Home      Discussion      Topics      Dictionary      Almanac
Signup       Login
Doctor of Dental Surgery

Doctor of Dental Surgery

Overview
There are a number of first professional degree
First professional degree
A professional degree prepares the holder for a particular profession by emphasizing competency skills along with theory and analysis. These professions are typically licensed or otherwise regulated by a governmental or government-approved body...

s in dentistry
Dentistry
Dentistry is the branch of medicine that is involved in the study, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases, disorders and conditions of the oral cavity, maxillofacial area and the adjacent and associated structures and their impact on the human body. Dentistry is widely considered...

 offered by schools in various countries around the world. These include the following:
  • Doctor of Dental Surgery (DDS)
  • Doctor of Dental Medicine (DMD)
  • Bachelor of Dentistry (BDent)
  • Bachelor of Dental Surgery (BDS or BChD or BDentS)
  • Bachelor of Dental Science (BDSc or BDentSc)
  • Bachelor of Dental Medicine (BDM)
  • Licentiate of Dental Surgery (LDS)
  • Graduate Diploma in Dentistry (Grad Dip Dent)
  • Master of Dentistry (MDent)
  • Master of Stomatology (MStomat)
  • Master of Dental Surgery (MDS)
  • Doctor of Dentistry (DD)
  • Cirujano Dentista (CD)
  • Candidate of Odontology (Cand.Odont.)
  • Doctor of Medical Dentistry (Dr.Med.Dent.)


Each fully qualifies the holder to practice dentistry
Dentistry
Dentistry is the branch of medicine that is involved in the study, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases, disorders and conditions of the oral cavity, maxillofacial area and the adjacent and associated structures and their impact on the human body. Dentistry is widely considered...

 in at least the jurisdiction in which the degree was presented, assuming local and federal government licensure requirements are met.

Australia has nine dental schools:
  • Sydney Faculty of Dentistry
    Sydney Faculty of Dentistry
    The Faculty of Dentistry is a constituent body of the University of Sydney, Australia. It is an Australian graduate-entry dental school based at two locations: Westmead Centre for Oral health which is a part of Westmead hospital, and Sydney Dental Hospital which is situated between Chalmers...

     (University of Sydney
    University of Sydney
    The University of Sydney is a public university located in Sydney, New South Wales. The main campus spreads across the suburbs of Camperdown and Darlington on the southwestern outskirts of the Sydney CBD. Founded in 1850, it is the oldest university in Australia and Oceania...

    )
  • Melbourne Faculty of Dentistry
    Melbourne Faculty of Dentistry
    The Melbourne Dental School is one of the graduate schools of the University of Melbourne. In addition to the 4 year graduate dental program, Melbourne offers speciality training programs combined with the Doctor of Clinical Dentistry degree, advanced training programs, and research degrees...

     (University of Melbourne
    University of Melbourne
    The University of Melbourne is a public university located in Melbourne, Victoria. Founded in 1853, it is the second oldest university in Australia and the oldest in Victoria...

    )
  • University of Adelaide School of Dentistry
    University of Adelaide School of Dentistry
    University of Adelaide School of Dentistry is one of the Schools in the Faculty of Health Sciences at of the University of Adelaide.The School of Dentistry at the University of Adelaide has a long and distinguished history of innovation in its teaching and research...

     (University of Adelaide
    University of Adelaide
    The University of Adelaide is a public university located in Adelaide, South Australia. Established in 1874, it is the third oldest university in Australia...

    )
  • La Trobe University
    La Trobe University
    La Trobe University is a multi-campus university in Victoria, Australia. It was established in 1964 by an Act of Parliament to become the third oldest university in the state of Victoria. The main campus of La Trobe is located in the Melbourne suburb of Bundoora; two other major campuses are...

  • University of Western Australia
    University of Western Australia
    The University of Western Australia was established by an Act of the Western Australian Parliament in February 1911, and began teaching students for the first time in 1913. It is the oldest university in the state of Western Australia and the only university in the state to be a member of the...



All except for Sydney and Melbourne usually accept a mixture of high school
High school
High school is a term used in parts of the English speaking world to describe institutions which provide all or part of secondary education. The term is often incorporated into the name of such institutions....

 leavers and university graduates.
Discussion
Ask a question about 'Doctor of Dental Surgery'
Start a new discussion about 'Doctor of Dental Surgery'
Answer questions from other users
Full Discussion Forum
 
Unanswered Questions
Encyclopedia
There are a number of first professional degree
First professional degree
A professional degree prepares the holder for a particular profession by emphasizing competency skills along with theory and analysis. These professions are typically licensed or otherwise regulated by a governmental or government-approved body...

s in dentistry
Dentistry
Dentistry is the branch of medicine that is involved in the study, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases, disorders and conditions of the oral cavity, maxillofacial area and the adjacent and associated structures and their impact on the human body. Dentistry is widely considered...

 offered by schools in various countries around the world. These include the following:
  • Doctor of Dental Surgery (DDS)
  • Doctor of Dental Medicine (DMD)
  • Bachelor of Dentistry (BDent)
  • Bachelor of Dental Surgery (BDS or BChD or BDentS)
  • Bachelor of Dental Science (BDSc or BDentSc)
  • Bachelor of Dental Medicine (BDM)
  • Licentiate of Dental Surgery (LDS)
  • Graduate Diploma in Dentistry (Grad Dip Dent)
  • Master of Dentistry (MDent)
  • Master of Stomatology (MStomat)
  • Master of Dental Surgery (MDS)
  • Doctor of Dentistry (DD)
  • Cirujano Dentista (CD)
  • Candidate of Odontology (Cand.Odont.)
  • Doctor of Medical Dentistry (Dr.Med.Dent.)


