Demographic history of Kosovo

Demographic history of Kosovo

Encyclopedia
The demographic
Demographics
Demographics are the most recent statistical characteristics of a population. These types of data are used widely in sociology , public policy, and marketing. Commonly examined demographics include gender, race, age, disabilities, mobility, home ownership, employment status, and even location...

 features of the population of Kosovo
Kosovo
Kosovo is a region in southeastern Europe. Part of the Ottoman Empire for more than five centuries, later the Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija within Serbia...

, includes various factors such as population density
Population density
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is frequently applied to living organisms, and particularly to humans...

, ethnicity
Ethnic group
An ethnic group is a group of people whose members identify with each other, through a common heritage, often consisting of a common language, a common culture and/or an ideology that stresses common ancestry or endogamy...

, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

Kosovo
Kosovo
Kosovo is a region in southeastern Europe. Part of the Ottoman Empire for more than five centuries, later the Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija within Serbia...

 has an estimated population of 1,733,872 (as of 2011 Census, which was boycotted by Kosovo Serbs). The dominant ethnic group is Albanian
Albanians
Albanians are a nation and ethnic group native to Albania and neighbouring countries. They speak the Albanian language. More than half of all Albanians live in Albania and Kosovo...

, with significant minorities of Serbs
Serbs
The Serbs are a South Slavic ethnic group of the Balkans and southern Central Europe. Serbs are located mainly in Serbia, Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina, and form a sizable minority in Croatia, the Republic of Macedonia and Slovenia. Likewise, Serbs are an officially recognized minority in...

 (a constituent nation) and others.

Population


The 2000 Living Standard Measurement Survey by Statistical Office of Kosovo (rejected by Belgrade): Total population estimated between 1.8-2.0 million. From 2000, AMSJ (confirmed by Kosovo Statistical Office in 2003), estimating a 1,900,000 strong population.

Kosovo currently has the youngest population in Europe, with a fertility estimated by the Census Bureau of 2.4 children per woman. http://www.census.gov/ipc/www/idb/country/kvportal.html As recently as 1990, http://www.census.gov/cgi-bin/ipc/idbpyry.pl?cty=KV&maxp=134487&maxa=100&ymax=250&yr=1990&.submit=Submit+Query Kosovo's population structure resembled those of countries like Haiti
Haiti
Haiti , officially the Republic of Haiti , is a Caribbean country. It occupies the western, smaller portion of the island of Hispaniola, in the Greater Antillean archipelago, which it shares with the Dominican Republic. Ayiti was the indigenous Taíno or Amerindian name for the island...

, and was in stark contrast to the rest of Serbia
Serbia
Serbia , officially the Republic of Serbia , is a landlocked country located at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, covering the southern part of the Carpathian basin and the central part of the Balkans...

 http://www.census.gov/cgi-bin/ipc/idbpyry.pl?cty=RB&maxp=332174&maxa=100&ymax=250&yr=1990&.submit=Submit+Query and other European countries. In recent years, however, Kosovo's population growth rate has begun to slow and its birth rate has decreased.

Vital statistics


Population estimates in the table below may be unreliable since the 1990s. Besides, births and deaths exclude territories with a Serbian majority.
Average population (x 1000) Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000)
1948 733 27 792 10 324 17 468 37.9 14.1 23.8
1949 751 31 643 12 937 18 706 42.1 17.2 24.9
1950 764 35 222 12 991 22 231 46.1 17.0 29.1
1951 780 29 299 14 833 14 466 37.6 19.0 18.5
1952 793 35 619 13 867 21 752 44.9 17.5 27.4
1953 813 34 595 16 726 17 869 42.6 20.6 22.0
1954 832 38 595 13 201 25 394 46.4 15.9 30.5
1955 842 36 736 15 292 21 444 43.6 18.2 25.5
1956 859 37 819 13 692 24 127 44.0 15.9 28.1
1957 873 34 159 15 300 18 859 39.1 17.5 21.6
1958 890 39 285 11 598 27 687 44.1 13.0 31.1
1959 921 37 364 12 878 24 486 40.6 14.0 26.6
1960 944 41 631 13 365 28 266 44.1 14.2 29.9
1961 972 40 561 11 759 28 802 41.7 12.1 29.6
1962 997 41 336 15 024 26 312 41.5 15.1 26.4
1963 1 021 41 525 12 423 29 102 40.7 12.2 28.5
1964 1 046 42 557 12 731 29 826 40.7 12.2 28.5
1965 1 075 43 569 11 767 31 802 40.5 10.9 29.6
1966 1 101 42 429 10 266 32 163 38.5 9.3 29.2
1967 1 131 44 001 11 308 32 693 38.9 10.0 28.9
1968 1 159 44 627 10 781 33 846 38.5 9.3 29.2
1969 1 189 46 480 10 892 35 588 39.1 9.2 29.9
1970 1 220 44 496 10 829 33 667 36.5 8.9 27.6
1971 1 254 47 060 10 312 36 748 37.5 8.2 29.3
1972 1 291 47 943 10 270 37 673 37.1 8.0 29.2
1973 1 329 47 714 10 358 37 356 35.9 7.8 28.1
1974 1 367 49 847 10 075 39 772 36.5 7.4 29.1
1975 1 406 49 310 10 018 39 292 35.1 7.1 27.9
1976 1 446 51 355 10 149 41 206 35.5 7.0 28.5
1977 1 487 49 849 9 811 40 038 33.5 6.6 26.9
1978 1 526 49 027 9 776 39 251 32.1 6.4 25.7
1979 1 566 48 125 9 575 38 550 30.7 6.1 24.6
1980 1 555 53 147 8 909 44 238 34.2 5.7 28.4
1981 1 595 48 111 9 677 38 434 30.2 6.1 24.1
1982 1 629 52 865 10 479 42 386 32.5 6.4 26.0
1983 1 664 49 645 11 040 38 605 29.8 6.6 23.2
1984 1 699 55 243 10 573 44 670 32.5 6.2 26.3
1985 1 735 53 925 11 826 42 099 31.1 6.8 24.3
1986 1 773 54 519 10 446 44 073 30.7 5.9 24.9
1987 1 811 56 221 10 307 45 914 31.0 5.7 25.4
1988 1 850 56 283 10 257 46 026 30.4 5.5 24.9
1989 1 889 53 656 10 181 43 475 28.4 5.4 23.0
1990 1 930 55 175 8 214 46 961 28.6 4.3 24.3
1991 1 967 52 263 8 526 43 737 26.6 4.3 22.2
1992 2 006 44 418 8 004 36 414 22.1 4.0 18.2
1993 2 043 44 132 7 804 36 328 21.6 3.8 17.8
1994 2 077 43 450 7 667 35 783 20.9 3.7 17.2
1995 2 113 44 776 8 671 36 105 21.2 4.1 17.1
1996 2 151 46 041 8 392 37 649 21.4 3.9 17.5
1997 2 186 42 920 8 624 34 296 19.6 3.9 15.7
1998 2 000 41 752 8 123 33 629 20.9 4.1 16.8
1999 2 000 40 020 7 569 32 451 20.0 3.8 16.2
2000 2 000 38 667 7 115 31 552 19.3 3.6 15.8
2001 2 000 37 412 6 672 30 740 18.7 3.3 15.4
2002 1 985 36 136 5 654 30 482 18.2 2.8 15.4
2003 2 016 31 994 6 417 25 577 15.9 3.2 12.7
2004 2 041 35 063 6 399 28 664 17.2 3.1 14.0
2005 2 070 37 218 7 207 30 011 18.0 3.5 14.5
2006 2 100 34 187 7 479 26 708 16.3 3.6 12.7
2007 2 126 33 112 6 681 26 431 15.6 3.1 12.4
2008 2 153 34 399 6 852 27 547 16.0 3.2 12.8
2009 2 175 34 240 7 030 27 210 15.7 3.2 12.5
2010 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

