Digraph (orthography)

Digraph (orthography)

Discussion
Ask a question about 'Digraph (orthography)'
Start a new discussion about 'Digraph (orthography)'
Answer questions from other users
Full Discussion Forum
 
Encyclopedia
{{Other uses|Digraph (disambiguation)}} {{IPA notice}} [[Image:Lldigraph.png|thumb|In Welsh, the [[Ll (digraph)|digraph ⟨Ll⟩, ⟨ll⟩]] fused for a time into a [[typographic ligature|ligature]].]] {{See|list of Latin digraphs|list of Cyrillic digraphs}} A '''digraph''' or '''digram''' (from the {{lang-el|δίς}} ''dís'' "double" and γράφω ''gráphō'' "write") is a pair of characters used to write one [[phoneme]] (distinct sound) or a sequence of phonemes that does not correspond to the normal values of the two characters combined. The sound is often, but not necessarily, one which cannot be expressed using a single character in the [[orthography]] used by the language. Usually, the term "digraph" is reserved for [[grapheme]]s whose pronunciation is always or nearly always the same. When digraphs do not represent a distinct phoneme, they may be relics from an earlier period of the language when they did have a different pronunciation, or represent a distinction which is made only in certain dialects, like ''wh'' in [[English (language)|English]]. They may also be used for purely [[etymology|etymological]] reasons, like ''rh'' in English. In some language orthographies, like that of [[Croatian language|Croatian]] (''lj, nj, dž'') or [[Czech language|Czech]] (''ch''), digraphs are considered individual [[letter (alphabet)|letter]]s, meaning that they have their own place in the alphabet, in the standard orthography, and cannot be separated into their constituent graphemes; e.g.: when sorting, abbreviating or hyphenating. In others, like English, this is not the case. Some schemes of [[Romanization]] make extensive use of digraphs (e.g. [[Cyrillic]] to Roman for [[English language|English]] readers), while others rely solely on [[diacritic]]s (e.g. Cyrillic to [[Turkish alphabet|the modified Roman]] used for [[Turkish language|Turkish]]). To avoid ambiguity, transliteration based on diacritics is generally preferred in academic circles. Many languages, like Serbian (written in Cyrillic) and Turkish, have no digraphs, and so transliterations into these languages also cannot use digraphs.{{cn|date=December 2011}} ==Types of digraph== {{also|List of Latin digraphs}} Various patterns are discernible in the form of digraphs. In English, consonant digraphs tend largely to consist of some letter plus ⟨h⟩, or to be double letters. Doubling is a common digraph strategy in many orthographies. Heterogeneous consonant digraphs in English include: * ⟨[[ch (digraph)|ch]]⟩ usually corresponds to {{IPA|/tʃ/}} ([[voiceless postalveolar affricate]]), to {{IPA|/k/}} ([[voiceless velar plosive]]) when used as an etymological digraph in words of Greek origin, less commonly to {{IPA|/ʃ/}} ([[voiceless postalveolar fricative]]) in words of French origin. * ⟨ci⟩ usually appears as {{IPA|/ʃ/}} before vowels. * ⟨[[Gh (digraph)|gh]]⟩ represents {{IPA|/ɡ/}} ([[voiced velar plosive]]) at the beginning of words, represents {{IPA|/f/}} ([[voiceless labiodental fricative]]) or is [[silent letter|silent]] at the end of words. * ⟨ng⟩ represents {{IPA|/ŋ/}} ([[velar nasal]]). * ⟨ph⟩ represents {{IPA|/f/}} ([[voiceless labiodental fricative]]). * ⟨qu⟩ usually represents {{IPA|/kw/}}; ⟨q⟩ is conventionally followed by ''u''. * ⟨rh⟩ represents English {{IPA|/r/}} in