Diogo de Gouveia

Diogo de Gouveia

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Diogo de Gouveia known as Diogo de Gouveia, the Elder to distinguish him from contemporary homonyms such as his nephew, was a leading Portuguese teacher
Teacher
A teacher or schoolteacher is a person who provides education for pupils and students . The role of teacher is often formal and ongoing, carried out at a school or other place of formal education. In many countries, a person who wishes to become a teacher must first obtain specified professional...

, theologian, diplomat
Diplomat
A diplomat is a person appointed by a state to conduct diplomacy with another state or international organization. The main functions of diplomats revolve around the representation and protection of the interests and nationals of the sending state, as well as the promotion of information and...

 and humanist
Humanism
Humanism is an approach in study, philosophy, world view or practice that focuses on human values and concerns. In philosophy and social science, humanism is a perspective which affirms some notion of human nature, and is contrasted with anti-humanism....

 during the Renaissance
Renaissance
The Renaissance was a cultural movement that spanned roughly the 14th to the 17th century, beginning in Italy in the Late Middle Ages and later spreading to the rest of Europe. The term is also used more loosely to refer to the historical era, but since the changes of the Renaissance were not...

. With an extensive academic curriculum as rector at the University of Paris
University of Paris
The University of Paris was a university located in Paris, France and one of the earliest to be established in Europe. It was founded in the mid 12th century, and officially recognized as a university probably between 1160 and 1250...

, he served King Manuel I
Manuel I of Portugal
Manuel I , the Fortunate , 14th king of Portugal and the Algarves was the son of Infante Ferdinand, Duke of Viseu, , by his wife, Infanta Beatrice of Portugal...

 and king John III of Portugal
John III of Portugal
John III , nicknamed o Piedoso , was the fifteenth King of Portugal and the Algarves. He was the son of King Manuel I and Maria of Aragon, the third daughter of King Ferdinand II of Aragon and Queen Isabella I of Castile...

, whom he advised on the creation of captaincies in Brazil and the coming of the first Jesuit missionaries and notably Francis Xavier
Francis Xavier
Francis Xavier, born Francisco de Jasso y Azpilicueta was a pioneering Roman Catholic missionary born in the Kingdom of Navarre and co-founder of the Society of Jesus. He was a student of Saint Ignatius of Loyola and one of the first seven Jesuits, dedicated at Montmartre in 1534...

. First of a lineage of distinguished humanists and educators, he was the uncle of André de Gouveia
André de Gouveia
André de Gouveia was a Portuguese humanist and pedagogue during the Renaissance.André de Gouveia became one of the first Portuguese to study in the Collège Sainte-Barbe, in Paris, which was then directed by his uncle Diogo de Gouveia...

, António de Gouveia
António de Gouveia
António de Gouveia was a Portuguese humanist and educator during the Renaissance. After graduating in Paris he taught at the Collège de Guyenne in Bordeaux, and then at Toulouse, Avignon, Lyon, Cahors, Valence, Grenoble, Turin and Mondovi. His controversy with Pierre de la Ramée about Aristotle...

, Diogo de Gouveia "the younger", and Marcial de Gouveia. During the Counter-Reformation
Counter-Reformation
The Counter-Reformation was the period of Catholic revival beginning with the Council of Trent and ending at the close of the Thirty Years' War, 1648 as a response to the Protestant Reformation.The Counter-Reformation was a comprehensive effort, composed of four major elements:#Ecclesiastical or...

 he was a strong supporter of scholastic
Scholasticism
Scholasticism is a method of critical thought which dominated teaching by the academics of medieval universities in Europe from about 1100–1500, and a program of employing that method in articulating and defending orthodoxy in an increasingly pluralistic context...

 and Catholic
Catholic
The word catholic comes from the Greek phrase , meaning "on the whole," "according to the whole" or "in general", and is a combination of the Greek words meaning "about" and meaning "whole"...

 orthodoxy
Orthodoxy
The word orthodox, from Greek orthos + doxa , is generally used to mean the adherence to accepted norms, more specifically to creeds, especially in religion...

, clashing with the liberal views of his nephew André de Gouveia.

Biography


Diogo de Gouveia was born in Beja
Beja
Beja may refer to:*Beja , a city in Portugal, or**Beja Municipality, its municipality**Beja District, the district it is in**Beja Airbase, the nearby airbase*Béja, a town in Tunisia, or...

. He was the son of Antão de Gouveia, who had settled there. In 1499 Diogo became one of the first Portuguese to study in Paris, at the Collège de Montaigu
Collège de Montaigu
The Collège de Montaigu was one of the constituent colleges of the Faculty of Arts of the University of Paris. The college, originally called the Collège des Aicelins, was founded in 1314 by Giles Aicelin, the Archbishop of Rouen...

