Dnieper River

Dnieper River

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The Dnieper River (ˈniːpər) is one of the major rivers of Europe (fourth by length) that flows from Russia
Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

, through Belarus
Belarus
Belarus , officially the Republic of Belarus, is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe, bordered clockwise by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest. Its capital is Minsk; other major cities include Brest, Grodno , Gomel ,...

 and Ukraine
Ukraine
Ukraine is a country in Eastern Europe. It has an area of 603,628 km², making it the second largest contiguous country on the European continent, after Russia...

, to the Black Sea
Black Sea
The Black Sea is bounded by Europe, Anatolia and the Caucasus and is ultimately connected to the Atlantic Ocean via the Mediterranean and the Aegean seas and various straits. The Bosphorus strait connects it to the Sea of Marmara, and the strait of the Dardanelles connects that sea to the Aegean...

.
The total length is 2285 kilometres (1,419.8 mi) and has a drainage basin
Drainage basin
A drainage basin is an extent or an area of land where surface water from rain and melting snow or ice converges to a single point, usually the exit of the basin, where the waters join another waterbody, such as a river, lake, reservoir, estuary, wetland, sea, or ocean...

 of 504000 square kilometre.
The river is noted for its dams and hydroelectric stations. The Dnieper is an important navigable waterway for the economy of Ukraine
Economy of Ukraine
The economy of Ukraine is an emerging free market, with a gross domestic product that fell sharply for the first 10 years of its independence from the Soviet Union and then experienced rapid growth from 2000 until 2008...

 and is connected via the Dnieper-Bug Canal
Dnieper-Bug Canal
Dnieper–Bug Canal , or the Dneprovsko-Bugsky Canal is the longest inland ship canal in Belarus that connects the Mukhavets River, a tributary of the Bug River, and the Pina River, a tributary of the Pripyat River. Originally it was named Royal Canal , after the Polish king, since he was the...

 to other waterways in Europe.

In antiquity, the river was known to the Greeks
Greeks
The Greeks, also known as the Hellenes , are a nation and ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus and neighboring regions. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world....

 as the Borysthenes
Borysthenes
Borysthenes is a geographical name from classical Antiquity. It usually refers to the Dnipro River, but occasionally to the Pontic Olbia, a town situated at the mouth of that river. The Borysthenes is mentioned numerous times in 'The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire' by Edward...

 and was part of the Amber Road
Amber Road
The Amber Road was an ancient trade route for the transfer of amber. As one of the waterways and ancient highways, for centuries the road led from Europe to Asia and back, and from northern Africa to the Baltic Sea....

. Arheimar
Árheimar
Árheimar was a capital of the Goths, according to the Hervarar saga. The saga only states that it was located on the river Dnieper, which flows from Ukraine to the Black Sea.- Hervarar saga :...

, a capital of the Goths
Goths
The Goths were an East Germanic tribe of Scandinavian origin whose two branches, the Visigoths and the Ostrogoths, played an important role in the fall of the Roman Empire and the emergence of Medieval Europe....

, was located on the Dnieper, according to the Hervarar saga
Hervarar saga
Hervarar saga ok Heiðreks is a legendary saga from the 13th century combining matter from several older sagas. It is a valuable saga for several different reasons beside its literary qualities. It contains traditions of wars between Goths and Huns, from the 4th century, and the last part is used as...

.

Etymology


The name Dnieper is derived from Iranic Sarmatian  "the river on the far side". (By contrast, the Dniester
Dniester
The Dniester is a river in Eastern Europe. It runs through Ukraine and Moldova and separates most of Moldova's territory from the breakaway de facto state of Transnistria.-Names:...

 derives from "the close river".)

In the three countries through which it flows it has essentially the same name, albeit pronounced differently:


The river is mentioned by the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greece
Ancient Greece is a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history that lasted from the Archaic period of the 8th to 6th centuries BC to the end of antiquity. Immediately following this period was the beginning of the Early Middle Ages and the Byzantine era. Included in Ancient Greece is the...

 historian Herodotus
Herodotus
Herodotus was an ancient Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus, Caria and lived in the 5th century BC . He has been called the "Father of History", and was the first historian known to collect his materials systematically, test their accuracy to a certain extent and arrange them in a...

 in the 5th century BC as , as well as by Strabo
Strabo
Strabo, also written Strabon was a Greek historian, geographer and philosopher.-Life:Strabo was born to an affluent family from Amaseia in Pontus , a city which he said was situated the approximate equivalent of 75 km from the Black Sea...