Ethnic groups


The official results of the censuses in Kosovo as part of Yugoslavia after World war II are tabulated below. The proportion of Albanians
Albanians
Albanians are a nation and ethnic group native to Albania and neighbouring countries. They speak the Albanian language. More than half of all Albanians live in Albania and Kosovo...

 was below 70% until 1961, but increased to 81.6% in 1991.

Population of Kosovo according to ethnic group 1948-1991
Ethnic
group
census 1948 census 1953 census 1961 census 1971 census 1981 census 1991
Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number %
Albanians
Albanians
Albanians are a nation and ethnic group native to Albania and neighbouring countries. They speak the Albanian language. More than half of all Albanians live in Albania and Kosovo...

498,244 68.5 524,559 64.9 646,605 67.1 916,168 73.7 1,226,736 77.4 1,596,072 81.6
Serbs
Serbs
The Serbs are a South Slavic ethnic group of the Balkans and southern Central Europe. Serbs are located mainly in Serbia, Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina, and form a sizable minority in Croatia, the Republic of Macedonia and Slovenia. Likewise, Serbs are an officially recognized minority in...

171,911 23.6 189,869 23.5 227,016 23.5 228,264 18.4 209,498 13.2 194,190 9.9
Muslims 9,679 1.3 6,241 0.8 8,026 0.8 26,357 2.1 58,562 3.7
Montenegrins 28,050 3.9 31,343 3.9 37,588 3.9 31,555 2.5 27,028 1.7
Croats
Croats
Croats are a South Slavic ethnic group mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries. There are around 4 million Croats living inside Croatia and up to 4.5 million throughout the rest of the world. Responding to political, social and economic pressure, many Croats have...

5,290 0.7 6,201 0.8 7,251 0.8 8,264 0.7 8,718 0.6
Yugoslavs
Yugoslavs
Yugoslavs is a national designation used by a minority of South Slavs across the countries of the former Yugoslavia and in the diaspora...

5,206 0.5 920 0.1 2,676 0.2
Romani 11,230 1.5 11,904 1.5 3,202 0.3 14,593 1.2 34,126 2.2 45,745 2.3
Turks 1,315 0.2 34,583 4.3 25,764 2.7 12,244 1.0 12,513 0.8 10,445 0.5
Macedonians
Macedonians (ethnic group)
The Macedonians also referred to as Macedonian Slavs: "... the term Slavomacedonian was introduced and was accepted by the community itself, which at the time had a much more widespread non-Greek Macedonian ethnic consciousness...

526 0.1 972 0.1 1,142 0.1 1,048 0.1 1,056 0.1
Others or unspecified 1,577 0.2 2,469 0.3 2,188 0.2 4,280 0.3 3,454 0.2 109,744 5.6
Total 727,820 808,141 963,988 1,243,693 1,584,441 1,956,196



The 2000 Living Standard Measurement Survey by Statistical Office of Kosovo found an ethnic composition of the population as follows:
  • 92% Albanians
    Albanians
    Albanians are a nation and ethnic group native to Albania and neighbouring countries. They speak the Albanian language. More than half of all Albanians live in Albania and Kosovo...

  • 8% others


A most comprehensive (October 2002) estimate (for the 1.9 million inhabitants) for these years:
  • 92% Albanians
    Albanians
    Albanians are a nation and ethnic group native to Albania and neighbouring countries. They speak the Albanian language. More than half of all Albanians live in Albania and Kosovo...

  • 4% Serbs
    Serbs
    The Serbs are a South Slavic ethnic group of the Balkans and southern Central Europe. Serbs are located mainly in Serbia, Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina, and form a sizable minority in Croatia, the Republic of Macedonia and Slovenia. Likewise, Serbs are an officially recognized minority in...

  • 4% Turks, Bosnian
    Bosnian
    Bosnian may refer to:*Anything related to Bosnia or its inhabitants*Anything related to the state of Bosnia and Herzegovina or its inhabitants* Bosnian language, a South Slavic language spoken mainly in Bosnia and Herzegovina...

    , Roma and others


During the Kosovo War
Kosovo War
The term Kosovo War or Kosovo conflict was two sequential, and at times parallel, armed conflicts in Kosovo province, then part of FR Yugoslav Republic of Serbia; from early 1998 to 1999, there was an armed conflict initiated by the ethnic Albanian "Kosovo Liberation Army" , who sought independence...

 in 1999, over 700,000 ethnic Albanians and around 100,000 ethnic Serbs were forced out of the province to neighbouring Albania, Macedonia, Montenegro, Bosnia and Serbia.
After the United Nations took over administration of Kosovo following the war, the vast majority of the Albanian refugees returned.
The largest diaspora communities of Kosovo Albanians are in Germany
Demographics of Germany
The Demographics of Germany were determined also by a series of full Census in Germany, with the most recent held in 1987. Since reunification, German authorities rely on a micro census....

  and Switzerland
Demographics of Switzerland
This article is about the demographic features of the population of Switzerland, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population....

 accounting for some 200,000 individuals each, or for 20% of the population resident in Kosovo.

Many non-Albanians - chiefly Serbs
Serbs
The Serbs are a South Slavic ethnic group of the Balkans and southern Central Europe. Serbs are located mainly in Serbia, Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina, and form a sizable minority in Croatia, the Republic of Macedonia and Slovenia. Likewise, Serbs are an officially recognized minority in...

 and Roma - fled or were expelled, mostly to the rest of Serbia at the end of the war, with further refugee outflows occurring as the result of sporadic ethnic violence. The number of registered refugees is around 250,000. The non-Albanian population in Kosovo is now about half of its pre-war total. The largest concentration of Serbs in the province is in the north, but many remain in Kosovo Serb enclaves
Kosovo Serb enclaves
Kosovo Serb Enclaves are the areas of Kosovo where Serbs form a majority, except for North Kosovo. While North Kosovo is connected to the rest of Serbia and mostly functions as a part of it, the enclaves are surrounded with areas of Albanian majority....

 surrounded by Albanian-populated areas.
Also, according to Serbia
Serbia
Serbia , officially the Republic of Serbia , is a landlocked country located at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, covering the southern part of the Carpathian basin and the central part of the Balkans...

n sources, the Gorani
Gorani (Kosovo)
The Gorani or Goranci are a South Slavic ethnic group inhabiting the Gora region of the Balkans, located at the triangle between Albania, Kosovo and Macedonia. Another autonym of this people is "Našinci" with literally meaning "our people"...

 people, living on the south-most tip of the Kosovo are systematically oppressed and denied their minority rights.

Religion



Muslims are over 90% of the population (1,800,000) (mostly Sunni, with a small Sufi minority), Orthodox Christians 6% and Roman Catholics are 3% and close to 1% Protestant. Islam is the predominant religion professed by the ethnic Albanian population of Kosovo, the Bosniak
Bosniaks
The Bosniaks or Bosniacs are a South Slavic ethnic group, living mainly in Bosnia and Herzegovina, with a smaller minority also present in other lands of the Balkan Peninsula especially in Serbia, Montenegro and Croatia...

, Gorani and Turkish
Turkish people
Turkish people, also known as the "Turks" , are an ethnic group primarily living in Turkey and in the former lands of the Ottoman Empire where Turkish minorities had been established in Bulgaria, Cyprus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Georgia, Greece, Kosovo, Macedonia, and Romania...

 communities, and some of the Roma/Ashkali
Ashkali
In the Balkans, the Ashkali and Egyptians are Albanian-speaking ethnic minorities of Kosovo and Albania. Observers consider them Albanized Romanies, but they do not self-identify as such...

/Egyptian community.
Protestant Community in Kosovo started in 1870-ties, and today in country are more than 28 Protestant Evangelical Churches.

During the 2000s, large investments in Kosovo were made by Middle Eastern charities, especially Saudi Arabian.
The new Hasan Beg mosque in Pristina is entirely Saudi-financed. There are concerns that these investments are made with the intention of fostering radical Islam in Kosovo.

The Serb population, estimated at 100,000 to 150,000 persons, is largely Serbian Orthodox. The Catholic
Roman Catholicism in Kosovo
Today, Kosovo's Roman Catholic population is approximately 65,000 in a country of roughly 2 million people. Another 60,000 Kosovar Catholics are outside the country, mainly for work....

 Albanian communities are mostly concentrated in Đakovica, Prizren
Prizren
Prizren is a historical city located in southern Kosovo. It is the administrative center of the eponymous municipality and district.The city has a population of around 131,247 , mostly Albanians...

 and Peć
Pec
Peć or Pejë is a city and municipality in north-western Kosovo and Metohija - Serbia, and the administrative centre of the homonymous district. Governor of city is Ali Berisha....

 and few villages near Uroševac
Uroševac
Ferizaj or Uroševac is a city and municipality in southern Kosovo, located some south of the capital Pristina.Uroševac is the third most populous city in Kosovo, after Pristina and Prizren.It is the administrative centre of the homonymous district...

 and Klina
Klina
Klina or Klinë is a city and municipality in the Peć district of north-western Kosovo. It is located at the confluence of the river Klina into the White Drin.-Demographics:-External links:* *...

 who have 3% of population in Kosovo..

