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is the largest family of scale insect
The scale insects are small insects of the order Hemiptera, generally classified as the superfamily Coccoidea. There are about 8,000 species of scale insects.-Ecology:...
s with over 2650 described species in around 400 genera. As with all scale insects, the female produces a waxy protective scale beneath which it feeds on its host plant. Diaspidid scales are far more substantial than those of most other families: Incorporating the exuvia
Exuviae is a term used in biology to describe the remains of an exoskeleton and related structures that are left after ecdysozoans have moulted...
e from the first two nymphal
In biology, a nymph is the immature form of some invertebrates, particularly insects, which undergoes gradual metamorphosis before reaching its adult stage. Unlike a typical larva, a nymph's overall form already resembles that of the adult. In addition, while a nymph moults it never enters a...
An instar is a developmental stage of arthropods, such as insects, between each molt , until sexual maturity is reached. Arthropods must shed the exoskeleton in order to grow or assume a new form. Differences between instars can often be seen in altered body proportions, colors, patterns, or...
s and sometimes faecal matter and fragments of the host plant, these can be complex and extremely waterproof structures rather resembling a suit of armour
Armour or armor is protective covering used to prevent damage from being inflicted to an object, individual or a vehicle through use of direct contact weapons or projectiles, usually during combat, or from damage caused by a potentially dangerous environment or action...
. For this reason these insects are commonly referred to as armoured scale insects
. As it is so robust and firmly attached to the host plant, the scale often persists long after the insect has died.
- Abgrallaspis cyanophylli
The Cyanophyllum Scale, Abgrallaspis cyanophylli , is one of nine species of the Abgrallaspis genus of armored scale insects. It is a pest throughout the Tropical South Pacific, attacking fruits and ornamental plants....
, the cyanophyllum scale
- Aonidiella aurantii
Aonidiella aurantii or red scale is an armoured scale insect and a major pest of citrus. It is thought to be a native of South China but has been widely dispersed by the agency of man through the movement of infected plant material. In the USA it is known as California red scale...
, the California red scale
Aspidiotus is a genus of scale insects. It includes several agricultural and horticultural pests.Species include:*Aspidiotus cryptomeriae*Aspidiotus destructor - coconut scale*Aspidiotus nerii - oleander scale-External links:**...
- Aulacaspis yasumatsui, the cycad aulacaspis scale
Kuwanaspis is a genus of scale insects belonging to the family Diaspididae.Species include:* Kuwanaspis annandalei* Kuwanaspis arundinariae* Kuwanaspis bambusicola* Kuwanaspis bambusifoliae* Kuwanaspis daliensis...
- Lepidosaphes ulmi
Lepidosaphes ulmi also known as apple mussel scale or oystershell scale is a scale insect that is a pest of trees and woody plants...
, the oystershell scale
- Quadraspidiotus perniciosus, the San Jose scale
on the UF
The University of Florida is an American public land-grant, sea-grant, and space-grant research university located on a campus in Gainesville, Florida. The university traces its historical origins to 1853, and has operated continuously on its present Gainesville campus since September 1906...
The University of Florida’s Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is a federal-state-county partnership dedicated to developing knowledge in agriculture, human and natural resources, and the life sciences, and enhancing and sustaining the quality of human life by making that information...
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