; this name is Scythian
Scythia
In antiquity, Scythian or Scyths were terms used by the Greeks to refer to certain Iranian groups of horse-riding nomadic pastoralists who dwelt on the Pontic-Caspian steppe...

 (cf. Iranian }) and meant "wide land", referring most likely to the Ukrainian steppe
Steppe
In physical geography, steppe is an ecoregion, in the montane grasslands and shrublands and temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands biomes, characterized by grassland plains without trees apart from those near rivers and lakes...

. The late Greek
Ancient Greece
Ancient Greece is a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history that lasted from the Archaic period of the 8th to 6th centuries BC to the end of antiquity. Immediately following this period was the beginning of the Early Middle Ages and the Byzantine era. Included in Ancient Greece is the...

 and Roman
Roman Empire
The Roman Empire was the post-Republican period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial holdings in Europe and around the Mediterranean....

 authors called it - and respectively - (dana in Old Persian meant "river"); The name Dnieper probably derives from that Greek word. Its Old East Slavic
Old East Slavic language
Old East Slavic or Old Ruthenian was a language used in 10th-15th centuries by East Slavs in the Kievan Rus' and states which evolved after the collapse of the Kievan Rus...

 name used at the time of Kievan Rus'
Kievan Rus'
Kievan Rus was a medieval polity in Eastern Europe, from the late 9th to the mid 13th century, when it disintegrated under the pressure of the Mongol invasion of 1237–1240....

 was or , the Huns
Huns
The Huns were a group of nomadic people who, appearing from east of the Volga River, migrated into Europe c. AD 370 and established the vast Hunnic Empire there. Since de Guignes linked them with the Xiongnu, who had been northern neighbours of China 300 years prior to the emergence of the Huns,...

  called it Var, and Bulgars - Buri-Chai. The name in .

Geography


The total length of the river is 2285 kilometres (1,419.8 mi), of which 485 km (301.4 mi) is within Russia, 595 km (369.7 mi) is within Belarus
Belarus
Belarus , officially the Republic of Belarus, is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe, bordered clockwise by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest. Its capital is Minsk; other major cities include Brest, Grodno , Gomel ,...

, and 1095 km (680.4 mi) is within Ukraine
Ukraine
Ukraine is a country in Eastern Europe. It has an area of 603,628 km², making it the second largest contiguous country on the European continent, after Russia...

. Its basin covers 504000 square kilometre, of which 289000 square kilometre are within Ukraine.

The source of the Dnieper is the turf swamps of the Valdai Hills
Valdai Hills
The Valdai Hills are an upland region in north-west of central Russia running north-south, about midway between Saint Petersburg and Moscow, spanning the Novgorod, Tver, Pskov, and Smolensk Oblasts....

 in central Russia, at an elevation of 220 m (721.8 ft). For 115 km (71.5 mi) of its length, it serves as the border between Belarus and Ukraine. It is connected with the Bug River
Bug River
The Bug River is a left tributary of the Narew river flows from central Ukraine to the west, passing along the Ukraine-Polish and Polish-Belarusian border and into Poland, where it empties into the Narew river near Serock. The part between the lake and the Vistula River is sometimes referred to as...

 by the Dnieper–Bug Canal. Its estuary, or liman
Liman (landform)
Liman is a name for a lake, bay, or estuary formed at the mouth of a river where flow is blocked by a bar of sediments. Liman can be maritime or fluvial .The name is used for such features found along the western and northern coast of the Black Sea, as well as along...

, used to be defended by the strong fortress of Ochakiv
Ochakiv
Ochakiv is a city in the Mykolaiv Oblast of southern Ukraine. Serving as the administrative center of the Ochakivsky Raion , the city itself is also designated as a separate raion within the oblast, and is located on a peninsula in the Black Sea, at the entrance to the Dnieper Rivers's estuary,...

.

Tributaries of the Dnieper


The Dnieper has many tributaries. The main ones, in orographic sequence, are:

  • Drut
    Drut River
    Drut is a river in Belarus, a right tributary of Dnieper. It originates in the Orsha Upland in the Belarusian Ridge and flows through Vitebsk,Mogilev and Homiel provinces of Belarus.Cities of Tolochin and Rogachev are located by Drut....

     (R)
  • Berezina (R)
  • Sozh
    Sozh
    Sozh is an international river flowing in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. It is a left bank tributary of the Dnieper River. Sozh passes through Gomel, the second largest city in Belarus....

     (L)
  • Prypiat
    Pripyat River
    The Pripyat River or Prypiat River is a river in Eastern Europe, approximately long. It flows east through Ukraine, Belarus, and Ukraine again, draining into the Dnieper....

     (R)
  • Teteriv
    Teteriv River
    The Teteriv River is a right tributary of the Dnieper River in Ukraine. It has a length of 365 km and a drainage basin of 15,100 km²....

     (R)
  • Irpin
    Irpin River
    Irpin’ , often called Irpen’ as its name is pronounced in Russian, is a river in Ukraine, a right tributary of the Dnieper.It is 162 km in length and flows through the city of Irpin'. The location where Irpin' enters the Dnieper river falls into the Kiev Reservoir which the Dnieper forms...

     (R)
  • Desna (L)
  • Stuhna (R)
  • Trubizh (L)
  • Ros
    Ros' River
    Ros is a river in Ukraine, 346 km in length, a right tributary of the Dnieper river. The Ros river finds its source in the village of Ordyntsi in Pohrebyschenskyi Raion, Vinnytsia Oblast....

     (R)
  • Tiasmyn (R)
  • Supiy (L)
  • Sula
    Sula River
    The Sula River is a left tributary of the Dnipró or Dnieper River with a total length of 365 km and a drainage basin of 19,600 km²....

     (L)
  • Psyol (L)
  • Vorskla (L)
  • Samara (L)
  • Konka
    Konka
    Konka can refer to:* Konka River in Ukraine* Konka Group, a Chinese electronics companyKonkaKonka is an Indian Family surname belongs to the Padmashali Community of Southern Region of India. Originated from Tornala of Medak District of A...

     (L)
  • Bilozerka (L)
  • Bazavluk (R)
  • Inhulets
    Inhulets River
    The Inhulets or Ingulets is a river, a right tributary of the Dnieper River, which flows through Ukraine. It has a length of 549 km and a drainage basin of 14,870 km²....

     (R)


  • Many small direct tributaries also exist, such as, in the Kiev area, the Syrets (right bank) in the north of the city, the historically significant Lybid
    Lybid River
    Lybid is a small river in Kiev, Ukraine, a right tributary of the Dnieper, flowing within the "Right Bank" part of the city, just to the west of the historic center...

     (right bank) passing west of the centre, and the Borshagovka (right bank) to the south.

    Fauna


    The river is part of the Quagga mussel
    Quagga mussel
    The quagga mussel is a subspecies of freshwater mussel, an aquatic bivalve mollusk.It is one of seven Dreissena species and has an average life span of 3 to 5 years....

    's native range. The mussel has been accidentally introduced around the world where it has become an invasive species
    Invasive species
    "Invasive species", or invasive exotics, is a nomenclature term and categorization phrase used for flora and fauna, and for specific restoration-preservation processes in native habitats, with several definitions....

    .

    Reservoirs and Hydroelectric power


    The river is noted for its dams and hydroelectric stations.

    The most noted was the Dnieper Hydroelectric Station
    Dnieper Hydroelectric Station
    The Dnieper Hydroelectric Station is the largest hydroelectric power station on the Dnieper River, placed in Zaporizhia, Ukraine.- Early Plans :In the lower current of the Dnieper River there were almost 100 km long part of the river filled with rapids...

     or (DniproHES) near Zaporizhia
    Zaporizhia
    Zaporizhia or Zaporozhye [formerly Alexandrovsk ] is a city in southeastern Ukraine, situated on the banks of the Dnieper River. It is the administrative center of the Zaporizhia Oblast...

    , built in 1927-1932 with an output of 558 MW. It was destroyed during Second World War
    World War II
    World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

    , and rebuilt in 1948 with an output of 750 MW.