History


Archeological findings show that Bronze and Iron Age tombs were found only in Metohija
Metohija
Metohija , is a large basin and the name of the region covering the southwestern part of Kosovo.It encompasses three of the seven districts of Kosovo, namely the historical :* District of Peć * District of Đakovica * District of Prizren...

, not in Kosovo proper.

The region was inhabited by Illyrians
Illyrians
The Illyrians were a group of tribes who inhabited part of the western Balkans in antiquity and the south-eastern coasts of the Italian peninsula...

, Celts and Thracians
Thracians
The ancient Thracians were a group of Indo-European tribes inhabiting areas including Thrace in Southeastern Europe. They spoke the Thracian language – a scarcely attested branch of the Indo-European language family...

. After Roman conquest of Illyria at 168 BC, Romans colonized and founded several cities in the region.

Slavs are mentioned in the area since the 520s AD, with the Slav tribe of Sklavenoi settling the Praetorian prefecture of Illyricum
Praetorian prefecture of Illyricum
The praetorian prefecture of Illyricum was one of four praetorian prefectures into which the Late Roman Empire was divided.The administrative centre of the prefecture was Sirmium , and, after 379, Thessalonica...

, the mythological founders of the Serbs were the White Serbs; "who settled in the Balkans during the rule of Emperor Heraclius
Heraclius
Heraclius was Byzantine Emperor from 610 to 641.He was responsible for introducing Greek as the empire's official language. His rise to power began in 608, when he and his father, Heraclius the Elder, the exarch of Africa, successfully led a revolt against the unpopular usurper Phocas.Heraclius'...

"
(610-641). In the 12th century, according to the Byzantine Empress Anna Angelina Komnenos, the Serbs were the main inhabitants of Kosovo (Eastern Dalmatia and former Moesia Superior). Archeological findings from the 7th century onwards show a Serb (Slavic) cultural domination in case of glagolithic letters, pottery, cemeteries, churches and monasteries.

In 1054 the Great Schism occurred in the realm, the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
The Byzantine Empire was the Eastern Roman Empire during the periods of Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, centred on the capital of Constantinople. Known simply as the Roman Empire or Romania to its inhabitants and neighbours, the Empire was the direct continuation of the Ancient Roman State...

 (Roman) was divided on religious basis and Kosovo & Metohija was part of the Orthodox world (Subsequently the base of the Serbian Orthodox Church
Serbian Orthodox Church
The Serbian Orthodox Church is one of the autocephalous Orthodox Christian churches, ranking sixth in order of seniority after Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, Jerusalem, and Russia...

). Catholicism did not exist in the native population.

1321-1331


The Dečani
Decani
Decani is the side of a church choir occupied by the Dean. In English churches this is typically the choir stalls on the south side of the chancel, although there are some notable exceptions, such as Durham Cathedral and Southwell Minster...

 charters from 1321-1331 by Stephen Uroš III Dečanski of Serbia contains a detailed list of households and villages in Metohija
Metohija
Metohija , is a large basin and the name of the region covering the southwestern part of Kosovo.It encompasses three of the seven districts of Kosovo, namely the historical :* District of Peć * District of Đakovica * District of Prizren...

 and northwestern Albania
Albania
Albania , officially known as the Republic of Albania , is a country in Southeastern Europe, in the Balkans region. It is bordered by Montenegro to the northwest, Kosovo to the northeast, the Republic of Macedonia to the east and Greece to the south and southeast. It has a coast on the Adriatic Sea...

. The first charter concludes that this region was ethnically Serb
Serbs
The Serbs are a South Slavic ethnic group of the Balkans and southern Central Europe. Serbs are located mainly in Serbia, Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina, and form a sizable minority in Croatia, the Republic of Macedonia and Slovenia. Likewise, Serbs are an officially recognized minority in...

.

89 settlements with 2,666 households were recorded of which:
  • 86 Serbian settlements (96,6%)
  • 3 Albanian settlements (3,3%)


2,166 livestock households of 2,666 agricultural households:
  • 2,122 Serbian households (98%)
  • 44 Albanian households (2%)

15th century


The ethnic composition of Kosovo's population during this period included Serbs, Albanians, and Vlachs
Vlachs
Vlach is a blanket term covering several modern Latin peoples descending from the Latinised population in Central, Eastern and Southeastern Europe. English variations on the name include: Walla, Wlachs, Wallachs, Vlahs, Olahs or Ulahs...

 along with a token number of Greeks
Greeks
The Greeks, also known as the Hellenes , are a nation and ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus and neighboring regions. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world....

, Armenians
Armenians
Armenian people or Armenians are a nation and ethnic group native to the Armenian Highland.The largest concentration is in Armenia having a nearly-homogeneous population with 97.9% or 3,145,354 being ethnic Armenian....

, Saxons, and Bulgarians
Bulgarians
The Bulgarians are a South Slavic nation and ethnic group native to Bulgaria and neighbouring regions. Emigration has resulted in immigrant communities in a number of other countries.-History and ethnogenesis:...

, according to Serbian monastic charters or chrysobulls (Hrisovulja). A majority of the given names in the charters are overwhelmingly Serbian (Of 24,795 names, 23,774 were ethnic Serb names, 470 of Roman origin, 65 of Albanian origin and 61 of Greek origin).

Researches of the early Turkish cadastre
Cadastre
A cadastre , using a cadastral survey or cadastral map, is a comprehensive register of the metes-and-bounds real property of a country...