Each fully qualifies the holder to practice dentistry
Dentistry
Dentistry is the branch of medicine that is involved in the study, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases, disorders and conditions of the oral cavity, maxillofacial area and the adjacent and associated structures and their impact on the human body. Dentistry is widely considered...

 in at least the jurisdiction in which the degree was presented, assuming local and federal government licensure requirements are met.

Australia and New Zealand


Australia has nine dental schools:
  • Sydney Faculty of Dentistry
    Sydney Faculty of Dentistry
    The Faculty of Dentistry is a constituent body of the University of Sydney, Australia. It is an Australian graduate-entry dental school based at two locations: Westmead Centre for Oral health which is a part of Westmead hospital, and Sydney Dental Hospital which is situated between Chalmers...

     (University of Sydney
    University of Sydney
    The University of Sydney is a public university located in Sydney, New South Wales. The main campus spreads across the suburbs of Camperdown and Darlington on the southwestern outskirts of the Sydney CBD. Founded in 1850, it is the oldest university in Australia and Oceania...

    )
  • Melbourne Faculty of Dentistry
    Melbourne Faculty of Dentistry
    The Melbourne Dental School is one of the graduate schools of the University of Melbourne. In addition to the 4 year graduate dental program, Melbourne offers speciality training programs combined with the Doctor of Clinical Dentistry degree, advanced training programs, and research degrees...

     (University of Melbourne
    University of Melbourne
    The University of Melbourne is a public university located in Melbourne, Victoria. Founded in 1853, it is the second oldest university in Australia and the oldest in Victoria...

    )
  • University of Adelaide School of Dentistry
    University of Adelaide School of Dentistry
    University of Adelaide School of Dentistry is one of the Schools in the Faculty of Health Sciences at of the University of Adelaide.The School of Dentistry at the University of Adelaide has a long and distinguished history of innovation in its teaching and research...

     (University of Adelaide
    University of Adelaide
    The University of Adelaide is a public university located in Adelaide, South Australia. Established in 1874, it is the third oldest university in Australia...

    )
  • La Trobe University
    La Trobe University
    La Trobe University is a multi-campus university in Victoria, Australia. It was established in 1964 by an Act of Parliament to become the third oldest university in the state of Victoria. The main campus of La Trobe is located in the Melbourne suburb of Bundoora; two other major campuses are...

  • University of Western Australia
    University of Western Australia
    The University of Western Australia was established by an Act of the Western Australian Parliament in February 1911, and began teaching students for the first time in 1913. It is the oldest university in the state of Western Australia and the only university in the state to be a member of the...



All except for Sydney and Melbourne usually accept a mixture of high school
High school
High school is a term used in parts of the English speaking world to describe institutions which provide all or part of secondary education. The term is often incorporated into the name of such institutions....

 leavers and university graduates. Sydney (as of 2001) and Melbourne (as of 2010) are four-year graduate programs that require a previous bachelor's degree for admission. Post-graduate training is available in all dental specialties. Either the Master of Dental Surgery/Science (MDS/MDSc), Doctorate in Clinical Dentistry (DClinDent) is awarded upon completion of a minimum of three years of specialty training.

New Zealand has only one dental school, the University of Otago Faculty of Dentistry
University of Otago Faculty of Dentistry
University of Otago Faculty of Dentistry is one of the faculties of the University of Otago.Founded in 1907, the Faculty of Dentistry is the only Faculty and School of Dentistry in New Zealand. It forms an integral part of the Division of Health Sciences within the University of Otago in Dunedin...

. The Otago Faculty of Dentistry awards the Master of Community Dentistry (MComDent) for public health/community dentistry, and Doctorate in Clinical Dentistry (DClinDent) for the rest of the dental specialties.

Both Australia and New Zealand recognize the educational and professional qualifications and grant professional licenses via reciprocity identical to the United States and Canada.

Additional qualifications can be obtained through the Royal Australasian College of Dental Surgeons
Royal Australasian College of Dental Surgeons
The Royal Australasian College of Dental Surgeons or RACDS is a professional college established in 1965 that administers Fellowship Exams for both general and specialist dental practitioners in the Australasian region...

 (RACDS) after the candidate has completed the Primary Examination (basic science examination in Anatomy, Histology, Physiology, Biochemistry, Pathology and Microbiology) and the Final Examination (clinical subjects in dentistry). After the successful completion of the examinations and meeting the College requirements, the candidate is awarded the title of Fellow of Royal Australasian College of Dental Surgeons (FRACDS).