words of Greek origin. * ⟨sc⟩ normally represents {{IPA|/s/}} ([[voiceless alveolar fricative]]) or {{IPA|/ʃ/}} ([[voiceless postalveolar fricative]]) before ⟨e⟩ or ⟨i⟩. * ⟨[[Sh (digraph)|sh]]⟩ represents {{IPA|/ʃ/}} ([[voiceless postalveolar fricative]]). * ⟨[[Th (digraph)|th]]⟩ usually corresponds to {{IPA|/θ/}} ([[voiceless interdental fricative]]) or {{IPA|/ð/}} ([[voiced interdental fricative]]). See also [[Pronunciation of English th|Pronunciation of English ⟨th⟩]]. * ⟨wh⟩ represents {{IPA|/hw/}} in some conservative dialects; {{IPA|/w/}} in other dialects; and {{IPA|/h/}} in a few words where it is followed by ⟨o⟩, such as ''who'' and ''whole''. See also [[Phonological history of wh|Phonological history of ⟨wh⟩]]. * ⟨wr⟩ represents {{IPA|/r/}}. Originally, it stood for a [[labialisation|labialized]] sound, while ⟨r⟩ without ⟨w⟩ was non-labialized, but this distinction was lost in most dialects, the two sounds merging into a single [[alveolar approximant]], [[allophone|allophonically]] labialized at the start of syllables, as in ''red'' {{IPA|[ɹʷɛd]}}. See also [[Rhotic consonant]]. * ⟨zh⟩ represents {{IPA|/ʒ/}} in words transliterated from Slavic languages, and in American dictionary pronunciation spelling. Digraphs may also be composed of vowels. Common examples in English are: * ⟨ai⟩ is usually pronounced {{IPA|/eɪ/}}. * ⟨au⟩ is usually pronounced {{IPA|/ɔː/}}. * ⟨aw⟩ is pronounced {{IPA|/ɔː/}}. * ⟨ay⟩ is usually pronounced {{IPA|/eɪ/}}. * ⟨ea⟩ is pronounced {{IPA|/iː/}}, {{IPA|/ɛ/}}, or more rarely {{IPA|/eɪ/}}. * ⟨ee⟩ is pronounced {{IPA|/iː/}} * ⟨ei⟩ is usually pronounced {{IPA|/aɪ/}} or {{IPA|/eɪ/}}, or {{IPA|/iː/}} after ⟨c⟩. * ⟨eu⟩ is usually pronounced {{IPA|/juː/}} or {{IPA|/uː/}}. * ⟨ew⟩ is usually pronounced {{IPA|/juː/}} or {{IPA|/uː/}}. * ⟨ie⟩ is usually pronounced {{IPA|/iː/}}. * ⟨oa⟩ is usually pronounced {{IPA|/oʊ/}}. * ⟨oi⟩ is pronounced {{IPA|/ɔɪ/}}. * ⟨oo⟩ is pronounced {{IPA|/uː/}} or {{IPA|/ʊ/}} * ⟨ou⟩ is usually pronounced {{IPA|/aʊ/}}, more rarely {{IPA|/uː/}}. * ⟨ow⟩ is pronounced {{IPA|/aʊ/}} or {{IPA|/oʊ/}}. * ⟨oy⟩ is pronounced {{IPA|/ɔɪ/}}. For further information on English, see [[English orthography]]. There is also a '''split digraph''', which has a consonant in between two vowels, e.g. ⟨asa⟩. In some languages doubled letters indicate [[geminate consonant|consonant length]] or [[vowel length]], a [[stress (linguistics)|stressed syllable]] or a specific sound, but in other cases they are just part of the spelling convention. ⟨Ll⟩ is the most common in English, though it does not represent a different sound from ⟨l⟩, being essentially an etymological digraph. In [[Welsh language|Welsh]], however, ⟨ll⟩ stands for a voiceless lateral, and in [[Spanish language|Spanish]] and [[Catalan language|Catalan]] it stands for a palatal consonant. ⟨Ee⟩ and ⟨oo⟩ are vocalic examples from English. In several languages of western Europe, including English, [[French language|French]] and [[Catalan language|Catalan]], ⟨ss⟩ is used between vowels for the voiceless sibilant {{IPA|/s/}}, since an ⟨s⟩ alone between vowels is normally voiced, {{IPA|/z/}}. In [[German language|German]], this digraph was fused into the ligature [[ß]]. In [[Romance languages]] such as Spanish or [[Catalan language|Catalan]], ''[[rr (digraph)|rr]]'' is used between vowels for the [[alveolar trill]] {{IPA|/r/}}, since an ''r'' alone between vowels represents an [[alveolar flap]] {{IPA|/ɾ/}} (the two are different phonemes in these