 (Defter
Defter
A Defter was a type of tax register in the Ottoman Empire. The information collected could vary, but tahrir defterleri typically included details of villages, dwellings, household heads , ethnicity/religion , and land use.The defter-i hakâni was a land registry, also used for tax...

) is often interpreted in two ways. Serbian scholars draw the conclusion that Serbs were majority until the 17th century. Alain Ducellier claims that the population of Kosovo in the 14th and 15th centuries was in fact "still Albanian and Christian."

1455


1455: Turkish cadastral tax
Tax
To tax is to impose a financial charge or other levy upon a taxpayer by a state or the functional equivalent of a state such that failure to pay is punishable by law. Taxes are also imposed by many subnational entities...

 census (defter
Defter
A Defter was a type of tax register in the Ottoman Empire. The information collected could vary, but tahrir defterleri typically included details of villages, dwellings, household heads , ethnicity/religion , and land use.The defter-i hakâni was a land registry, also used for tax...

) of the Brankovic dynasty lands
Realm of Branković
The District of Branković or Vuk's land was one of the short lived semi-independent states that emerged from the collapse of the Serbian Empire in 1371, following the death of the last Emperor Uroš the Weak...

 (covering most of present-day Kosovo
Kosovo
Kosovo is a region in southeastern Europe. Part of the Ottoman Empire for more than five centuries, later the Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija within Serbia...

) recorded:
  • 480 villages,
  • 13,693 adult males,
  • 12,985 dwellings,
  • 14,087 household heads (480 widows and 13,607 adult males).

Totally there were around 75,000 inhabitants in 590 villages comprising modern-day Kosovo.

Turkish defter did not give any data on ethnicity. However, Yugoslav and Serbian sholars have researched ethnic structure of Kosovo population. According to them there were:
  • 13,000 Serb
    Serbs
    The Serbs are a South Slavic ethnic group of the Balkans and southern Central Europe. Serbs are located mainly in Serbia, Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina, and form a sizable minority in Croatia, the Republic of Macedonia and Slovenia. Likewise, Serbs are an officially recognized minority in...

     dwellings present in all 480 villages and towns
  • 75 Vlach dwellings in 34 villages
  • 46 Albanian
    Albanians
    Albanians are a nation and ethnic group native to Albania and neighbouring countries. They speak the Albanian language. More than half of all Albanians live in Albania and Kosovo...

     dwellings in 23 villages
  • 17 Bulgarian
    Bulgarians
    The Bulgarians are a South Slavic nation and ethnic group native to Bulgaria and neighbouring regions. Emigration has resulted in immigrant communities in a number of other countries.-History and ethnogenesis:...

     dwellings in 10 villages
  • 5 Greek dwellings in Lauša, Vučitrn
  • 1 Jewish dwelling in Vučitrn
  • 1 Croat dwelling

1487


1487: A census of the House of Branković
House of Brankovic
House of Branković or Brankovići was a noble Serbian medieval dynasty. The family descent via female line through marriage from the Royal House of Nemanjić. The families rise to prominence during the time of disintegration of Serbian Empire under the last ruler of House of Nemanjić...

  • Vučitrn
    Vucitrn
    Vučitrn or Vushtrri is a city and municipality in north-eastern Kosovo. It is the seat of the Kosovska Mitrovica District. The name of the city means "wolf's thorn", the name of the spiny restharrow plant in Serbian....

     district:
  • 16,729 Christian housing (412 in Pristina
    Pristina
    Pristina, also spelled Prishtina and Priština is the capital and largest city of Kosovo. It is the administrative centre of the homonymous municipality and district....

     and Vučitrn
    Vucitrn
    Vučitrn or Vushtrri is a city and municipality in north-eastern Kosovo. It is the seat of the Kosovska Mitrovica District. The name of the city means "wolf's thorn", the name of the spiny restharrow plant in Serbian....

    )
  • 117 Muslim
    Muslim
    A Muslim, also spelled Moslem, is an adherent of Islam, a monotheistic, Abrahamic religion based on the Quran, which Muslims consider the verbatim word of God as revealed to prophet Muhammad. "Muslim" is the Arabic term for "submitter" .Muslims believe that God is one and incomparable...

     households (94 in Pristina and 83 in rural areas)
  • Ipek
    Pec
    Peć or Pejë is a city and municipality in north-western Kosovo and Metohija - Serbia, and the administrative centre of the homonymous district. Governor of city is Ali Berisha....

     (Peć) district:
  • City of Ipek
    Pec
    Peć or Pejë is a city and municipality in north-western Kosovo and Metohija - Serbia, and the administrative centre of the homonymous district. Governor of city is Ali Berisha....

  • 121 Christian household
  • 33 Muslim households
  • Suho Grlo and Metohija
    Metohija
    Metohija , is a large basin and the name of the region covering the southwestern part of Kosovo.It encompasses three of the seven districts of Kosovo, namely the historical :* District of Peć * District of Đakovica * District of Prizren...

    :
  • 131 Christian household of which 52% in Suho Grlo were Serbs
  • Donja Klina - 50% Serbs
  • Dečani
    Decani
    Decani is the side of a church choir occupied by the Dean. In English churches this is typically the choir stalls on the south side of the chancel, although there are some notable exceptions, such as Durham Cathedral and Southwell Minster...