, benefiting from two scholarships offered by Jan Standonck
Jan Standonck
Jan Standonck was a Dutch priest, Scholastic, and reformer.He was part of the great movement for reform in the 15th century French church. His approach was to reform the recruitment and education of the clergy, along very ascetic lines, heavily influenced by the hermit saint Francis of Paola...

 to King Manuel I
Manuel I of Portugal
Manuel I , the Fortunate , 14th king of Portugal and the Algarves was the son of Infante Ferdinand, Duke of Viseu, , by his wife, Infanta Beatrice of Portugal...

 as compensation for an attack by French privateers on a Portuguese ship.
He studied at the University of Paris
University of Paris
The University of Paris was a university located in Paris, France and one of the earliest to be established in Europe. It was founded in the mid 12th century, and officially recognized as a university probably between 1160 and 1250...

, where he became Master of Arts
Master of Arts (postgraduate)
A Master of Arts from the Latin Magister Artium, is a type of Master's degree awarded by universities in many countries. The M.A. is usually contrasted with the M.S. or M.Sc. degrees...

. Ordained priest, he completed the studies at the Sorbonne where, in 1507 he became librarian, having graduated as Doctor of Theology
Doctor of Theology
Doctor of Theology is a terminal academic degree in theology. It is a research degree that is considered by the U.S. National Science Foundation to be the equivalent of a Doctor of Philosophy....

 on April 29, 1510. From 1512 to 1521 he was a diplomatic agent of king Manuel I in France, attending complaints from owners of Portuguese ships targeted by privateers.

In 1520 he had the idea of buying the Parisian Collège Sainte-Barbe
Collège Sainte-Barbe
The Collège Sainte-Barbe is a former school in the 5th arrondissement of Paris, France.The Collège Sainte-Barbe was founded in 1460 on Montagne Sainte-Geneviève by Pierre Antoine Victor de Lanneau, teacher of religious studies...

 for the king. Faced with the difficulties posed by owner Robert Dugast, the college was rented and Diogo de Gouveia became its principal
Head teacher
A head teacher or school principal is the most senior teacher, leader and manager of a school....

, transforming it into a real Portuguese college inside the University of Paris
University of Paris
The University of Paris was a university located in Paris, France and one of the earliest to be established in Europe. It was founded in the mid 12th century, and officially recognized as a university probably between 1160 and 1250...

. When king John III was enthroned, he wanted to shape education to match the growing demands of the vast territories ruled by the Portuguese. In 1526, at suggestion of Diogo de Gouveia, he created more than 50 scholarships for Portuguese students in Paris, in order to prepare them in the liberal arts
Liberal arts
The term liberal arts refers to those subjects which in classical antiquity were considered essential for a free citizen to study. Grammar, Rhetoric and Logic were the core liberal arts. In medieval times these subjects were extended to include mathematics, geometry, music and astronomy...

, to be followed by studies in theology. Among these students were André de Gouveia
André de Gouveia
André de Gouveia was a Portuguese humanist and pedagogue during the Renaissance.André de Gouveia became one of the first Portuguese to study in the Collège Sainte-Barbe, in Paris, which was then directed by his uncle Diogo de Gouveia...

 and Diogo de Teive
Diogo de Teive (humanist)
Diogo de Teive was a Portuguese humanist during the Renaissance.Diogo de Teive was a humanist, a latinist and a typical scholar of his day: a traveller, who spent most of his formative years abroad, in Europe...

, who came to Sainte-Barbe in 1527.

There studied mainly Portuguese but also the navarrese Francis Xavier
Francis Xavier
Francis Xavier, born Francisco de Jasso y Azpilicueta was a pioneering Roman Catholic missionary born in the Kingdom of Navarre and co-founder of the Society of Jesus. He was a student of Saint Ignatius of Loyola and one of the first seven Jesuits, dedicated at Montmartre in 1534...

 in 1525, and Ignatius of Loyola
Ignatius of Loyola
Ignatius of Loyola was a Spanish knight from a Basque noble family, hermit, priest since 1537, and theologian, who founded the Society of Jesus and was its first Superior General. Ignatius emerged as a religious leader during the Counter-Reformation...

, who listed in the college already at 33, on the grounds of not exerting his influence on his classmates. In 1529, having learned that Loyola had been monopolising attention over school, a furious Gouveia threatened to hit him, in an episode that became famous. That same year George Buchanan
George Buchanan
George Buchanan may refer to:*George Buchanan , Scottish humanist*Sir George Buchanan , Scottish soldier during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms*Sir George Buchanan , Chief Medical Officer...

 became teacher in Saint Barbe.

