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Doetinchem

Doetinchem

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Doetinchem ˈdu.tɪn.ˌxəm is a city and municipality in the east of the Netherlands
Netherlands
The Netherlands is a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, located mainly in North-West Europe and with several islands in the Caribbean. Mainland Netherlands borders the North Sea to the north and west, Belgium to the south, and Germany to the east, and shares maritime borders...

. It is situated along the Oude IJssel
IJssel
River IJssel , sometimes called Gelderse IJssel to avoid confusion with its Hollandse IJssel namesake in the west of the Netherlands, is a branch of the Rhine in the Dutch provinces of Gelderland and Overijssel...

 (Old IJssel) river in a part of the province
Provinces of the Netherlands
A Dutch province represents the administrative layer in between the national government and the local municipalities, having the responsibility for matters of subnational or regional importance. The government of each province consists of three major parts: the Provinciale Staten which is the...

 of Gelderland
Gelderland
Gelderland is the largest province of the Netherlands, located in the central eastern part of the country. The capital city is Arnhem. The two other major cities, Nijmegen and Apeldoorn have more inhabitants. Other major regional centers in Gelderland are Ede, Doetinchem, Zutphen, Tiel, Wijchen,...

 called the Achterhoek
Achterhoek
The Achterhoek is a region in the eastern part of the Netherlands, Europe.Its name is geographically appropriate because the area lies in the Eastern-most part of Gelderland, and therefore of the Netherlands, protruding into Germany...

 . The municipality has 56,700 inhabitants (1 January 2005) and has an area of 79.66 km² (of which 1.50 km² is water). This makes Doetinchem the largest town (by population) in the Achterhoek.
On 1 January 2005, a municipal reorganization merged the neighbouring municipality of Wehl
Wehl
Wehl is a town in the eastern Netherlands, about 5 km west of Doetinchem.Wehl was a part of Prussia until 1808, when it was joined to the Netherlands. In those years it was officially a part of Zeddam. Wehl became an independent municipality in 1813, when it was given back to Prussia; in 1816,...

 into Doetinchem.

Population centres


The local government organization in the Netherlands is complex and fine-grained (see municipality and Govt Stats), with municipalities being divided into various entities. The municipality of Doetinchem consists of:

the city (‘stad’):
  • Doetinchem

the villages (‘Wijken’):
  • Centrum
    Centrum
    Centrum means center in Latin.Centrum may refer to:* The central portion of a vertebra*Centrum , a Washington state performing arts organization* Centrum , metro station in Warsaw, Poland...

  • Gaanderen
    Gaanderen
    Gaanderen is a village in the Dutch province of Gelderland. It is located in the municipality of Doetinchem. The number of inhabitants is around 5700.-Transportation:Railway Station:GaanderenNearby:Terborg-References:...

  • Wehl
    Wehl
    Wehl is a town in the eastern Netherlands, about 5 km west of Doetinchem.Wehl was a part of Prussia until 1808, when it was joined to the Netherlands. In those years it was officially a part of Zeddam. Wehl became an independent municipality in 1813, when it was given back to Prussia; in 1816,...

  • Dichteren
  • Overstegen
  • De Huet
  • De Hoop
  • Oosseld
  • Schöneveld


the neighbourhoods (‘buurtschappen’):
  • IJzevoorde
    IJzevoorde
    IJzevoorde is a small village in the province of Gelderland in the east part of the Netherlands. The name literally means Iron Ford. It has about 30 inhabitants and buildings include a school, a kindergarten, a gym, a bar and a small stage. The school has about 60 students and there are a lot of...

  • Langerak
    Langerak
    Langerak is a town in the Dutch province of South Holland. It is a part of the municipality of Liesveld, and lies about .The village of "Langerak" has a population of around 1730....

  • Wijnbergen
  • Nieuw-Wehl
    Nieuw-Wehl
    Nieuw-Wehl is a small town in the eastern Netherlands, about 10 km west of Doetinchem. It has a population of about 500. Before 1 January 2005, it was part of the municipality of Wehl, along with neighboring village Wehl. After the division, Nieuw-Wehl joined the municipality of Doetinchem. ...



Wehl was a separate municipality (with about 6,750 inhabitants, including Nieuw-Wehl) until 31 December 2004, when it merged with the municipality of Doetinchem.

History of Doetinchem


It is known from archaeological finds of skulls, pottery shards, and flint arrowheads that the area was inhabited more than 11,000 years ago. These prehistoric hunters were followed by Celt
Celt
The Celts were a diverse group of tribal societies in Iron Age and Roman-era Europe who spoke Celtic languages.The earliest archaeological culture commonly accepted as Celtic, or rather Proto-Celtic, was the central European Hallstatt culture , named for the rich grave finds in Hallstatt, Austria....

ic and Germanic tribes like the Franks
Franks
The Franks were a confederation of Germanic tribes first attested in the third century AD as living north and east of the Lower Rhine River. From the third to fifth centuries some Franks raided Roman territory while other Franks joined the Roman troops in Gaul. Only the Salian Franks formed a...

 and Saxons
Saxons
The Saxons were a confederation of Germanic tribes originating on the North German plain. The Saxons earliest known area of settlement is Northern Albingia, an area approximately that of modern Holstein...

. Roman
Ancient Rome
Ancient Rome was a thriving civilization that grew on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 8th century BC. Located along the Mediterranean Sea and centered on the city of Rome, it expanded to one of the largest empires in the ancient world....

 coins have been found and there is also archaeological evidence of the Vikings having plundered the area.

The first reference to the name of Doetinchem comes in a document from the year 838 which mentions a ‘villa Duetinghem’, a settlement with a small church. In 887, there is another mention of ‘Deutinkem’, a fortress with a church which had been given to the then Bishop of Utrecht. The spelling has varied over the centuries, with ‘Duttichem’, ‘Duichingen’ and ‘Deutekom’ being just some examples.

For a long time Doetinchem remained a small place but around 1100 it started to grow and, after suffering several attempts by plunderers, a town wall was built. In 1236, Doetinchem was granted city rights (‘stadsrechten’) by Count Otto II of Gelre and Zutphen, and in return the town provided taxes and soldiers for the Count’s army. Also, the new city council published rules for the city, codified in the ‘Keurboek van Doetinchem’ (Rulebook of Doetinchem), which laid down severe punishments for infringements.

In 1226, Doetinchem faced increasing danger from plunderers, and so the city wall was raised by a metre. There were four barriers in the wall which, being weak points, were replaced over time by four large city-gates known as: the Hamburgerpoort (built 1302), the Waterpoort, the Gruitpoort, and the Hezenpoort. Later a moat was dug around the wall and a rampart was built in front; the city’s central windmill, the ‘walmolen’ (Dutch ‘wal’=rampart, ‘molen’=mill), stands on the remains of this rampart. Despite these defences, Doetinchem was besieged many times and during the Eighty Years' War (1568–1648) was besieged and conquered twice. However, eventually the walls became seen as redundant (or perhaps ineffective) and in 1672, they were torn down. However, it was not until the second half of the 19th century that the city-gates and most of the rampart were removed.

From its early years, Doetinchem had been an important marketplace for farmers to sell their wares; the market was held in the central square called the Simonsplein right up until the Second World War
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

.

Doetinchem has had its fair share of disasters. Apart from the sieges mentioned above, in 1527 a large fire destroyed most of the city including the city archives (which means that many earlier dates in the history of Doetinchem are somewhat unreliable), and in 1580 most of the city was killed by plague. There was also occasional flooding. However, despite the fact that Doetinchem is only 6 miles (10 km) from the German
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

 border, because the Netherlands was not involved in the First World War, Doetinchem saw nothing more than the posting of a few border guards during that time. Even during the Second World War
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

, Doetinchem came off fairly lightly at first; there was only a small German occupying force and the city even escaped the worst effects of the Hunger Winter
Dutch famine of 1944
The Dutch famine of 1944, known as the Hongerwinter in Dutch, was a famine that took place in the German-occupied part of the Netherlands, especially in the densely populated western provinces above the great rivers, during the winter of 1944-1945, near the end of World War II. A German blockade...

. However, some prisoners were executed after being implicated in the shooting death in Putten
Putten
Putten is a municipality and a town in Gelderland province in the middle of the Netherlands. In 2007 it had a population of 23,024.Putten is surrounded by a great variety of landscapes. To the east of Putten lies the Veluwe, the biggest national park of the Netherlands...

 of an important German officer by the Dutch Resistance and disastrously, in March and April 1945, the centre of Doetinchem was largely destroyed by Allied bombing which was either intended for nearby German towns or, as some say, was to destroy the German defenses in Doetinchem. Which of the two is true has never really been clarified and there is still some discussion about the true intentions of the bombardment. The city itself was liberated by The Calgary Highlanders
The Calgary Highlanders
The Calgary Highlanders is a Canadian Forces Land Force Primary Reserve infantry regiment, headquartered at Mewata Armouries in Calgary, Alberta, Canada...

 in 1945 after a brief battle there.

In the decades after the war, Doetinchem grew and in a few years had outgrown its "competitors" in the Achterhoek, namely Doesburg
Doesburg
Doesburg Doesburg Doesburg (Dutch is a municipality and a city in the eastern Netherlands in the province of Gelderland. Doesburg received city rights in 1237 and currently has 11,602 inhabitants (1 January 2007, source: CBS). The city is situated on the right bank of river IJssel, at the...