languages). In Spanish the digraph ''nn'', which used to indicate {{IPA|/ɲ/}} ([[palatal nasal]]), was turned into the [[ñ|letter ñ]], while ''ll'' indicates {{IPA|/ʎ/}} (traditionally a [[palatal lateral approximant]], though it has several dialectal variants in modern Spanish). In [[Portuguese language|Portuguese]], the digraph ''nh'' indicates {{IPA|/ɲ/}} (equivalent to Spanish ''ñ''), and ''lh'' indicates {{IPA|/ʎ/}} (equivalent to Spanish ''ll''). In [[Italian language|Italian]], ''zz'' (as in the word ''pizza'') is an [[affricate consonant|affricate]], {{IPA|/ts/}} or {{IPA|/dz/}}. In several Germanic languages, including English, ''CC'' (where ''C'' stands for a given consonant) corresponds to ''C'' and signifies that the preceding vowel is [[vowel length|short]]. In [[Basque language|Basque]], double letters mark palatalized versions as in ''[[dd]]'', ''[[ll]]'', ''[[tt]]''. Note however that ''[[rr]]'' is a trill contrasting with the single-letter flap and that the palatal version of ''n'' is ''ñ''. ===Pan-dialectical digraphs=== Some languages have a unified orthography with digraphs that represent distinct pronunciations in different dialects. For example, in [[Breton language|Breton]] there is a digraph ⟨zh⟩ that is pronounced {{IPA|[z]}} in most dialects, but {{IPA|[h]}} in ''Vannetais.'' Similarly, the [[Saintongeais]] dialect of French has a digraph ⟨jh⟩ that is pronounced {{IPA|[h]}} in words that correspond to {{IPA|[ʒ]}} in standard French. Similarly, Catalan has a digraph ⟨ix⟩ that is pronounced {{IPA|[ʃ]}} in [[Eastern Catalan]], but {{IPA|[jʃ]}} or {{IPA|[js]}} in [[Western Catalan]]–[[Valencian]]. ===Ambiguity=== {{Wiktionary|Category:English words with pseudo-digraphs}} Some letter pairs should not be interpreted as digraphs, but appear due to [[compound (linguistics)|compounding]], like in ''hogshead'' and ''cooperate''. This is often not marked in any way (it is an exception which must simply be memorized), but some authors indicate it either by breaking up the digraph with a [[hyphen]], as in ''hogs-head'', ''co-operate'', or with a [[umlaut (diacritic)|diaeresis mark]], as in ''coöperate'', though usage of a diaeresis has declined [[Diaeresis (diacritic)#In English|in English]] within the last century. This also occurs in names such as [[Clapham]], [[Townshend]], and [[Hartshorne]], and is not marked here either. In [[Romanization of Japanese]], the constituent sounds ([[Mora (linguistics)|morae]]) are usually indicated by digraphs, but some are indicated by a single letter, and some with a trigraph. The case of ambiguity is the syllabic [[ん]], which is written as ''n'' (or sometimes ''m''), except before vowels or ''y'' where it is followed by an apostrophe as ''n'''. For example, the given name じゅんいちろう is romanized as Jun'ichirō, so that it is parsed as /ju/n/i/chi/ro/u/, rather than as /ju/ni/chi/ro/u/. In [[Czech language|Czech]] also (and analogically in other [[Slavic languages]]), double letters may appear in compound words, but they are not considered digraphs. Examples: ''bezzubý'' (''bez'' + ''zubý'', toothless), ''cenný'' (''cen'' + ''ný'', valuable), ''černooký'' (''černo'' + ''oký'', black-eyed). ===Discontinuous digraphs=== The pair of letters making up a phoneme are not always adjacent. This is the case with English [[silent e]]. For example, the sequence ''a…e'' has the sound {{IPA|/eɪ/}} in English ''cake.'' This is the result of historical sound changes: ''cake'' was originally {{IPA|/kakə/}}, the [[open syllable]] {{IPA|/ka/}} came to be pronounced with a [[long vowel]], and later the final [[schwa]] dropped off, leaving {{IPA|/kaːk/}}. Later still, the vowel {{IPA|/aː/}} became {{IPA|/eɪ/}}. However, alphabets may also be designed with discontinuous digraphs. In the [[Tatar language|Tatar]] [[Cyrillic alphabet]], for example, the letter ''ю'' is used to write both {{IPA|/ju/}} and {{IPA|/jy/}}. Usually the difference is evident from the rest of the word, but when it is not, the sequence ''ю...ь'' is used for {{IPA|/jy/}}, as in ''юнь'' {{IPA|/jyn/}} 'cheap'. The [[Brahmic scripts|Indic alphabets]] are distinctive for their discontinuous vowels, such as Thai เ…อ {{IPA|/ɤː/}} in เกอ {{IPA|/kɤː/}}. Technically, however, these are [[diacritic]]s, not full letters; whether they are digraphs is thus a matter of definition. ==Digraphs versus letters== In some languages, digraphs and [[trigraph (orthography)|trigraph]]s are counted as distinct letters in themselves, and assigned to a specific place in the alphabet, separate from that of the sequence of characters which composes them, in [[orthography]] or [[collation]]. Other languages, such as English, make no such convention, and split digraphs into their constituent letters for collation purposes. A few language alphabets that include digraphs are: *[[Bosnian language|Bosnian]], [[Croatian language|Croatian]], [[Gaj’s Latin alphabet|Serbian]]. Note that in the [[Serbian Cyrillic alphabet|Cyrillic orthography]], these sounds are represented by single letters, rather than pairs of letters. ** ''[[Lj (digraph)|lj]]'' corresponds to {{IPA|/ʎ/}}, ([[palatal lateral approximant]]) ** ''[[Nj (digraph)|nj]]'' corresponds to {{IPA|/ɲ/}} ([[palatal nasal]]) ** ''[[dž]]'' corresponds to {{IPA|/dʒ/}} ([[voiced postalveolar affricate]]) *[[Czech language|Czech]]. ** ''[[Ch (digraph)|ch]]'' corresponds to {{IPA|/x/|}} ([[voiceless velar fricative]]), counted as a distinct letter ** ''[[dž]]'' corresponds to {{IPA|/dʒ/}} ([[voiced postalveolar affricate]]), not counted as a distinct letter, relatively rare digraph *[[Danish and Norwegian alphabet|Danish and Norwegian]]. ''[[Aa (digraph)|Aa]]'' represented {{IPA|/ɔ/}} until 1917 in Norway and 1948 in Denmark, but is today spelt ''[[å]]''. The ''[[Aa (digraph)|aa]]'' is still used in older names. *[[Hungarian alphabet|Hungarian]]. ** ''[[Hungarian cs|cs]]'' represents {{IPA|/tʃ/}} ([[voiceless postalveolar affricate]]) ** ''[[Hungarian dz|dz]]'' represents {{IPA|/dz/}} ([[voiced postalveolar affricate]]) ** ''[[Hungarian gy|gy]]'' represents {{IPA|/ɟ/}} ([[voiced palatal plosive]]) ** ''[[Hungarian ly|ly]]'' originally represented {{IPA|/ʎ/}} ([[palatal lateral approximant]]), but in the modern language stands for {{IPA|/j/}} ([[palatal approximant]]) ** ''[[Hungarian ny|ny]]'' represents {{IPA|/ɲ/}} ([[palatal nasal]]) ** ''[[Hungarian sz|sz]]'' represents {{IPA|/s/}} ([[voiceless alveolar fricative]]) (''s'' is pronounced {{IPA|/ʃ/}}) ** ''[[Hungarian ty|ty]]'' represents {{IPA|/c/}} ([[voiceless palatal plosive]]) ** ''[[Hungarian zs|zs]]'' represents {{IPA|/ʒ/}} ([[voiced postalveolar fricative]]) ** The Hungarian alphabet additionally contains also a [[trigraph (orthography)|trigraph]], [[Hungarian dzs|dzs]] {{IPAslink|dʒ}}. *[[Polish language|Polish]]. ** ''[[Ch (digraph)|ch]]'' corresponds to {{IPA|/x/}} ([[voiceless velar fricative]]) ** ''[[Cz (digraph)|cz]]'' corresponds to {{IPA|/tʂ/}} ([[voiceless retroflex affricate]]) ** ''[[Dz (digraph)|dz]]'' corresponds to {{IPA|/dz/}} ([[voiced alveolar affricate]]) ** ''[[Dź (digraph)|dź]]'' corresponds to {{IPA|/dʑ/}} ([[voiced alveolo-palatal affricate]]) ** ''[[Dż (digraph)|dż]]'' corresponds to {{IPA|/dʐ/}} ([[voiced retroflex affricate]]) ** ''[[Rz (digraph)|rz]]'' corresponds to {{IPA|/ʐ/}} ([[voiced retroflex fricative]]) ** ''[[Sz (digraph)|sz]]'' corresponds to {{IPA|/ʂ/}} ([[voiceless retroflex fricative]]) *[[Spanish alphabet|Spanish]]. In addition to ''ll'' (see above), there is the digraph ''ch'', which represents {{IPA|/tʃ/}} ([[voiceless postalveolar affricate]]). Since 1994, neither are considered part of the alphabet. They used to be sorted as separate letters, but a reform in 1994 by the [[Spanish Royal Academy]] has allowed that they be split into their constituent letters for collation. The digraph ''[[rr (digraph)|rr]]'', pronounced as a distinct [[alveolar trill]], is considered to be a letter in the Spanish alphabet, however no words begin with rr, so it does not have a separate entry in Spanish dictionaries. * [[Welsh alphabet|Welsh]]. The digraphs listed below represent distinct phonemes. On the other hand, the digraphs ''[[Mh (digraph)|mh]]'', ''[[Nh (digraph)|nh]]'', and the trigraph ''[[Ngh (letter)|ngh]]'', which stand for [[voice (phonetics)|voiceless consonants]], but only occur at the beginning of words as a result of the [[Welsh morphology|nasal mutation]], are not included in the alphabet. ** ''ch'' represents {{IPA|/x/}} ([[voiceless velar fricative]]) ** ''[[Dd (digraph)|dd]]'' represents {{IPA|/ð/}} ([[voiced dental fricative]]), like the English ''th'' in ''then''. ** ''[[Ff (digraph)|ff]]'' represents {{IPA|/f/}} ([[voiceless labiodental fricative]]), like English ''f'', since Welsh ''f'' is pronounced like an English ''v''. ** ''[[ll]]'' represents {{IPA|/ɬ/}} ([[voiceless alveolar lateral fricative]]) ** ''ng'' represents {{IPA|/ŋ/}} ([[velar nasal]]), the same sound as in English. ** ''ph'' represents {{IPA|/f/}} ([[voiceless labiodental fricative]]) ** ''rh'' represents {{IPA|/r̥/}} ([[alveolar trill|voiceless alveolar trill]]), pronounced roughly like the combination ''hr''. ** ''th'' represents {{IPA|/θ/}} ([[voiceless interdental fricative]]) * [[Wilamowicean alphabet|Wymysorys]], [[Irish language|Irish]] and [[Scottish Gaelic language|Scottish Gaelic]] ** have the uncommon digraph ''ao''. *[[Daighi tongiong pingim|Taiwanese]]. ** ''Or'' represents {{IPA|/ə/}} ([[mid central vowel]]) or {{IPA|/o/}} ([[close-mid back rounded vowel]]). ===Armenian=== In the [[Armenian language]], the digraph ''[[wikt:ու|ու]]'' corresponds to {{IPA|/u/}}, ([[close back rounded vowel]]). ===Greek=== [[Greek language|Modern Greek]] has the following digraphs: * ''αι'' (''ai'') represents {{IPA|/e̞/}} * ''ει'' (''ei'') represents {{IPA|/i/}} * ''οι'' (''oi'') represents {{IPA|/i/}} * ''ου'' (''oy'') represents {{IPA|/u/}} * ''υι'' (''yi'') represents {{IPA|/i/}} These are called "diphthongs" in Greek; in classical times most of them did represent [[diphthong]]s, and the name has stuck. * ''γγ'' (''gg'') represents {{IPA|/ŋɡ/}} or {{IPA|/ɡ/}} * ''τσ'' represents the affricate {{IPA|/ts/}} * ''τζ'' represents the affricate {{IPA|/dz/}} * Initial ''γκ'' (''gk'') represents {{IPA|/ɡ/}} * Initial ''μπ'' (''mp'') represents {{IPA|/b/}} * Initial ''ντ'' (''nt'') represents {{IPA|/d/}} Ancient Greek also had the "diphthongs" listed above although their pronunciation in ancient times is disputed. In addition Ancient