    The others are:
    Kremenchuk
    Kremenchuk
    Kremenchuk is an important industrial city in the Poltava Oblast of central Ukraine. Serving as the administrative center of the Kremenchutskyi Raion , the city itself is also designated as a separate raion within the oblast, and is located on the banks of Dnieper River.-History:Kremenchuk was...

     (1954–60), Kiev (1960–64), Dniprodzerzhynsk
    Dniprodzerzhynsk
    Dniprodzerzhynsk is an industrial city in the Dnipropetrovsk Oblast of Ukraine, and a port on the Dnieper River.-History:The first written evidence of settlement in the territory of Dniprodzerzhynsk appeared in 1750. At that time the villages of Romankovo and Kamianske, which make the modern city,...

     (1956–64), Kaniv
    Kaniv
    Kaniv is a city located in the Cherkasy Oblast in central Ukraine. The city rests on the Dnieper River, and is also one of the main inland river ports on the Dnieper...

     (1963–75).

    Those dams that used to generate hydroelectric power of ten percent of Ukraine's total electricity, form water reservoirs.

    The reservoirs are named as Kiev
    Kiev Reservoir
    The Kiev Reservoir , locally the Kiev Sea, is a large water reservoir located on the Dnieper River in Ukraine. Named after the city of Kiev, which lies to the south, it covers a total area of 922 square kilometres within the Kiev Oblast. The reservoir was formed in 1960-1966, as a result of the...

     (922 square kilometre), Kaniv
    Kaniv Reservoir
    The Kaniv Reservoir is a water reservoir located on the Dnieper River in Ukraine. Named after the city of Kaniv, it covers a total area of 675 square kilometres within the Cherkasy and Kiev Oblasts. It was created in 1972 because of the dams of the Kaniv Hydroelectric Station on the Dnieper...

     (675 square kilometre), Kremenchuk
    Kremenchuk Reservoir
    The Kremenchuk Reservoir is the largest water reservoir located on the Dnieper River. Named for the city of Kremenchuk, it covers a total area of 2,250 square kilometres in the territories of the Poltava, Cherkasy, and Kirovohrad Oblasts in central Ukraine...

     (2250 square kilometre), Dniprodzerzhynsk
    Dniprodzerzhynsk Reservoir
    The Dniprodzerzhynsk Reservoir is a water reservoir located on the lower part of the Dnieper River in Ukraine. Named after the city of Dniprodzerzhynsk, it covers a total area of 567 square kilometres within the Dnipropetrovsk Oblast. It was formed in 1963-1965...

     (567 square kilometre), Dnipro
    Dnieper Reservoir
    The Dnieper Reservoir is a water reservoir on, and named after the Dnieper River in Ukraine. It is located within the Dnipropetrovsk and Zaporizhzhia Oblasts. It was created in 1932 by the construction of the Dnieper Hydroelectric Station....

     (420 square kilometre), and Kakhovka
    Kakhovka Reservoir
    The Kakhovka Reservoir is a water reservoir located on the Dnieper River. It covers a total surface area of 2,155 square kilometres in the territories of the Kherson, Zaporizhia, and the Dnipropetrovsk Oblasts of Ukraine...

     (2155 square kilometre).

    Cities and towns on the Dnieper


    Cities and towns located on the Dnieper are listed in order from the river's source (in Russia) to its mouth (in Ukraine):
    • Dorogobuzh
      Dorogobuzh
      Dorogobuzh is a historic town and the administrative center of Dorogobuzhsky District of Smolensk Oblast, Russia, straddling the Dnieper River to the east of Smolensk and west of Vyazma. Population:...

      , Russia
    • Smolensk
      Smolensk
      Smolensk is a city and the administrative center of Smolensk Oblast, Russia, located on the Dnieper River. Situated west-southwest of Moscow, this walled city was destroyed several times throughout its long history since it was on the invasion routes of both Napoleon and Hitler. Today, Smolensk...

      , Russia
    • Orsha
      Orsha
      Orsha is a city in Belarus in Vitebsk voblast on the fork of the Dnieper and Arshytsa rivers.-Facts:*Location: *Population: 125,000 *Phone code: +375 216*Postal codes: 211030, 211381–211394, 211396–211398-History:...

      , Belarus
    • Shklow, Belarus
    • Mahilyow
      Mogilev
      Mogilev is a city in eastern Belarus, about 76 km from the border with Russia's Smolensk Oblast and 105 km from the border with Russia's Bryansk Oblast. It has more than 367,788 inhabitants...

      , Belarus
    • Bychaw
      Bychaw
      Bykhaw is a town in the eastern Belarusian voblast of Mahilyow. It is located 44 km south of Mahilyow on the Dnieper River , and is the administrative center of the Bykhov Raion. The population is approximately 20,000 ....

      , Belarus
    • Rahachow
      Rahachow
      Rahachow - also transliteratedRahačoŭ .The notable Rabbi, Yosef Rosen , known as the Rogatchover Gaon , was born and raised here. The artist Anatoli Lvovich Kaplan was born and brought up here, as was former NHL hockey player Sergei Bautin.- External links :*...

      , Belarus
    • Zhlobin
      Zhlobin
      Zhlobin is a city in the Homiel Voblast of Belarus, on the Dnieper river. As of 2005, the population is 75.866. The town was first mentioned in writing in 1492....

      , Belarus
    • Rechytsa
      Rechytsa
      Rechytsa is a town in the Homiel Province of Belarus. It is center of Rechytsa Raion. The city is situated at the mouth of Rechitsa river, flowing into Dnieper. The population is 65,532 as of 2005.-History:...

      , Belarus
    • Kiev
      Kiev
      Kiev or Kyiv is the capital and the largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper River. The population as of the 2001 census was 2,611,300. However, higher numbers have been cited in the press....

      , Ukraine
    • Kaniv
      Kaniv
      Kaniv is a city located in the Cherkasy Oblast in central Ukraine. The city rests on the Dnieper River, and is also one of the main inland river ports on the Dnieper...

      , Ukraine
  • Cherkasy
    Cherkasy
    Cherkasy or Cherkassy , is a city in central Ukraine. It is the capital of the Cherkasy Oblast , as well as the administrative center of the surrounding Cherkasky Raion within the oblast...

    , Ukraine
  • Kremenchuk
    Kremenchuk
    Kremenchuk is an important industrial city in the Poltava Oblast of central Ukraine. Serving as the administrative center of the Kremenchutskyi Raion , the city itself is also designated as a separate raion within the oblast, and is located on the banks of Dnieper River.-History:Kremenchuk was...

    , Ukraine
  • Dniprodzerzhynsk
    Dniprodzerzhynsk
    Dniprodzerzhynsk is an industrial city in the Dnipropetrovsk Oblast of Ukraine, and a port on the Dnieper River.-History:The first written evidence of settlement in the territory of Dniprodzerzhynsk appeared in 1750. At that time the villages of Romankovo and Kamianske, which make the modern city,...

    , Ukraine
  • Dnipropetrovsk
    Dnipropetrovsk
    Dnipropetrovsk or Dnepropetrovsk formerly Yekaterinoslav is Ukraine's third largest city with one million inhabitants. It is located southeast of Ukraine's capital Kiev on the Dnieper River, in the south-central region of the country...

    , Ukraine
  • Zaporizhia
    Zaporizhia
    Zaporizhia or Zaporozhye [formerly Alexandrovsk ] is a city in southeastern Ukraine, situated on the banks of the Dnieper River. It is the administrative center of the Zaporizhia Oblast...

    , Ukraine
  • Marhanets
    Marhanets
    Marhanets is a mining city in Dnipropetrovsk Oblast of central Ukraine. It is located on the right bank of the Kakhovka Reservoir on the Dnieper River. City has about 50,000 inhabitants . Its geographic coordinates are .-2010 accident:...

    , Ukraine
  • Nikopol, Ukraine
  • Enerhodar
    Enerhodar
    Enerhodar is the city in north-west part of Zaporizhia Oblast, Ukraine.Enerhodar is located on the left bank of Dnieper river near the Kakhovka Reservoir....

    , Ukraine
  • Kamianka-Dniprovska
    Kamianka-Dniprovska
    Kamianka-Dniprovska is a city in Zaporizhia Oblast, Ukraine. Population is 15,522 . The city is home to the Kamianka-Dniprovska District Historical and Archeological Museum. An archeological site near Kamianka-Dniprovska gives evidence suggesting that the city was once the capital of the ancient...

    , Ukraine
  • Nova Kakhovka
    Nova Kakhovka
    Nova Kakhovka is a city in the Kherson Oblast of southern Ukraine, recognized as the Monument of Architecture, and was part of the Great Construction Projects of Communism....

    , Ukraine
  • Kherson
    Kherson
    Kherson is a city in southern Ukraine. It is the administrative center of the Kherson Oblast , and is designated as its own separate raion within the oblast. Kherson is an important port on the Black Sea and Dnieper River, and the home of a major ship-building industry...

    , Ukraine


  • Arheimar
    Árheimar
    Árheimar was a capital of the Goths, according to the Hervarar saga. The saga only states that it was located on the river Dnieper, which flows from Ukraine to the Black Sea.- Hervarar saga :...

    , a capital of the Goths
    Goths
    The Goths were an East Germanic tribe of Scandinavian origin whose two branches, the Visigoths and the Ostrogoths, played an important role in the fall of the Roman Empire and the emergence of Medieval Europe....

    , was located on the Dnieper, according to the Hervarar saga
    Hervarar saga
    Hervarar saga ok Heiðreks is a legendary saga from the 13th century combining matter from several older sagas. It is a valuable saga for several different reasons beside its literary qualities. It contains traditions of wars between Goths and Huns, from the 4th century, and the last part is used as...

    .

    Navigation



    The Dnieper is important for the transport
    Transport in Ukraine
    All transportation in Ukraine except for automobile transportation is regulated by the Ministry of Infrastructure, formerly the united Ministry of Transportation and Communications. The automobile transportation is regulated by the State Automobile Inspection of the Ministry of Interior...

     and economy of Ukraine
    Economy of Ukraine
    The economy of Ukraine is an emerging free market, with a gross domestic product that fell sharply for the first 10 years of its independence from the Soviet Union and then experienced rapid growth from 2000 until 2008...

    : its reservoirs have large ship locks, allowing vessels of up to 270 by 18 m (885.8 by 59.1 ft) to access as far as the port of Kiev
    Kiev
    Kiev or Kyiv is the capital and the largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper River. The population as of the 2001 census was 2,611,300. However, higher numbers have been cited in the press....

     and thus create an important transport corridor. The river is used by passenger vessels as well. Inland cruises on the rivers Danube
    Danube
    The Danube is a river in the Central Europe and the Europe's second longest river after the Volga. It is classified as an international waterway....

     and Dnieper have been a growing market in recent decades.

    Upstream from Kiev, the Dnieper receives the water of the Pripyat River
    Pripyat River
    The Pripyat River or Prypiat River is a river in Eastern Europe, approximately long. It flows east through Ukraine, Belarus, and Ukraine again, draining into the Dnieper....

    . This navigable river connects to the Dnieper-Bug canal
    Dnieper-Bug Canal
    Dnieper–Bug Canal , or the Dneprovsko-Bugsky Canal is the longest inland ship canal in Belarus that connects the Mukhavets River, a tributary of the Bug River, and the Pina River, a tributary of the Pripyat River. Originally it was named Royal Canal , after the Polish king, since he was the...

    , the link with the Bug River
    Bug River
    The Bug River is a left tributary of the Narew river flows from central Ukraine to the west, passing along the Ukraine-Polish and Polish-Belarusian border and into Poland, where it empties into the Narew river near Serock. The part between the lake and the Vistula River is sometimes referred to as...

     river. Historically, a connection with the Western European waterways was possible, but a weir
    Weir
    A weir is a small overflow dam used to alter the flow characteristics of a river or stream. In most cases weirs take the form of a barrier across the river that causes water to pool behind the structure , but allows water to flow over the top...

     without a ship lock near the town of Brest
    Brest, Belarus
    Brest , formerly also Brest-on-the-Bug and Brest-Litovsk , is a city in Belarus at the border with Poland opposite the city of Terespol, where the Bug River and Mukhavets rivers meet...

     has interrupted this international waterway. Poor political relations between Western Europe and Belarus mean there is little likelihood of re-opening this waterway in the near future.

    Navigation is interrupted each year by freezing in winter, and severe winter storms.

    Popular culture

    • The river is one of the symbols of Ukrainian statehood.
    • Some of the cities on its banks -- Dnipropetrovsk
      Dnipropetrovsk
      Dnipropetrovsk or Dnepropetrovsk formerly Yekaterinoslav is Ukraine's third largest city with one million inhabitants. It is located southeast of Ukraine's capital Kiev on the Dnieper River, in the south-central region of the country...

      , Dniprorudne
      Dniprorudne
      Dniprorudne is a city in Zaporizhia Oblast, Ukraine. Population is 21,054 ....

      , Kamianka-Dniprovska
      Kamianka-Dniprovska
      Kamianka-Dniprovska is a city in Zaporizhia Oblast, Ukraine. Population is 15,522 . The city is home to the Kamianka-Dniprovska District Historical and Archeological Museum. An archeological site near Kamianka-Dniprovska gives evidence suggesting that the city was once the capital of the ancient...

       -- are named after the river.
    • The Zaporozhian Cossacks lived on the lower Dniepr and their name refers to their location "beyond the cataracts."
    • Folk metal
      Folk metal
      Folk metal is a sub-genre of heavy metal music that developed in Europe during the 1990s. As the name suggests, the genre is a fusion of heavy metal with traditional folk music...

       band Turisas
      Turisas
      Turisas is a Finnish folk metal band from Hämeenlinna. It was founded in 1997 by Mathias Nygård and Jussi Wickström and named after an ancient Finnish God of war....

       have a song called "The Dnieper Rapids" on their 2007 album The Varangian Way
      The Varangian Way
      The Varangian Way is the second full-length album from Finnish folk metal band, Turisas and was released in 2007. It is a concept album that tells the story of a group of Scandinavians traveling the river routes of medieval Russia, through Ladoga, Novgorod and Kiev, down to the Byzantine Empire.A...

      .
    • Leon Bolier
      Leon Bolier
      Leon Bolier is a Dutch classically trained trance composer, DJ, and record producer. His career began to flourish in 2008 with a number of successful song releases including the hit song "Ocean Drive Boulevard". He placed #95 on DJMag's 2008 list of the top 100 DJ's in the world, and moved up 32...

       featured a track called "Dnipro" in his debut 2CD album Pictures
      Pictures (Leon Bolier album)
      Pictures is the debut studio album by Trance artist Leon Bolier, released on September 29, 2008.-Disc one:#"Huachinango"#"Off Shore"#"Darling Harbour"#"Dnipro"#"I Finally Found" #"XD"#"Interludium"#"Meditate"#"YE"...

      . The track is said to be inspired by his visit to Kiev
      Kiev
      Kiev or Kyiv is the capital and the largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper River. The population as of the 2001 census was 2,611,300. However, higher numbers have been cited in the press....

       in May 2008.
    • The river is described in the works of Taras Shevchenko
      Taras Shevchenko
      Taras Hryhorovych Shevchenko -Life:Born into a serf family of Hryhoriy Ivanovych Shevchenko and Kateryna Yakymivna Shevchenko in the village of Moryntsi, of Kiev Governorate of the Russian Empire Shevchenko was orphaned at the age of eleven...

       as Dnipro (He roars and groans the Dnipro wide) and mentioned in the National anthem of Ukraine.
    • The river is referred to as Dnipro, in the song Hey, Dnipro, Dnipro.

    See also



    • Threat of the Dnieper reservoirs
      Threat of the Dnieper reservoirs
      The water reservoirs of the Dnieper River in Ukraine pose a significant threat of a large-scale human-made disaster if their dams fail. Such a threat is typical for reservoir dams; however, the Dnieper reservoirs are especially dangerous because of the geographical conditions, as well as the...

    • List of rivers of Russia
    • List of rivers of Ukraine
    • Trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks
      Trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks
      The trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks was a trade route that connected Scandinavia, Kievan Rus' and the Byzantine Empire. The route allowed traders along the route to establish a direct prosperous trade with Byzantium, and prompted some of them to settle in the territories of...