     - 64% Serbs
  • Rural areas:
  • 6,124 Christian housings (99%)
  • 55 Moslem houses (1%)

1520-1535

  • Vučitrn: 19,614 households
    • Christians
    • 700 Muslim households (3,5%)
  • Prizren
    • Christians
    • 359 Muslim households (2%)

1582


1582: Ottoman defter census (Tahrir defterleri)
  • Peć nahiya:
  • 235 villages of which some 30 have Albanian families besides the majorital Orthodox Serbs.
  • City of Peć
    Pec
    Peć or Pejë is a city and municipality in north-western Kosovo and Metohija - Serbia, and the administrative centre of the homonymous district. Governor of city is Ali Berisha....

     - 18 mahalas; 3 free, 13 Muslim (newly Islamicised), 5 Serbian (2 houses were Albanian)
  • Village Osek
    Osek
    Osek may refer to several places in the Czech Republic:* Osek , town in the Teplice District* Osek , village in the Beroun District* Osek , village in the Jičín District...

     - Muslim (Islamicised) majority, with some settled Christian Albanians
  • Village Selojani - Muslim majority, small Christian Albanian and Serb population
  • Village Mramor
    Mramor
    Mramor Mramor is a mountain found in Kosovo in the Šar Mountains in Gora next to Macedonia and Albania. Mramor reaches a top height of ....

     - 22 houses. Albanian majority
  • Village Belovci - 50 Serbian houses.
  • Village Granica
    Granica
    - Poland :* Granica, Lower Silesian Voivodeship * Granica, Subcarpathian Voivodeship * Granica, Warsaw West County in Masovian Voivodeship * Granica, Opole Voivodeship...

     - 65 Serbian houses.
  • Village Belo Polje
    Belo Polje
    Belo Polje , meaning "White Field", can refer to:In Serbia:* Belo Polje , an industrial settlement on the approach to Surdulic and now part of the town of Surdulica* Belo Polje , village in municipality of Obrenovac...

    - 2 Serbian mahalas. 3 priests.
  • Village Bukovica
    Bukovica
    Bukovica is a geographical region in Croatia. It is situated in northern Dalmatia, between Lika in the north, Kninska Krajina in the east, and Ravni Kotari in the south-west. Prior to the war, it encompassed the western half of the Knin municipality, the eastern half of the Benkovac municipality...

     - Serbian. 2 converts to Islam.
  • Village Lipovac - Islamicised Albanian.
  • Village Trakakin - Albanian. Islamicised majority.
  • Village Baba
    Baba
    - Geography :* Baba, Masovian Voivodeship * Baba, Mogilno County in Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship * Baba, Rypin County in Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship...

     - Serbian. 1 convert to Islam.
  • Village Videš - Serbian.
  • Village Veliki Đurđevik - 64 Serbian houses. 2 families from Prizren
    Prizren
    Prizren is a historical city located in southern Kosovo. It is the administrative center of the eponymous municipality and district.The city has a population of around 131,247 , mostly Albanians...

     and Vučitrn
    Vucitrn
    Vučitrn or Vushtrri is a city and municipality in north-eastern Kosovo. It is the seat of the Kosovska Mitrovica District. The name of the city means "wolf's thorn", the name of the spiny restharrow plant in Serbian....

    .
  • 17 Serb villages: 1 Albanian house.
  • Village Suho Grlo - 3 Serbian mahalas. 1 Islamicised Serb.
  • 3 Serb villages
  • 17 Serb villages: 3 Muslim houses. 8 priests.
  • Village Zlokućani - Serbian. 5 Muslim houses.
  • Village Kavlica - Serbian. 8 Muslim houses.
  • Village Strelice - 70 Serbian houses. few Islamicised.
  • 8 Serb villages
  • Village Rusance - Albanian majority. 3 Muslims.
  • Village Muževine - Serbian. 1 priest.
  • Village Srednja Crnja - 8 Albanian Muslim houses.
  • 34 Serb villages: total 2 Albanian houses in 2 villages.
  • Village Njivokos - Serbian majority. Notable Islamicisation.
  • Village Vrela Manastir - Serbian.
  • 13 Serb villages: 1 Islamicised house.
  • Village Gusnica - 20 Albanian Islamicised houses.
  • 15 Serb villages: Islamicisation occurred in 3 villages.
  • Village Vinodol
    Vinodol
    Vinodol is a village and municipality in the Nitra District in western central Slovakia, in the Nitra Region.-Geography:The village lies at an altitude of 124 metres and covers an area of 14.982 km²...

     - Serbian. 8 soldier houses from Bosnian Sandzak.
  • Village (?) - Serbs, Albanians and Muslims.
  • 20 Serb villages: occurrence of Islamicisation.
  • 2 Albanian villages: Islamicised.
  • 39 Serb villages: 9 monasteries (one is Dečani
    Decani
    Decani is the side of a church choir occupied by the Dean. In English churches this is typically the choir stalls on the south side of the chancel, although there are some notable exceptions, such as Durham Cathedral and Southwell Minster...

    ). 1 Albanian male.
  • Village Brestovac
    Brestovac
    Brestovac is village and a municipality in eastern Croatia, located west of Požega.There are 4,028 inhabitants in the municipality, 89% which are Croats...

     - 10 Albanian houses.
  • Village Belica
    Belica
    Belica is a village and municipality in Međimurje County, the northernmost county of Croatia. The municipality seat is in the village of Belica, located around 5 kilometres east of Čakovec, the largest city of Međimurje County....