As an advisor to D. John III, Diogo de Gouveia reported the king in September 1527 about Giovanni da Verrazzano's moves in the Atlantic, of what his letters are a relevant testimony.
In 1532 to counter the growing advances of French privateers in Brazilian shores, he suggested along with Cristóvão Jacques
Cristóvão Jacques
Cristóvão Jaques , also known as Cristóvão Valjaques Algarve, cerca 1480 - after 1530, was a Portuguese noble of Aragonese descent....

, the introduction of Captaincies in Brazil

Between 1529 and 1534, due to his frequent travels, he entrusted André de Gouveia with the direction of the College of Saint Barbe, who opened it to humanist reform ideas, inviting Nicolas Cop
Nicolas Cop
Nicolas Cop , rector of the University of Paris in late 1533, from 10 October 1533, was a Swiss Protestant Reformer and friend of Johannes Calvin...

 to teach there. After Cop's contested inaugural address November 1533, André went to the College of Guienne
College of Guienne
The Collège of Guienne was a school founded in 1533 in Bordeaux. The collège became renowned for the teaching of liberal arts between the years 1537 and 1571, attracting students such as Michel de Montaigne.-History:...

 in Bordeaux and was replaced by Diogo de Gouveia the younger.

In 1537 Diogo de Gouveia held diplomatic missions in France on behalf of D. John III. A year later he wrote to the king enthusiastically endorsing the newly graduated clerics of Saint Barbe to the missions in Asia. After engaging in the papal approval of the Society of Jesus
Society of Jesus
The Society of Jesus is a Catholic male religious order that follows the teachings of the Catholic Church. The members are called Jesuits, and are also known colloquially as "God's Army" and as "The Company," these being references to founder Ignatius of Loyola's military background and a...

, he followed the evolution of the Jesuit missions abroad through the reports of Diogo de Gouveia, the younger.

From 1540 to 1548 he returned to the rectorship of Saint Barbe, as his nephews traveled to Portugal. He was then in a difficult position, as king John III threatened to end Portuguese schollarships abroad, while engaging in founding a college for liberal arts in Portugal, in order to prepare in Portugal prospective college students, sheltered from north European protestant reformation
Protestant Reformation
The Protestant Reformation was a 16th-century split within Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther, John Calvin and other early Protestants. The efforts of the self-described "reformers", who objected to the doctrines, rituals and ecclesiastical structure of the Roman Catholic Church, led...

 struggles In 1542 the king founded the Royal College of Arts and Humanities at Coimbra
Coimbra
Coimbra is a city in the municipality of Coimbra in Portugal. Although it served as the nation's capital during the High Middle Ages, it is better-known for its university, the University of Coimbra, which is one of the oldest in Europe and the oldest academic institution in the...

. As he appointed André de Gouveia, who had exceled as principal of the College of Guienne, in Bordeaux
Bordeaux
Bordeaux is a port city on the Garonne River in the Gironde department in southwestern France.The Bordeaux-Arcachon-Libourne metropolitan area, has a population of 1,010,000 and constitutes the sixth-largest urban area in France. It is the capital of the Aquitaine region, as well as the prefecture...

. Diogo de Gouveia opposed it, accusing his nephew of Lutheranism
Lutheranism
Lutheranism is a major branch of Western Christianity that identifies with the theology of Martin Luther, a German reformer. Luther's efforts to reform the theology and practice of the church launched the Protestant Reformation...

, preferring Diogo de Gouveia, the younger with whose reports he had taken solace.

As the Royal College of Arts and Humanities at Coimbra
Coimbra
Coimbra is a city in the municipality of Coimbra in Portugal. Although it served as the nation's capital during the High Middle Ages, it is better-known for its university, the University of Coimbra, which is one of the oldest in Europe and the oldest academic institution in the...

 surpassed Saint Barbe as the main Portuguese student's destination, in subsequent years Parisian and Bordalese factions of teachers fought within the university.

Diogo de Gouveia returned to Portugal in 1556, where he became Canon
Canon (priest)
A canon is a priest or minister who is a member of certain bodies of the Christian clergy subject to an ecclesiastical rule ....

 of Lisbon Cathedral
Lisbon Cathedral
The Patriarchal Cathedral of St. Mary Major is a Roman Catholic parish church located in Lisbon, Portugal. The oldest church in the city is the see of the Archdiocese of Lisbon. Since the beginning of the construction of the cathedral, in the year 1147, the building has been modified several...

, having died the following year. He was buried in the crossing
Crossing (architecture)
A crossing, in ecclesiastical architecture, is the junction of the four arms of a cruciform church.In a typically oriented church , the crossing gives access to the nave on the west, the transept arms on the north and south, and the choir on the east.The crossing is sometimes surmounted by a tower...

of the Cathedral, the now lost epitaph in his tombstone, can be translated as: