one of the two major political parties in India, the other being the Bharatiya Janata Party. It is the largest and one of the oldest democratic political parties in the world. The party's modern liberal platform is largely considered center-left in the Indian...

     from 1946 to 1977.
  • The Muslim League
    Muslim League (Pakistan)
    Muslim League was the original successor of All India Muslim League that led the Pakistan Movement achieving an independent nation. After formation of Pakistan, the party was renamed to Muslim League which came to an end soon after Qaid-e-Azam's death on the first marshal law in 1958.-History:On...

     in Pakistan
    Pakistan
    Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

     from 1947 to 1958.
  • The Anti-Fascist People's Freedom League
    Anti-Fascist People's Freedom League
    The Anti-Fascist People's Freedom League , or hpa hsa pa la by its Burmese acronym, was the main political party in Burma from 1945 until 1962...

     in Burma (now Myanmar) from 1948 to 1962.
  • The Kuomintang
    Kuomintang
    The Kuomintang of China , sometimes romanized as Guomindang via the Pinyin transcription system or GMD for short, and translated as the Chinese Nationalist Party is a founding and ruling political party of the Republic of China . Its guiding ideology is the Three Principles of the People, espoused...

     established a de facto one-party state in the Republic of China (Taiwan) until political liberalization and the lifting of martial law in the late 1970s. The Kuomintang continued to dominate the political system until the victory of the opposition Democratic Progressive Party
    Democratic Progressive Party
    The Democratic Progressive Party is a political party in Taiwan, and the dominant party in the Pan-Green Coalition. Founded in 1986, DPP is the first meaningful opposition party in Taiwan. It has traditionally been associated with strong advocacy of human rights and a distinct Taiwanese identity,...

     in the 2000 presidential election
  • Japan
    Japan
    Japan is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south...

     Liberal Democratic Party
    Liberal Democratic Party (Japan)
    The , frequently abbreviated to LDP or , is a centre-right political party in Japan. It is one of the most consistently successful political parties in the democratic world. The LDP ruled almost continuously for nearly 54 years from its founding in 1955 until its defeat in the 2009 election...

    , in power 1955–1993 and 1994–2009
  • The Golkar
    Golkar
    The Party of the Functional Groups is a political party in Indonesia. It is also known as Sekber Golkar . It was the ruling party during Suharto's regime...

     (Acronym of Golongan Karya or Functional Group) in Indonesia
    Indonesia
    Indonesia , officially the Republic of Indonesia , is a country in Southeast Asia and Oceania. Indonesia is an archipelago comprising approximately 13,000 islands. It has 33 provinces with over 238 million people, and is the world's fourth most populous country. Indonesia is a republic, with an...

     from 1971 to 1999.
  • Kilusang Bagong Lipunan
    Kilusang Bagong Lipunan
    The Kilusang Bagong Lipunan , formerly the Kilusang Bagong Lipunan ng Nagkakaisang Nacionalista, Liberal, at iba pa, , is a political party in the Philippines...

     in the Philippines
    Philippines
    The Philippines , officially known as the Republic of the Philippines , is a country in Southeast Asia in the western Pacific Ocean. To its north across the Luzon Strait lies Taiwan. West across the South China Sea sits Vietnam...

     from 1978
    Interim Batasang Pambansa
    The Interim Batasang Pambansa or the First Batasan was the legislature of the Republic of the Philippines from its inauguration on June 12, 1978 to June 5, 1984...

    1986
    Regular Batasang Pambansa
    The Regular Batasang Pambansa or the Second Batasan was the meeting of the parliament of the Philippines from the beginning of its session on July 23, 1984 until it was abolished by President Corazon Aquino on March 25, 1986....

    .
  • Lakas-Kabalikat ng Malayang Pilipino-Christian Muslim Democrats (Lakas-Kampi-CMD)
    Lakas-Kampi-CMD
    Lakas Kampi CMD is a center-right political party in the Philippines and the current minority party in the country. Its ideology is heavily influenced by Christian and Islamic democracy...

     was the dominant party during the term of Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
    Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
    Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo is a Filipino politician who served as the 14th President of the Philippines from 2001 to 2010, as the 12th Vice President of the Philippines from 1998 to 2001, and is currently a member of the House of Representatives representing the 2nd District of Pampanga...

    , 2001-2010.

Africa

  • The National Party
    National Party (South Africa)
    The National Party is a former political party in South Africa. Founded in 1914, it was the governing party of the country from 4 June 1948 until 9 May 1994. Members of the National Party were sometimes known as Nationalists or Nats. Its policies included apartheid, the establishment of a...

     in South Africa
    South Africa
    The Republic of South Africa is a country in southern Africa. Located at the southern tip of Africa, it is divided into nine provinces, with of coastline on the Atlantic and Indian oceans...

     from 1948 to 1994.
  • The National Democratic Party (NDP)
    National Democratic Party (Egypt)
    The National Democratic Party , often simply called Al-Ḥizb al-Waṭaniy – the "National Party", was an Egyptian political party. It was founded by President Anwar El Sadat in 1978....

     of Egypt
    Egypt
    Egypt , officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, Arabic: , is a country mainly in North Africa, with the Sinai Peninsula forming a land bridge in Southwest Asia. Egypt is thus a transcontinental country, and a major power in Africa, the Mediterranean Basin, the Middle East and the Muslim world...

    , under various names, from 1952 to 2011 (sole legal party in 1953–1978)
  • The Democratic Constitutional Rally in Tunisia
    Tunisia
    Tunisia , officially the Tunisian RepublicThe long name of Tunisia in other languages used in the country is: , is the northernmost country in Africa. It is a Maghreb country and is bordered by Algeria to the west, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Its area...

    , 1956-2011 (as the sole legal party between 1957 and 1988)
  • The Socialist Party
    Socialist Party of Senegal
    The Socialist Party of Senegal is a political party in Senegal. It was the ruling party in Senegal from independence in 1960 until 2000. Ousmane Tanor Dieng has been the First Secretary of the party since 1996...

     in Senegal
    Senegal
    Senegal , officially the Republic of Senegal , is a country in western Africa. It owes its name to the Sénégal River that borders it to the east and north...

     from 1960 to 2000.
  • The People's Progressive Party
    People's Progressive Party (The Gambia)
    The People's Progressive Party is a moderate centre-left political party in The Gambia. It was the dominant ruling party from 1965 with president Dawda Jawara. He was elected for a sixth term of office in 1992, but was overthrown in a coup by young army officers in 1994...

     in The Gambia from 1962 to 1994.
  • The Party of Unity and Progress was in power in Guinea
    Guinea
    Guinea , officially the Republic of Guinea , is a country in West Africa. Formerly known as French Guinea , it is today sometimes called Guinea-Conakry to distinguish it from its neighbour Guinea-Bissau. Guinea is divided into eight administrative regions and subdivided into thirty-three prefectures...

     since its formation in 1992 until it was overthrown by a military coup in December 2008.
  • The Movement for Multiparty Democracy
    Movement for Multiparty Democracy
    The Movement for Multi-party Democracy is a political party in Zambia. Originally formed to oust the previous government, MMD controlled an absolute majority in parliament between 1991 and 2001, when its past leader, Frederick Chiluba was president of the country...

     in Zambia
    Zambia
    Zambia , officially the Republic of Zambia, is a landlocked country in Southern Africa. The neighbouring countries are the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the north, Tanzania to the north-east, Malawi to the east, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana and Namibia to the south, and Angola to the west....

    from 1991 to 2011.