Greek also used the letter γ combined with a labial stop to produce the following digraphs: * ''γγ'' (''gg'') represents {{IPA|/ŋɡ/}} * ''γκ'' (''gk'') represents {{IPA|/ŋɡ/}} * ''γχ'' (''gkh'') represents {{IPA|/ŋkʰ}} ===Arabic=== Because vowels are not generally written, digraphs are rare in [[abjad]]s like Arabic. For example, if ''sh'' were used for ''š,'' then the sequence ''sh'' could mean either ''ša'' or ''saha.'' However, digraphs are used for the [[Aspiration (phonetics)|aspirated]] and [[murmured consonant]]s (those spelled with ''h-''digraphs in Latin transcription) in languages of [[South Asia]] such as [[Urdu]] that are written in the Arabic script. This is accomplished with a special form of the letter ''h'' which is only used for aspiration digraphs, as seen with the following connecting ''(kh)'' and non-connecting ''(ḍh)'' consonants: {| |'''Urdu'''||colspan=2|connecting||  ||colspan=3|non-connecting |- |digraph:|| کھا ||{{IPA|/kʰɑː/}} || ||ڈھا ||{{IPA|/ɖʱɑː/}} || |- |sequence: ||کﮩا ||{{IPA|/kəɦɑː/}}|| ||ڈﮨا ||{{IPA|/ɖəɦɑː/}}|| |} ===Cyrillic=== {{Main|Cyrillic digraphs}} Modern Russian and other Slavic languages written in the Cyrillic alphabet makes little use of digraphs apart from ⟨дж⟩ for {{IPA|/dʐ/}} (in loan words only in Russian, but used for native words in Bulgarian), ⟨дз⟩ for {{IPA|/dz/}} (in loans), and ⟨жж⟩ for the uncommon Russian phoneme {{IPA|/ʑː/}}. Cyrillic only has large numbers of digraphs when used to write non-Slavic languages, especially [[Caucasian languages]]. ===Georgian=== The [[Georgian alphabet]] uses a few diacritics when writing other languages. For example, in [[Svan language|Svan]], {{IPA|/ø/}} is ჳე "we", and {{IPA|/y/}} is ჳი "wi". ===Hangul=== As was the case in Greek, Korean has vowels descended from diphthongs that are still written with two letters. These digraphs, ㅐ {{IPA|/ɛ/}} and ㅔ {{IPA|/e/}} (also ㅒ {{IPA|/jɛ/}}, ㅖ {{IPA|/je/}}), and in some dialects ㅚ {{IPA|/ø/}} and ㅟ {{IPA|/y/}}, all end in historical ㅣ {{IPA|/i/}}. Hangul was designed with a digraph series to represent the "[[slack voice|muddy]]" consonants of Chinese: ㅃ {{IPA|*[b̥]}}, ㄸ {{IPA|*[d̥]}}, ㅉ {{IPA|*[d̥z̥]}}, ㄲ {{IPA|*[ɡ̊]}}, ㅆ {{IPA|*[z̥]}}, ㆅ {{IPA|*[ɣ̊]}}; also ᅇ, with an uncertain value. These values are now obsolete, but most of these doubled letters were resurrected in the 19th century to write consonants which had not existed when hangul was devised: ㅃ {{IPA|/p͈/}}, ㄸ {{IPA|/t͈/}}, ㅉ {{IPA|/t͈ɕ/}}, ㄲ {{IPA|/k͈/}}, ㅆ {{IPA|/s͈/}}. ===Brahmi scripts=== Most [[Brahmic scripts|Indic scripts]] have compound vowel [[diacritic]]s that cannot be predicted from their individual elements. This can be illustrated with [[Thai language|Thai]], where the diacritic เ, on its own pronounced {{IPA|/eː/}}, modifies the pronunciation of other vowels: {| |single vowel sign: ||กา ||{{IPA|/kaː/}}, ||เก ||{{IPA|/keː/}}, ||กอ ||{{IPA|/kɔː/}} |- |vowel sign plus เ: ||เกา ||{{IPA|/kaw/}}, ||แก ||{{IPA|/kɛː/}}, ||เกอ ||{{IPA|/kɤː/}} |} In addition, the combination รร is pronounced {{IPA|/a/}} or {{IPA|/am/}}, there are some words where the combinations ทร and ศร stand for {{IPA|/s/}} and the letter ห as prefix to a consonant changes its tonic class to high, modifying the tone of the syllable. ===Hebrew and Yiddish=== In the [[Hebrew alphabet]], תס and תש may sometimes be found for צ {{IPA|/ts/}}. Modern Hebrew also uses digraphs made with the ׳ symbol for non-native sounds: ג׳ {{IPA|/dʒ/}}, ז׳ {{IPA|/ʒ/}}, צ׳ {{IPA|/tʃ/}}; and