Dmitry Ukhtomsky

Dmitry Ukhtomsky

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Prince Dmitry Vasilyevich Ukhtomsky, Дмитрий Васильевич Ухтомский (1719–1774) was the chief architect
Architect
An architect is a person trained in the planning, design and oversight of the construction of buildings. To practice architecture means to offer or render services in connection with the design and construction of a building, or group of buildings and the space within the site surrounding the...

 of Moscow
Moscow
Moscow is the capital, the most populous city, and the most populous federal subject of Russia. The city is a major political, economic, cultural, scientific, religious, financial, educational, and transportation centre of Russia and the continent...

, Russia
Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

 during the reign of Empress Elizabeth.

Biography


Ukhtomsky was born in a village
Village
A village is a clustered human settlement or community, larger than a hamlet with the population ranging from a few hundred to a few thousand , Though often located in rural areas, the term urban village is also applied to certain urban neighbourhoods, such as the West Village in Manhattan, New...

 to the north of Yaroslavl
Yaroslavl
Yaroslavl is a city and the administrative center of Yaroslavl Oblast, Russia, located northeast of Moscow. The historical part of the city, a World Heritage Site, is located at the confluence of the Volga and the Kotorosl Rivers. It is one of the Golden Ring cities, a group of historic cities...

, where his Rurikid ancestors used to be rulers. At the age of 12, he moved to Moscow
Moscow
Moscow is the capital, the most populous city, and the most populous federal subject of Russia. The city is a major political, economic, cultural, scientific, religious, financial, educational, and transportation centre of Russia and the continent...

 and studied there at the School of Mathematics and Navigation until 1733. He studied architecture
Architecture
Architecture is both the process and product of planning, designing and construction. Architectural works, in the material form of buildings, are often perceived as cultural and political symbols and as works of art...

 and worked at Ivan Michurin
Ivan Fyodorovich Michurin
Ivan Fyodorovich Michurin was a Russian architect whose designs marked a transition of Russian architecture from early Muscovite Baroque to mature Rastrelliesque style....

's workshop until 1741, later working for Ivan Korobov (1741–1743). In 1742, Korobov supported Ukhtomsky's nomination for his first professional title and delegated him the management of a firm. In 1744, Ukhtomsky acquired a full architect's license and the rank of captain in state hierarchy.

Ukhtomsky's first public success were the temporary pavilions and arched for the coronation of Empress Elisabeth I of Russia in 1742. In 1753-1757 he rebuild one of these arched into landmark Red Gates, which stood until 1927. Since 1740s, he built numerous buildings in nearby Basmanny District
Basmanny District
Basmanny District is a district of Central Administrative Okrug of Moscow, Russia. Population: The district extends northeast from Kitai-gorod, within the radial boundaries of Vorontsovo Pole Street and Yauza River in the south and Myasnitskaya Street and Novaya Basmannaya Street in the north...

, notably the extant Church of Martyr Nikita, the largest mature Baroque
Baroque
The Baroque is a period and the style that used exaggerated motion and clear, easily interpreted detail to produce drama, tension, exuberance, and grandeur in sculpture, painting, literature, dance, and music...

 building in Moscow.

The grand bell-tower of the Troitse-Sergiyeva Lavra
Troitse-Sergiyeva Lavra
The Trinity Lavra of St. Sergius is the most important Russian monastery and the spiritual centre of the Russian Orthodox Church. The monastery is situated in the town of Sergiyev Posad, about 70 km to the north-east from Moscow by the road leading to Yaroslavl, and currently is home to...

, 81 meter tall, was one of several projects where Ukhtomsky worked first with his mentor Michurin, and then independently until 1760. Present-day Kuznetsky Most
Kuznetsky Most
Kuznetsky Most is a street in central Moscow, that runs from Bolshaya Dmitrovka Street to Lubyanka Street. The name, literally Blacksmith's Bridge, refers to the 18th century bridge over Neglinnaya River, now running in an underground tunnel, and a nearby foundry and the settlement of its workers...

, literally Blacksmith's Bridge, stands on the site of a 120-meter long bridge over Neglinnaya River
Neglinnaya River
The Neglinnaya River , also known as Neglimna, Neglinna, Neglinka , is a 7.5-km long underground river in the central part of Moscow and a tributary of the Moskva River. It flows in the tunnels under Samotechnaya Street, Tsvetnoy Boulevard, Neglinnaya Street and Alexander Garden and Zaryadye...

, also designed by Ukhtomsky. The bridge, the palace in German Quarter
German Quarter
German Quarter, also known as the Kukuy Quarter was a neighborhood in the northeast of Moscow, located on the right bank of the Yauza River east of Kukuy Creek , within present-day Basmanny District of Moscow....

 and many other buildings by Ukhtomsky were destroyed by accidental fires, rebuilt beyond recognition or demolished.

For the first time in history of Moscow, Ukhtomsky produced master plans for redevelopment of areas destroyed by the fires of 1748 and 1752. Ukhtomsky also supervised repairs in Moscow Kremlin
Moscow Kremlin
The Moscow Kremlin , sometimes referred to as simply The Kremlin, is a historic fortified complex at the heart of Moscow, overlooking the Moskva River , Saint Basil's Cathedral and Red Square and the Alexander Garden...

 in 1750s. He trained and influenced Matvei Kazakov, Ivan Starov
Ivan Starov
Ivan Yegorovich Starov was a Russian architect from St. Petersburg who devised the master plans for Yaroslavl, Voronezh, Pskov, Dnipropetrovsk, Mykolaiv, and many other towns in Russia and Ukraine...

, Alexander Kokorinov
Alexander Kokorinov
Alexander Filippovich Kokorinov was a Russian architect and educator, one of the founders, the first builder, director and rector of the Imperial Academy of Arts in Saint Peterburg. Kokorinov has been house architect of the Razumovsky family and Ivan Shuvalov, the first President of the Academy...

, and other noted masters who graduated from the architectural school founded by Ukhtomsky in Moscow in 1749.

In 1760, Ukhtomsky was accused of fraud and dismissed from his job; his school was closed in 1764. In 1767 he left Moscow forever; despite a 1770 verdict in his favor, he never returned to practical construction and education.