     - 35 Muslim houses.
  • 56 villages: 42 Serb villages of which 14 with a Muslim minority.
  • Village Novosel - Muslim and Albanian.
  • Village Labranima - Serbian majority. 2 Muslim houses.
  • Village Dubak - 10 Albanian houses and 9 Muslim houses.
  • Village Dobroševo - 28 houses. Albanian majority. 3 Muslim houses.
  • Village Šankovac - Serbian majority. 3 Muslim houses.
  • Village Dobrič-Dol - Muslim.
  • Village Gornji Petrič - Serbian majority. ~50 Serbian houses, 3 Muslim houses.
  • Village Vranić
    Vranic
    Vranić is a suburban settlement of Belgrade, the capital of Serbia. It is located in the municipality of Barajevo. Vranić is the westernmost settlement in the municipality, located 2 km east of the Ibarska magistrala, but as the settlement grew, it reached the highway.Vranić was part of the...

     - Muslim and Albanian.
  • Village Crni Potok - 25 Muslim houses.
  • Village Arženik - Serbian. Few Muslim houses.
  • Village Prelopci - Serbs, Albanians and Muslims.
  • Village Rugovo - 86 Serbian houses.
    • Altun-li nahiya:
    • 41 villages - Serb majority, Albanian minority.

1591


Ottoman defter from 1591:
  • Prizren
    Prizren
    Prizren is a historical city located in southern Kosovo. It is the administrative center of the eponymous municipality and district.The city has a population of around 131,247 , mostly Albanians...

     - Serbian majority, significant Albanian minority
  • Gora
    Gora
    Gora may refer to:*Gora , a clan of Jats found in north India*Gora or gaura, a Hindi and Indo-Aryan word for a light-skinned person*Gora , by Indian Nobel laureate Rabindranath Tagore...

     - Serbian.
  • Opolje
    Opolje
    Opolje or Opoja is northern region of the municipality of Dragaš in the southern most part of Kosovo with Gora being the southern one.Opolje comprises 19 villages with a population of 30.000 . Its population is almost exclusively of Albanian ethnicity, whereas the population of Gora is Gorani...

     - Albanian Muslim.

17th - 18th centuries


The Great Turkish War
Great Turkish War
The Great Turkish War refers to a series of conflicts between the Ottoman Empire and contemporary European powers, then joined into a Holy League, during the second half of the 17th century.-1667–1683:...

 of 1683–1699 between the Ottomans
Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman EmpireIt was usually referred to as the "Ottoman Empire", the "Turkish Empire", the "Ottoman Caliphate" or more commonly "Turkey" by its contemporaries...

 and the Habsburgs led to the flight of a substantial part of Serbian
Serbs
The Serbs are a South Slavic ethnic group of the Balkans and southern Central Europe. Serbs are located mainly in Serbia, Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina, and form a sizable minority in Croatia, the Republic of Macedonia and Slovenia. Likewise, Serbs are an officially recognized minority in...

 population to Austria
Austria
Austria , officially the Republic of Austria , is a landlocked country of roughly 8.4 million people in Central Europe. It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north, Slovakia and Hungary to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the...

n held Vojvodina
Vojvodina
Vojvodina, officially called Autonomous Province of Vojvodina is an autonomous province of Serbia. Its capital and largest city is Novi Sad...

 and the Military Frontier
Military Frontier
The Military Frontier was a borderland of Habsburg Austria and later the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, which acted as the cordon sanitaire against incursions from the Ottoman Empire...

 - about 37,000 families of Serb refugees were led by Patriarch Arsenije III Crnojević settled in the Habsburg Monarchy, mostly from today's Kosovo - this being known as the Great Migration of Serbs. And then again, from the period between 1717 and 1737, the Second Migration of Serbs.

19th century


19th century data about the population of Kosovo tend to be rather conflicting, giving sometimes numerical superiority to the Serbs
Serbs
The Serbs are a South Slavic ethnic group of the Balkans and southern Central Europe. Serbs are located mainly in Serbia, Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina, and form a sizable minority in Croatia, the Republic of Macedonia and Slovenia. Likewise, Serbs are an officially recognized minority in...

and sometimes to the Albanians
Albanians
Albanians are a nation and ethnic group native to Albania and neighbouring countries. They speak the Albanian language. More than half of all Albanians live in Albania and Kosovo...

. The Ottoman statistics are regarded as unreliable, as the empire counted its citizens by religion rather than nationality, using birth records rather than surveys of individuals.

A study in 1838 by an Austrian physician, dr. Joseph Müller found Metohija
Metohija
Metohija , is a large basin and the name of the region covering the southwestern part of Kosovo.It encompasses three of the seven districts of Kosovo, namely the historical :* District of Peć * District of Đakovica * District of Prizren...

 to be mostly Slavic (Serbian) in character. Müller gives data for the three counties (Bezirke) of Prizren
Prizren
Prizren is a historical city located in southern Kosovo. It is the administrative center of the eponymous municipality and district.The city has a population of around 131,247 , mostly Albanians...

, Peć
Pec
Peć or Pejë is a city and municipality in north-western Kosovo and Metohija - Serbia, and the administrative centre of the homonymous district. Governor of city is Ali Berisha....

 and Đakovica which roughly covered Dukagjini, the portion adjacent to Albania and most affected by Albanian settlers. Out of 195,000 inhabitants in Dukagjini, Müller found:
  • 114,000 Muslims (58%):
    • c. 38,000 are Serbs
      Serbs
      The Serbs are a South Slavic ethnic group of the Balkans and southern Central Europe. Serbs are located mainly in Serbia, Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina, and form a sizable minority in Croatia, the Republic of Macedonia and Slovenia. Likewise, Serbs are an officially recognized minority in...

       (19%)
    • c. 86,000 are Albanians
      Albanians
      Albanians are a nation and ethnic group native to Albania and neighbouring countries. They speak the Albanian language. More than half of all Albanians live in Albania and Kosovo...