, Winterswijk
Winterswijk
Winterswijk is a municipality and a town in the eastern Netherlands.Winterswijk is a town with a population of some 30,000 in the Achterhoek which lies in the most eastern part of the province of Gelderland in the Netherlands. It was also known as Winethereswick, Winriswic or Wenterswic...

 and Zutphen. The Dutch company, Philips
Philips
Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. , more commonly known as Philips, is a multinational Dutch electronics company....

, had a factory for some years in the city. From 2003 till 2005, the city grew enormously as new districts such as Dichteren were build, and as Doetinchem incorporates outlying villages such as Wehl
Wehl
Wehl is a town in the eastern Netherlands, about 5 km west of Doetinchem.Wehl was a part of Prussia until 1808, when it was joined to the Netherlands. In those years it was officially a part of Zeddam. Wehl became an independent municipality in 1813, when it was given back to Prussia; in 1816,...

 into its municipality. In 2011, the city is still growing. By building new district as het Loo and Isseldoks, and the opening of a brand new theatre and cinema, Doetinchem is the biggest growing city in Gelderland.

Significant structures in Doetinchem


The main church in the central square, St Catherine’s Church (‘Catharinakerk’) was virtually destroyed in the World War II bombing and restoration took from 1948 to 1963. Although originally a Roman Catholic church, it became Dutch Reformed in 1591. There are two castles, ‘De Kelder’ (‘The Cellar’) and Slangenburg.

The city has three windmills. In the city centre, there is the already mentioned Walmolenhttp://www.molendatabase.nl/nederland/molen_e.php?nummer=202, the bottom of which now houses the city’s tourist office. In Dichteren, there is a mill called Aurora http://www.molendatabase.nl/nederland/molen_e.php?nummer=198 (Latin for ‘dawn’) and to the east of the city a mill called Benninkmolen http://www.molendatabase.nl/nederland/molen_e.php?nummer=201. All these mills are open to visitors, usually open to all one weekday morning and at other times by appointment.

Sport


Doetinchem has a professional football team, De Graafschap
De Graafschap
De Graafschap is a professional football club from Doetinchem, Netherlands. It was formed on 1 February 1954 and they play their home games at the "De Vijverberg" stadium. Their current home ground stands on where the old pitch used to be located and was opened on 12 August 2000...

 (‘The County’). The home of De Graafschap was completely revamped recently to transform it into an all-seater arena. The stands are fully covered, with the roof painted in the blue and white of the club.

The city has an indoor swimming pool, Rozengaarde. In April or May, a local evening four-day marathon is organized.

Since 2005 a four-day marathon is organised which starts and ends in Doetinchem and runs through the Achterhoek
Achterhoek
The Achterhoek is a region in the eastern part of the Netherlands, Europe.Its name is geographically appropriate because the area lies in the Eastern-most part of Gelderland, and therefore of the Netherlands, protruding into Germany...

. The marathon was held from August the 23rd to the 26th. Almost 15.000 people took part.

In 2009 the city's volleyballteam took part in the CEV cup playing against Haltbank Ankara from Turkey.

Notable people born in Doetinchem



  • Carel Hendrik Ver Huell
    Carel Hendrik Ver Huell
    Carel Hendrik count Ver Huell was a Dutch, and later French, admiral and statesman. He married Maria Johanna de Bruyn on 22 February 1789 at Hummelo, and had three sons with her....

     (born 1764), admiral and statesman
  • Geert D. Dales (born 1952), Dutch politician
  • Jan Rietman (born 1952), pianist
  • Maria Martens
    Maria Martens
    Maria Martens is a Dutch politician and Member of the European Parliament. She is a member of the Christian Democratic Appeal, a member of the bureau of the EPP-ED group in the European Parliament, and sits on the European Parliament's Committee on Development.She is also a substitute for the...

     (born 1955), politician
  • John Hondorp
    John Hondorp
    John Hondorp is a professor at the Enschede Conservatory. He was the first to teach hammond organ as a fully autonome jazz major....

     (born 1964), jazz organist
  • Desi Reijers
    Desi Reijers
    Dirkje Johanna Reijers is a former freestyle swimmer from the Netherlands, who competed for her native country at the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles, California....

     (born 1964), freestyle swimmer
  • Paul Bosvelt
    Paul Bosvelt
    Paul Bosvelt is a retired Dutch footballer. He played for Go Ahead Eagles and Twente before making his big move to Feyenoord in 1997.-Club career:...