other digraphs of letters when it is written without vowels: וו for a consonantal letter ו in the middle of a word, and יי for {{IPA|/aj/}} or {{IPA|/aji/}}, etc., that is, a consonantal letter י in places where it might not have been expected. [[Yiddish]] has its own tradition of transcription, so uses different digraphs for some of the same sounds: דז {{IPA|/dz/}}, זש {{IPA|/ʒ/}}, טש {{IPA|/tʃ/}}, and דזש (literally ''dzš)'' for {{IPA|/dʒ/}}, וו {{IPA|/v/}}, also available as a single [[Unicode]] character װ‎, וי or as a single character in Unicode ױ‎ {{IPA|/oj/}}, יי or ײ {{IPA|/ej/}}, and ײַ {{IPA|/aj/}}. The single-character digraphs are called "[[Typographic ligature|ligatures]]" in Unicode. י may also be used following a consonant to indicate palatalization in Slavic loanwords. ===Japanese kana=== Two [[kana]] may be combined into a ''[[Consonant|C]][[Vowel|V]]'' syllable by subscripting the second; this convention cancels the vowel of the first. This is commonly done for ''CyV'' syllables called ''[[yōon]]'', as in ひょ ''hyo'' (⟨''hiyo''). These are not digraphs, as they retain the normal sequential reading of the two glyphs. However, some obsolete sequences no longer retain that reading, as in くゎ ''kwa,'' ぐゎ ''gwa,'' and むゎ ''mwa,'' now pronounced ''ka, ga, ma.'' In addition, non-sequenceable digraphs are used for foreign loans that do not follow normal Japanese [[assibilation]] patterns, such as ティ ''ti,'' トゥ ''tu,'' チェ ''tye / che,'' スェ ''swe,'' ウィ ''wi,'' ツォ ''tso,'' ズィ ''zi.'' (See [[katakana]] for a complete table.) Long vowels are written by adding the kana for that vowel, in effect doubling it. However, long ''ō'' may be written either ''oo'' or ''ou'', as in とうきょう ''toukyou'' {{IPA|[toːkjoː]}} 'Tōkyō'. For dialects which do not distinguish ''ē'' and ''ei'', the latter spelling is used for a long ''e'', as in へいせい ''heisei'' {{IPA|[heːseː]}} 'Heisei'. ===Okinawan kana=== There are several conventions of [[Okinawan writing system|Okinawan kana]] which involve subscript digraphs or ligatures. For instance, in the University of the Ryukyus system, う is {{IPA|/ʔu/}}, を is {{IPA|/o/}}, but をぅ is {{IPA|/u/}}. ==Digraphs in Unicode== Generally, a digraph is simply represented using two characters in [[Unicode]]. However, for various reasons, Unicode sometimes provides a separate [[code point]] for a digraph, encoded as a single character. ===Latin alphabet=== The [[Dz (digraph)|digraph DZ]] and the [[Gaj's Latin Alphabet#Digraphs|Croatian digraphs]] DŽ, LJ, and NJ have separate code points in Unicode. {| class="wikitable" ! Two Glyphs ! Digraph ! Unicode Code Point ! HTML |- | DZ, Dz, dz | {{unicode|DZ}}, {{unicode|Dz}}, {{unicode|dz}} | U+01F1 U+01F2 U+01F3 | DZ Dz dz |- | DŽ, Dž, dž | {{unicode|DŽ}}, {{unicode|Dž}}, {{unicode|dž}} | U+01C4 U+01C5 U+01C6 | DŽ Dž dž |- | LJ, Lj, lj | {{unicode|LJ}}, {{unicode|Lj}}, {{unicode|lj}} | U+01C7 U+01C8 U+01C9 | LJ Lj lj |- | NJ, Nj, nj | {{unicode|NJ}}, {{unicode|Nj}}, {{unicode|nj}} | U+01CA U+01CB U+01CC | NJ Nj nj |} See also [[Typographic ligature#Ligatures in Unicode (Latin-derived alphabets)|Ligatures in Unicode]]. ==See also== *[[List of Latin digraphs]] *[[Multigraph (orthography)]] *[[Bigram]] *[[Diacritic]] *[[Diphthong]] *[[Typographic ligature]] *[[List of all two-letter combinations]] *[[List of Latin letters]] *[[Orthography]] *[[Trigraph (orthography)|Trigraph]] *[[Tetragraph]] *[[Pentagraph]] *[[Hexagraph]] *[[Cyrillic digraphs]] {{DEFAULTSORT:Digraph (Orthography)}}