The United Kingdom
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

 General Dental Council
General Dental Council
The General Dental Council is a United Kingdom organisation which regulates all dental professionals in the country. Established in 1956 by an amendment to the Dentists Act 1948, now updated in the Dentists Act 1984, it keeps an up-to-date register of all qualified dentists and other dental care...

 had been recognizing the Australian and New Zealand dental qualification as registrable degree until 2000. Graduates who have applied for dental license registration in the United Kingdom now have to sit the Overseas Registration Exam (ORE), a two-part examination.

Australia and Canada have a reciprocal accreditation agreement which allows graduates of Canadian or Australian dental schools to work in either country.

Canada



There are ten approved dental schools in Canada:
  • University of Toronto (1868)
  • McGill University
    McGill University
    Mohammed Fathy is a public research university located in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. The university bears the name of James McGill, a prominent Montreal merchant from Glasgow, Scotland, whose bequest formed the beginning of the university...

     (1905)
  • Université de Montréal
    Université de Montréal
    The Université de Montréal is a public francophone research university in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. It comprises thirteen faculties, more than sixty departments and two affiliated schools: the École Polytechnique and HEC Montréal...

     (1905)
  • Dalhousie University
    Dalhousie University
    Dalhousie University is a public research university located in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. The university comprises eleven faculties including Schulich School of Law and Dalhousie University Faculty of Medicine. It also includes the faculties of architecture, planning and engineering located at...

     (1908)
  • University of Alberta
    University of Alberta
    The University of Alberta is a public research university located in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Founded in 1908 by Alexander Cameron Rutherford, the first premier of Alberta and Henry Marshall Tory, its first president, it is widely recognized as one of the best universities in Canada...

     (1923)
  • University of Manitoba
    University of Manitoba
    The University of Manitoba , in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, is the largest university in the province of Manitoba. It is Manitoba's most comprehensive and only research-intensive post-secondary educational institution. It was founded in 1877, making it Western Canada’s first university. It placed...

     (1958)
  • University of British Columbia
    University of British Columbia
    The University of British Columbia is a public research university. UBC’s two main campuses are situated in Vancouver and in Kelowna in the Okanagan Valley...

     (1964)
  • University of Western Ontario
    University of Western Ontario
    The University of Western Ontario is a public research university located in London, Ontario, Canada. The university's main campus covers of land, with the Thames River cutting through the eastern portion of the main campus. Western administers its programs through 12 different faculties and...

     (1966)
  • University of Saskatchewan
    University of Saskatchewan
    The University of Saskatchewan is a Canadian public research university, founded in 1907, and located on the east side of the South Saskatchewan River in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. An "Act to establish and incorporate a University for the Province of Saskatchewan" was passed by the...

     (1968)
  • Université Laval
    Université Laval
    Laval University is the oldest centre of education in Canada and was the first institution in North America to offer higher education in French...

     (1971)


Several Universities in Canada offer the DDS degree, including the University of Toronto
University of Toronto
The University of Toronto is a public research university in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, situated on the grounds that surround Queen's Park. It was founded by royal charter in 1827 as King's College, the first institution of higher learning in Upper Canada...

, the University of Western Ontario
University of Western Ontario
The University of Western Ontario is a public research university located in London, Ontario, Canada. The university's main campus covers of land, with the Thames River cutting through the eastern portion of the main campus. Western administers its programs through 12 different faculties and...

, the University of Alberta
University of Alberta
The University of Alberta is a public research university located in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Founded in 1908 by Alexander Cameron Rutherford, the first premier of Alberta and Henry Marshall Tory, its first president, it is widely recognized as one of the best universities in Canada...

, and Dalhousie University
Dalhousie University
Dalhousie University is a public research university located in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. The university comprises eleven faculties including Schulich School of Law and Dalhousie University Faculty of Medicine. It also includes the faculties of architecture, planning and engineering located at...

, while the remaining Canadian dental schools offer the Doctor of Dental Medicine degree to their graduates.

Additional qualifications can be obtained through the Royal College of Dentists of Canada (RCDC)
Royal College of Dentists
The Royal College of Dentists of Canada administers examinations for qualified dental specialists as part of the dentistry profession in Canada....

 administers examinations for qualified dental specialists as part of the dentistry
Dentistry
Dentistry is the branch of medicine that is involved in the study, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases, disorders and conditions of the oral cavity, maxillofacial area and the adjacent and associated structures and their impact on the human body. Dentistry is widely considered...

 profession in Canada
Canada
Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, and northward into the Arctic Ocean...

. The current examinations are known as the National Dental Specialty Examination (NDSE). Successful completion may lead to Fellowship in the College (FRCD(C)) and/or may be used for licensure purposes.

Canada has a reciprocal accreditation agreement with Australia and the United States which allows graduates of Canadian dental schools to work in any of the 3 countries.

India


In India, training in dentistry is through a 5 year BDS (Bachelor of Dental Surgery) course, which includes 4 years of study followed by one year of internship. As of 2010, there were a total of 291 colleges (39 run by the government and 252 in the private sector) offering dental education. This amounts to an annual intake of 23,690 graduates.

Post graduate training is for three years in the concerned speciality. Master of Dental Surgery (MDS) is offered in the following subjects -
  • Prosthodontics
  • Periodontics
  • Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
  • Conservative Dentistry & Endodontics
  • Orthodontics & Dentofacial Orthopaedics
  • Oral Pathology & Microbiology
  • Community Dentistry
  • Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry
  • Oral Medicine Diagnosis and Radiology.


Dental education in India is regulated by the Dental Council of India
Dental Council of India
The Dental Council of India was incorporated under The Dentists Act, 1948 to regulate dental education and the profession throughout India. It is financed by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare and through the local state dental councils....

.

Israel


In Israel
Israel
The State of Israel is a parliamentary republic located in the Middle East, along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea...

 there are two dental school
Dental school
A dental school is a tertiary educational institution—or part of such an institution—that teaches dentistry. Upon successful completion, the graduate receives a degree in Dentistry, which, depending upon the jurisdiction, might be a bachelor's degree, master's degree, a professional degree, or a...

s, The Hebrew University
Hebrew University of Jerusalem
The Hebrew University of Jerusalem ; ; abbreviated HUJI) is Israel's second-oldest university, after the Technion – Israel Institute of Technology. The Hebrew University has three campuses in Jerusalem and one in Rehovot. The world's largest Jewish studies library is located on its Edmond J...

-Hadassah
Hadassah Medical Center
Hadassah Medical Center is a medical organization that operates two University hospitals at Ein Kerem and Mount Scopus in Jerusalem, Israel, as well as schools of medicine, dentistry, nursing, and pharmacology affiliated with the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.The hospital was founded by Hadassah,...

 School of Dental Medicine in Jerusalem, founded by the Alpha Omega Fraternity
Alpha Omega Fraternity
Alpha Omega is a professional Jewish dental fraternity and the fourth oldest international dental fraternity after Delta Sigma Delta, Xi Psi Phi and Psi Omega, respectively. It was founded in Baltimore, Maryland in 1907 by a group of dental students originally to fight discrimination in dental...

 and The Tel Aviv University
Tel Aviv University
Tel Aviv University is a public university located in Ramat Aviv, Tel Aviv, Israel. With nearly 30,000 students, TAU is Israel's largest university.-History:...

 School of Dental Medicine in Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv , officially Tel Aviv-Yafo , is the second most populous city in Israel, with a population of 404,400 on a land area of . The city is located on the Israeli Mediterranean coastline in west-central Israel. It is the largest and most populous city in the metropolitan area of Gush Dan, with...

. The two schools have 6-year program and provide Doctor of Dental Medicine (DMD) degrees. In last decades, the student
Student
A student is a learner, or someone who attends an educational institution. In some nations, the English term is reserved for those who attend university, while a schoolchild under the age of eighteen is called a pupil in English...

s eligible to Bachelor of Medical Sciences
Bachelor of Medical Sciences
A Bachelor of Medical Sciences degree is an academic degree awarded for completed courses that generally last three years. In the U.K., the University of Nottingham Medical School offers an intensive, integrated BMedSci and BM BS degree for medical undergraduates...

 (BMedSc) degree after the first three years of training.

United States



In the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

, at least three years of undergraduate education are required in order to be admitted to a dental school; however, many dental schools require at least a bachelor's degree
Bachelor's degree
A bachelor's degree is usually an academic degree awarded for an undergraduate course or major that generally lasts for three or four years, but can range anywhere from two to six years depending on the region of the world...

. There is no mandatory course of study as an undergraduate other than completing the requisite "pre-dental" courses, which generally includes one year of general biology
Biology
Biology is a natural science concerned with the study of life and living organisms, including their structure, function, growth, origin, evolution, distribution, and taxonomy. Biology is a vast subject containing many subdivisions, topics, and disciplines...

, chemistry
Chemistry
Chemistry is the science of matter, especially its chemical reactions, but also its composition, structure and properties. Chemistry is concerned with atoms and their interactions with other atoms, and particularly with the properties of chemical bonds....

, organic chemistry
Organic chemistry
Organic chemistry is a subdiscipline within chemistry involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation of carbon-based compounds, hydrocarbons, and their derivatives...

, physics
Physics
Physics is a natural science that involves the study of matter and its motion through spacetime, along with related concepts such as energy and force. More broadly, it is the general analysis of nature, conducted in order to understand how the universe behaves.Physics is one of the oldest academic...

, English
English studies
English studies is an academic discipline that includes the study of literatures written in the English language , English linguistics English studies is an academic discipline that includes the study of literatures written in the English language (including literatures from the U.K., U.S.,...

, and higher level mathematics such as statistics
Statistics
Statistics is the study of the collection, organization, analysis, and interpretation of data. It deals with all aspects of this, including the planning of data collection in terms of the design of surveys and experiments....

 and calculus
Calculus
Calculus is a branch of mathematics focused on limits, functions, derivatives, integrals, and infinite series. This subject constitutes a major part of modern mathematics education. It has two major branches, differential calculus and integral calculus, which are related by the fundamental theorem...

. Some dental schools have requirements that go beyond the basic requirements such as psychology
Psychology
Psychology is the study of the mind and behavior. Its immediate goal is to understand individuals and groups by both establishing general principles and researching specific cases. For many, the ultimate goal of psychology is to benefit society...

, sociology
Sociology
Sociology is the study of society. It is a social science—a term with which it is sometimes synonymous—which uses various methods of empirical investigation and critical analysis to develop a body of knowledge about human social activity...

, biochemistry
Biochemistry
Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes in living organisms, including, but not limited to, living matter. Biochemistry governs all living organisms and living processes...

, anatomy
Anatomy
Anatomy is a branch of biology and medicine that is the consideration of the structure of living things. It is a general term that includes human anatomy, animal anatomy , and plant anatomy...

, physiology
Physiology
Physiology is the science of the function of living systems. This includes how organisms, organ systems, organs, cells, and bio-molecules carry out the chemical or physical functions that exist in a living system. The highest honor awarded in physiology is the Nobel Prize in Physiology or...

 etc. The majority of pre-dental students major in a science
Science
Science is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe...

 but this is not required as some students elect to major in a non-science related field.

In addition to core prerequisites, the Dental Admission Test
Dental Admission Test
The Dental Admission Test is a multiple-choice standardized exam taken by potential dental school students in the United States and Canada...

, a multiple choice
Multiple choice
Multiple choice is a form of assessment in which respondents are asked to select the best possible answer out of the choices from a list. The multiple choice format is most frequently used in educational testing, in market research, and in elections-- when a person chooses between multiple...

 standardized exam, is also required for potential dental students. The DAT is usually taken during the spring semester of one's junior year. The vast majority of dental schools requires an interview before admissions can be granted. The interview is designed to evaluate the motivation, character, and personality of the applicant. It is often a crucial step in the admissions process.

For the 2009-2010 application cycle, 11,632 applicants applied for admission to dental schools in the United States. Just 4,067 were eventually accepted. The average dental school applicant entering the school year in 2009 had an overall GPA of 3.54 and a science GPA of 3.46. Additionally, their mean DAT Academic Average (AA) was 19.00 while their DAT Perceptual Ability Test (PAT) score was 19.40.

In the United States, DDS and DMD degrees are equivalent. The American Dental Association
American Dental Association
The American Dental Association is an American professional association established in 1859 which has more than 155,000 members. Based in Chicago, the ADA is the world's largest and oldest national dental association and promotes good oral health to the public while representing the dental...

 specifies:

Dental education and training


Dental school is four academic years in duration and is similar in format to medical school: two years of basic medical and dental sciences, followed by two years of clinical training (with continued didactic coursework). Before graduating, every dental student must successfully complete the National Board Dental Examination Part I and II (commonly referred to as NBDE I & II). The NBDE Part I is usually taken at the end of the second year after the majority of the didactic courses have been completed. The NBDE Part I covers Gross Anatomy
Gross anatomy
Gross anatomy is the study of anatomy at the macroscopic level. The term gross distinguishes it from other areas of anatomical study, including microscopic anatomy, which is studied on a microscopic scale, typically with a microscope....

, biochemistry
Biochemistry
Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes in living organisms, including, but not limited to, living matter. Biochemistry governs all living organisms and living processes...

, physiology
Physiology
Physiology is the science of the function of living systems. This includes how organisms, organ systems, organs, cells, and bio-molecules carry out the chemical or physical functions that exist in a living system. The highest honor awarded in physiology is the Nobel Prize in Physiology or...

, microbiology
Microbiology
Microbiology is the study of microorganisms, which are defined as any microscopic organism that comprises either a single cell , cell clusters or no cell at all . This includes eukaryotes, such as fungi and protists, and prokaryotes...

, pathology
Pathology
Pathology is the precise study and diagnosis of disease. The word pathology is from Ancient Greek , pathos, "feeling, suffering"; and , -logia, "the study of". Pathologization, to pathologize, refers to the process of defining a condition or behavior as pathological, e.g. pathological gambling....

, and dental anatomy
Dental anatomy
Dental anatomy is a field of anatomy dedicated to the study of human tooth structures. The development, appearance, and classification of teeth fall within its purview. Tooth formation begins before birth, and teeth's eventual morphology is dictated during this time...

 and occlusion
Occlusion (dentistry)
Occlusion, in a dental context, means simply the contact between teeth. More technically, it is the relationship between the maxillary and mandibular teeth when they approach each other, as occurs during chewing or at rest....

. The NBDE Part II is usually taken during winter of the last year of dental school and consists of operative dentistry, pharmacology
Pharmacology
Pharmacology is the branch of medicine and biology concerned with the study of drug action. More specifically, it is the study of the interactions that occur between a living organism and chemicals that affect normal or abnormal biochemical function...

, endodontics
Endodontics
Endodontics is one of the dental specialties recognized by the American Dental Association, Royal College of Dentists of Canada, and Royal Australasian College of Dental Surgeons, and deals with the tooth pulp and the tissues surrounding the root of a tooth...

, periodontics, oral surgery
Oral Surgery
Oral Surgery is a recognized international specialty in dentistry. It includes the diagnosis, surgical and related treatment of diseases, injuries and defects involving both the functional and esthetic aspects of the hard and soft tissues of the head, mouth, teeth, gums, jaws and neck.It involves,...

, pain control, prosthodontics
Prosthodontics
Prosthodontics, also known as dental prosthetics or prosthetic dentistry, is one of nine dental specialties recognized by the American Dental Association, Royal College of Dentists of Canada, and Royal Australasian College of Dental Surgeons...

, orthodontics
Orthodontics
Orthodontics, orthodontia, or orthodonture is the first specialty of dentistry that is concerned with the study and treatment of malocclusions , which may be a result of tooth irregularity, disproportionate jaw relationships, or both...

, pedodontics, oral pathology, and radiology
Radiology
Radiology is a medical specialty that employs the use of imaging to both diagnose and treat disease visualized within the human body. Radiologists use an array of imaging technologies to diagnose or treat diseases...

. NBDE Part I scores are of importance when considering residency training after graduating from dental school.

After graduating, the vast majority of new dentists go directly into practice while a small, yet increasing, percentage of dentists apply to a residency program. Some residency programs train dentists in advanced general dentistry such as General Practice Residencies and Advanced Education in General Dentistry Residencies, commonly referred to as GPR and AEGD. Most GPR and AEGD programs are one year in duration but several are two years long or provide an optional second year. GPR programs are usually affiliated with a hospital and thus require the doctor to treat a wide variety of patients including trauma, critically ill, and medically compromised patients. Additionally, GPR programs require residents to rotate through various departments within the hospital, such as anesthesia, internal medicine, and emergency medicine, to name a few. AEGD programs are usually in a dental school setting where the focus is treating complex cases in a comprehensive manner.

Licensing examinations


To practice, a dentist must pass a licensing examination administered by an individual state or more commonly a region. There are a handful of states that maintain independent dental licensing examinations while the majority accept a regional board examination. The Northeast Regional Board
Northeast Regional Board of Dental Examiners
North East Regional Board of Dental Examiners is one of four examination agencies for dentists in the United States. The other examination agencies are the Western Regional Examining Board, the Central Regional Dental Testing Service, and the Southern Regional Testing Agency...

 (NERB), Western Regional Board
Western Regional Examining Board
The Western Regional Examining Board is one of four examination agencies for dentists and dental hygienists in the United States. The other examination agencies are, Central Regional Dental Testing Service, Northeast Regional Board of Dental Examiners, Southern Regional Testing Agency...

 (WREB), Central Regional Dental Testing Service
Central Regional Dental Testing Service
Central Regional Dental Testing Service is one of four examination agencies for dentists in the United States. The other examination agencies are, West Regional Examining Board, Northeast Regional Board of Dental Examiners, Southern Regional Testing Agency...

 (CRDTS), and Southern Regional Testing Agency
Southern Regional Testing Agency
Southern Regional Testing Agency is one of four examination agencies for dentistry in the United States. The other examination agencies are, Western Regional Examining Board, Central Regional Dental Testing Service, Northeast Regional Board of Dental Examiners...

 (SRTA), Council of Interstate Testing Agencies (CITA) are the five regional testing agencies that administer licensing examinations. Once the examination is passed, the dentist may then apply to individual states that accept the regional board test passed. Each state requires prospective practitioners to pass an ethics/jurisprudence examination as well before a license is granted. To maintain one's dental license the doctor must complete Continuing Dental Education (CDE) courses periodically (usually annually). This promotes the continued exploration of knowledge. The amount of CE required varies from state to state but is generally 10-25 CE hours a year.

The completion of a dental degree can be followed by either an entrance into private practice, further postgraduate study and training, or research and academics.

South Africa


Training in South Africa
South Africa
The Republic of South Africa is a country in southern Africa. Located at the southern tip of Africa, it is divided into nine provinces, with of coastline on the Atlantic and Indian oceans...

 generally comprises a 5 year degree, with 1 year compulsory medical service / internship. The country has 5 universities with dental faculties:
Institution School Founded Location Programme(s)
University of KwaZulu-Natal
University of KwaZulu-Natal
The University of KwaZulu-Natal or UKZN is a university with five campuses all located in the province of KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa. It was formed on 1 January 2004 after the merger between the University of Natal and the University of Durban-Westville.-History:-University of...

Durban
Durban
Durban is the largest city in the South African province of KwaZulu-Natal and the third largest city in South Africa. It forms part of the eThekwini metropolitan municipality. Durban is famous for being the busiest port in South Africa. It is also seen as one of the major centres of tourism...

Diploma in Dental Therapy
University of Limpopo
University of Limpopo
The University of Limpopo is a university in the Limpopo Province, South Africa. It was formed on 1 January 2005, by the merger of the University of the North and the Medical University of South Africa...

MEDUNSA Campus, Pretoria BDS
University of Pretoria
University of Pretoria
The University of Pretoria is a multi campus public research university located in Pretoria, the administrative and de facto capital of South Africa...

School of Dentistry Pretoria
Pretoria
Pretoria is a city located in the northern part of Gauteng Province, South Africa. It is one of the country's three capital cities, serving as the executive and de facto national capital; the others are Cape Town, the legislative capital, and Bloemfontein, the judicial capital.Pretoria is...

B.Ch.D, MChD (Master of Dentistry), MSc Dentistry, PhD (Dentistry), DSc
University of the Western Cape
University of the Western Cape
The University of the Western Cape is a public university located in the Bellville suburb of Cape Town, South Africa. It was established in 1960 by the South African government as a university for Coloured people only...

Faculty of Dentistry
University of the Western Cape, Faculty of Dentistry
The Faculty of Dentistry at the University of the Western Cape is the largest dental school in Africa. Located in Cape Town, South Africa, UWC School of Dentistry offers the BChD Degree, diplomas in dental hygiene, and several post-graduate MChD, MSC degrees...

Cape Town
Cape Town
Cape Town is the second-most populous city in South Africa, and the provincial capital and primate city of the Western Cape. As the seat of the National Parliament, it is also the legislative capital of the country. It forms part of the City of Cape Town metropolitan municipality...

B.Ch.D
University of the Witwatersrand
University of the Witwatersrand
The University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg is a South African university situated in the northern areas of central Johannesburg. It is more commonly known as Wits University...

Johannesburg
Johannesburg
Johannesburg also known as Jozi, Jo'burg or Egoli, is the largest city in South Africa, by population. Johannesburg is the provincial capital of Gauteng, the wealthiest province in South Africa, having the largest economy of any metropolitan region in Sub-Saharan Africa...

B.Ch.D

Until 2003, Stellenbosch University
Stellenbosch University
Stellenbosch University is a public research university situated in the town of Stellenbosch, South Africa. Other nearby universities are the University of Cape Town and University of the Western Cape....

 offered the B.Ch.D degree. In 2004 the dental faculties of The University of the Western Cape and Stellenbosch University merged and moved to The University of the Western Cape, which is currently the largest dental school in Africa.

Specialisation
Specialty (dentistry)
In the United States, Canada, and Australia, there are nine recognized dental specialties in which some dentists choose to train and practice, in addition to or instead of general dentistry....

 is through the College of Dentistry within the Colleges of Medicine of South Africa
Colleges of Medicine of South Africa
The Colleges of Medicine of South Africa is the custodian of the quality of medical care in South Africa. It is unique in the world in that its 27 constituent Colleges represent all the disciplines of medicine and dentistry. One route to specialisation in South Africa, is via a "Fellowship"...

, with certifications offered in oral medicine
Oral medicine
Oral medicine is the dental specialty placed at the interface between medicine and dentistry.- Scope :Oral medicine is concerned with diagnosis and non-surgical management of non-dental pathology affecting the oral and maxillofacial region, such as oral lichen planus, Behçet's disease and pemphigus...

 and periodontics, orthodontics
Orthodontics
Orthodontics, orthodontia, or orthodonture is the first specialty of dentistry that is concerned with the study and treatment of malocclusions , which may be a result of tooth irregularity, disproportionate jaw relationships, or both...

, and prosthodontics
Prosthodontics
Prosthodontics, also known as dental prosthetics or prosthetic dentistry, is one of nine dental specialties recognized by the American Dental Association, Royal College of Dentists of Canada, and Royal Australasian College of Dental Surgeons...

. Research degrees are the M.Dent and Ph.D.
Ph.D.
A Ph.D. is a Doctor of Philosophy, an academic degree.Ph.D. may also refer to:* Ph.D. , a 1980s British group*Piled Higher and Deeper, a web comic strip*PhD: Phantasy Degree, a Korean comic series* PhD Docbook renderer, an XML renderer...

. See also Medical education in South Africa.

United Kingdom & Ireland


Many universities award BDS, including The University of Manchester, The University of Glasgow, King's College London, and the University of Cardiff.

The Licentiate in Dental Surgery (L.D.S.) is a dental
Dentistry
Dentistry is the branch of medicine that is involved in the study, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases, disorders and conditions of the oral cavity, maxillofacial area and the adjacent and associated structures and their impact on the human body. Dentistry is widely considered...

 degree
Academic degree
An academic degree is a position and title within a college or university that is usually awarded in recognition of the recipient having either satisfactorily completed a prescribed course of study or having conducted a scholarly endeavour deemed worthy of his or her admission to the degree...

 conferred by one of the Royal Colleges of Surgeons in England
Royal College of Surgeons of England
The Royal College of Surgeons of England is an independent professional body and registered charity committed to promoting and advancing the highest standards of surgical care for patients, regulating surgery, including dentistry, in England and Wales...

, Edinburgh
Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh
The Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh is an organisation dedicated to the pursuit of excellence and advancement in surgical practice, through its interest in education, training and examinations, its liaison with external medical bodies and representation of the modern surgical workforce...

, Glasgow
Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Glasgow
The Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Glasgow, is an institute of physicians and surgeons in Glasgow, Scotland.Founded by Peter Lowe after receiving a royal charter by James VI in 1599, as the Glasgow Faculty, this institution originally existed as a regulatory authority to ensure that...

, and Ireland.

Dental Specialties


In addition to general dentistry, there are about 9 recognized dental specialties in the US, Canada, and Australia. To become a specialist requires one to train in a residency or advanced graduate training program. Once residency is completed, the doctor is granted a certificate of specialty training. Many specialty programs have optional or required advanced degrees such as a masters degree: (MS, MSc, MDS, MSD, MDSc, MMSc, MPhil, or MDent), doctoral degree: (DClinDent, DChDent, DMSc, PhD), or medical degree
Medical school
A medical school is a tertiary educational institution—or part of such an institution—that teaches medicine. Degree programs offered at medical schools often include Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine, Bachelor/Doctor of Medicine, Doctor of Philosophy, master's degree, or other post-secondary...

: (MD/MBBS specific to maxillofacial surgery
Oral and maxillofacial surgery
Oral and maxillofacial surgery is surgery to correct a wide spectrum of diseases, injuries and defects in the head, neck, face, jaws and the hard and soft tissues of the oral and maxillofacial region. It is an internationally recognized surgical specialty...

 and sometimes oral medicine
Oral medicine
Oral medicine is the dental specialty placed at the interface between medicine and dentistry.- Scope :Oral medicine is concerned with diagnosis and non-surgical management of non-dental pathology affecting the oral and maxillofacial region, such as oral lichen planus, Behçet's disease and pemphigus...

).
  • Orthodontics
    Orthodontics
    Orthodontics, orthodontia, or orthodonture is the first specialty of dentistry that is concerned with the study and treatment of malocclusions , which may be a result of tooth irregularity, disproportionate jaw relationships, or both...

    : 2–3 years
  • Endodontics
    Endodontics
    Endodontics is one of the dental specialties recognized by the American Dental Association, Royal College of Dentists of Canada, and Royal Australasian College of Dental Surgeons, and deals with the tooth pulp and the tissues surrounding the root of a tooth...

    : 2–3 years
  • Oral and maxillofacial surgery
    Oral and maxillofacial surgery
    Oral and maxillofacial surgery is surgery to correct a wide spectrum of diseases, injuries and defects in the head, neck, face, jaws and the hard and soft tissues of the oral and maxillofacial region. It is an internationally recognized surgical specialty...

    : 4–6 years (additional time for MD/MBBS degree granting programs)
  • Periodontics: 3 years
  • Prosthodontics
    Prosthodontics
    Prosthodontics, also known as dental prosthetics or prosthetic dentistry, is one of nine dental specialties recognized by the American Dental Association, Royal College of Dentists of Canada, and Royal Australasian College of Dental Surgeons...

    : 2–3 years
    • Maxillofacial prosthodontics 1 year (a prosthodontist may elect to sub-specialize in maxillofacial prosthodontics)
  • Oral and maxillofacial radiology
    Oral and maxillofacial radiology
    Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology AKA is that specialty of Dentistry concerned with performance and interpretation of diagnostic imaging used for examining the craniofacial, dental and adjacent structures...

    : 3 years
  • Oral and maxillofacial pathology: 3 years
  • Pediatric Dentistry
    Pediatric Dentistry
    Pediatric dentistry Pediatric dentistry Pediatric dentistry (formerly pedodontics (American English) or paedodontics (Commonwealth English) is the branch of dentistry dealing with childrenfrom birth through adolescence...

    : 2–3 years
  • Dental public health
    Dental public health
    Dental public health is a non-clinical speciality of dentistry.Dental public health is involved in the assessment of dental health needs and improving the dental health of populations rather than individuals....

    : 3 years


The following are not currently recognized dental specialties in the US:
  • Anesthesiology
    Dental anesthesiology
    Dental anesthesiology is the specialty of dentistry that deals with the management of pain through the use of advanced local and general anesthesia techniques.-Australia and New Zealand:...

     (programs currently undergoing CODA accreditation and ADA review): 2–3 years
  • Oral medicine
    Oral medicine
    Oral medicine is the dental specialty placed at the interface between medicine and dentistry.- Scope :Oral medicine is concerned with diagnosis and non-surgical management of non-dental pathology affecting the oral and maxillofacial region, such as oral lichen planus, Behçet's disease and pemphigus...

    : 2–4 years
  • Special needs dentistry
    Special needs dentistry
    Special needs dentistry, also known as special care dentistry, is a specialty of dentistry concerned with the oral health of people who have intellectual disability, or who are affected by other medical, physical, or psychiatric issues....

     3 years
  • Cosmetic Dentistry
    Cosmetic dentistry
    Cosmetic dentistry is generally used to refer to any dental work that improves the appearance of a person's teeth, gums and/or bite. Many dentists refer to themselves as "cosmetic dentists" regardless of their specific education, specialty, training, and experience in this field...

    - ranges from a weekend course to a 1-year course depending on the certificate issuing agency.


Dentists who have completed accredited specialty training programs in these fields are designated registrable (U.S. "Board Eligible") and warrant exclusive titles such as orthodontist, oral and maxillofacial surgeon, endodontist, pedodontist, periodontist, or prosthodontist upon satisfying certain local (U.S. "Board Certified"), (Australia/NZ: "FRACDS"), or (Canada: "FRCD(C)") registry requirements.

External links