     (born 1970), footballer
  • Chris Bruil
    Chris Bruil
    Christiaan "Chris" Gerrit Herman Bruil is a male badminton player from the Netherlands.Bruil competed in badminton at the 2004 Summer Olympics in mixed double's with partner Lotte Bruil-Jonathans, who is his wife. They had a bye in the first round and were defeated by Kim Dong-moon and Ra...

     (born 1970), badminton player
  • Arnoud Okken
    Arnoud Okken
    Arnoud Okken is a Dutch athlete specialising in the 800 metres.His first international victory came at the 2007 European Athletics Indoor Championships. Commenting on the win, Okken stated that "my plan was to take the lead and keep away from any trouble...

     (born 1982), middle distance runner
  • Glenn Loovens
    Glenn Loovens
    Glenn Loovens is a Dutch professional footballer currently playing as a centre back for Celtic in the Scottish Premier League...

     (born 1983), footballer
  • Sanne Keizer
    Sanne Keizer
    Sanne Keizer is a Dutch professional beach volleyball and indoor volleyball player born in Doetinchem.In indoor volleyball Keizer started her career in 1996 at Orion Doetinchem. Other teams she played for were Longa Lichtenvoorde and Martinus Amstelveen...

     (born 1985), volleyball player
  • Marloes Wesselink
    Marloes Wesselink
    Marloes Wesselink is a Dutch professional beach volleyball player born in Doetinchem.She played indoor volleyball for a few years, playing at Orion Doetinchem, Sourcy Volleybalschool and Longa'59 Lichtenvoorde before she switched onto the beach...

     (born 1987), volleyball player

Local media


Newspapers available in Doetinchem include subscription paper "De Gelderlander" and free papers "Doetinchems Vizier" and "Zondag", all published by Wegener Dagbladen. Doetinchem has its own television station called ‘Stadstv’ which is received by cable in the municipalities of Doetinchem itself and the neighbouring Hummelo & Keppel, and a television station called 'GraafschapTV' which is received in the entire Achterhoek
Achterhoek
The Achterhoek is a region in the eastern part of the Netherlands, Europe.Its name is geographically appropriate because the area lies in the Eastern-most part of Gelderland, and therefore of the Netherlands, protruding into Germany...

 region.

Transportation


Doetinchem has been connected to the Dutch national highway system since November 1974, when the Zevenaar-Doetinchem section of Highway 15 (A15) was opened. This section was extended to Varsseveld in 1984. Today the A15 is called the A18.

Doetinchem is served by rail services from Arnhem
Arnhem
Arnhem is a city and municipality, situated in the eastern part of the Netherlands. It is the capital of the province of Gelderland and located near the river Nederrijn as well as near the St. Jansbeek, which was the source of the city's development. Arnhem has 146,095 residents as one of the...

 by the regional train to Winterswijk
Winterswijk
Winterswijk is a municipality and a town in the eastern Netherlands.Winterswijk is a town with a population of some 30,000 in the Achterhoek which lies in the most eastern part of the province of Gelderland in the Netherlands. It was also known as Winethereswick, Winriswic or Wenterswic...

 with two stations, one in the city centre - Doetinchem
Doetinchem railway station
Doetinchem is a railway station located in Doetinchem, the Netherlands. The station was opened on 15 July 1885 and is located on the Winterswijk–Zevenaar railway. The station is operated by Syntus. In Doetinchem there is also Doetinchem De Huet railway station to the west of this station. From...

 and Doetinchem De Huet
Doetinchem De Huet railway station
Doetinchem De Huet is a railway station located in western Doetinchem, The Netherlands. The station lies between the quarters De Huet and Dichteren. The station was opened on 2 June 1985 and is located on the Winterswijk–Zevenaar railway. The station is operated by Syntus...

 lying to the west between the suburbs of De Huet and Dichteren. Doetinchem receives four trains per hour to Arnhem (Monday to Friday) and there are always 2 trains per hour between Arnhem and Winterswijk. The rail company is Syntus
Syntus
Syntus bv is a public transport company operating bus and passenger train services in the east of the Netherlands. It is owned jointly by NS Reizigers and Keolis...

. In 2012, Arriva
Arriva
Arriva plc is a multinational public transport company owned by Deutsche Bahn and headquartered in Sunderland, United Kingdom. It has bus, coach, train, tram and waterbus operations in 12 countries across Europe, employs more than 47,500 people and services over 1.5 billion passenger journeys each...

, who already operates all the busservices, will take over the rails between Arnhem and Winterswijk.

Bus services are operated by Arriva
Arriva
Arriva plc is a multinational public transport company owned by Deutsche Bahn and headquartered in Sunderland, United Kingdom. It has bus, coach, train, tram and waterbus operations in 12 countries across Europe, employs more than 47,500 people and services over 1.5 billion passenger journeys each...

.

External links