       (39%)
  • Christians:
    • 73,572 Eastern Orthodox Serbs
      Serbs
      The Serbs are a South Slavic ethnic group of the Balkans and southern Central Europe. Serbs are located mainly in Serbia, Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina, and form a sizable minority in Croatia, the Republic of Macedonia and Slovenia. Likewise, Serbs are an officially recognized minority in...

       (38%)
    • 5,120 Roman Catholic Albanians
      Albanians
      Albanians are a nation and ethnic group native to Albania and neighbouring countries. They speak the Albanian language. More than half of all Albanians live in Albania and Kosovo...

       (3%)
  • 2,308 other non-Muslims (Janjevci
    Janjevci
    Janjevci are Croatian inhabitants of the Kosovo town of Janjevo and surrounding villages, located near Pristina as well as villages centered on Letnica near Vitina ....

     etc.)


Müller's observations on towns:
  • Peć: 11,050 Serbs
    Serbs
    The Serbs are a South Slavic ethnic group of the Balkans and southern Central Europe. Serbs are located mainly in Serbia, Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina, and form a sizable minority in Croatia, the Republic of Macedonia and Slovenia. Likewise, Serbs are an officially recognized minority in...

    , 500 Albanians
    Albanians
    Albanians are a nation and ethnic group native to Albania and neighbouring countries. They speak the Albanian language. More than half of all Albanians live in Albania and Kosovo...

  • Prizren: 16,800 Serbs
    Serbs
    The Serbs are a South Slavic ethnic group of the Balkans and southern Central Europe. Serbs are located mainly in Serbia, Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina, and form a sizable minority in Croatia, the Republic of Macedonia and Slovenia. Likewise, Serbs are an officially recognized minority in...

    , 6150 Albanians
    Albanians
    Albanians are a nation and ethnic group native to Albania and neighbouring countries. They speak the Albanian language. More than half of all Albanians live in Albania and Kosovo...

  • Đakovica: majority of Albanians
    Albanians
    Albanians are a nation and ethnic group native to Albania and neighbouring countries. They speak the Albanian language. More than half of all Albanians live in Albania and Kosovo...

    , surrounding villages Serbian
    Serbs
    The Serbs are a South Slavic ethnic group of the Balkans and southern Central Europe. Serbs are located mainly in Serbia, Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina, and form a sizable minority in Croatia, the Republic of Macedonia and Slovenia. Likewise, Serbs are an officially recognized minority in...



Map published by French ethnographer G. Lejean in 1861 shows that Albanians lived on around 57% of the territory of today's province while a similar map, published by British travellers G. M. Mackenzie and A. P. Irby in 1867 shows slightly less; these maps don't show which population was larger overall. Nevethless, maps cannot be used to measure population as they leave out density.

A study done in 1871 by Austria
Austria
Austria , officially the Republic of Austria , is a landlocked country of roughly 8.4 million people in Central Europe. It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north, Slovakia and Hungary to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the...

n colonel Peter Kukulj for the internal use of the Austro-Hungarian
Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary , more formally known as the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council and the Lands of the Holy Hungarian Crown of Saint Stephen, was a constitutional monarchic union between the crowns of the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Hungary in...

 army showed that the mutesarifluk of Prizren
Prizren
Prizren is a historical city located in southern Kosovo. It is the administrative center of the eponymous municipality and district.The city has a population of around 131,247 , mostly Albanians...

 (corresponding largely to present-day Kosovo) had some 500,000 inhabitants, of which:
  • 318,000 Serbs
    Serbs
    The Serbs are a South Slavic ethnic group of the Balkans and southern Central Europe. Serbs are located mainly in Serbia, Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina, and form a sizable minority in Croatia, the Republic of Macedonia and Slovenia. Likewise, Serbs are an officially recognized minority in...

     (64%),
  • 161,000 Albanians
    Albanians
    Albanians are a nation and ethnic group native to Albania and neighbouring countries. They speak the Albanian language. More than half of all Albanians live in Albania and Kosovo...

     (32%),
  • 10,000 Roma (Gypsies) and Circassians
  • 2,000 Turks
    Turkish people
    Turkish people, also known as the "Turks" , are an ethnic group primarily living in Turkey and in the former lands of the Ottoman Empire where Turkish minorities had been established in Bulgaria, Cyprus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Georgia, Greece, Kosovo, Macedonia, and Romania...


Modern Serbian sources estimated that around 400,000 Serbs were cleansed out of the Vilayet of Kosovo between 1876 and 1912, especially during the Greek-Ottoman War
Greco-Turkish War (1897)
The Greco-Turkish War of 1897, also called the Thirty Days' War and known as the Black '97 in Greece, was a war fought between the Kingdom of Greece and Ottoman Empire. Its immediate cause was the question over the status of the Ottoman province of Crete, whose Greek majority long desired union...

 in 1897.

Maps published by German historian Kiepert
Heinrich Kiepert
Heinrich Kiepert , German geographer, was born at Berlin as the son of a wealthy businessman.Already in his youth he traveled with his parents and had a particular interest in the geographic circumstances, which he carefully sketched...

 in 1876, J. Hahn and Austrian consul K. Sax, show that Albanians live on most of the territory of today's province, however they don't show which population is larger. According to these, the regions of Kosovska Mitrovica
Kosovska Mitrovica
Kosovska Mitrovica , is a city and municipality in northern Kosovo. It is the administrative centre of the homonymous district....

 and Kosovo Polje
Kosovo Polje
Kosovo Polje or Fushë Kosova is a town and municipality in the Pristina district of central Kosovo, at 42.63° North, 21.12° East, or approximately eight kilometres south-west of the capital Pristina...

 were settled mostly by Serbs, whereas most of the terrirory of western and eastern parts of today's province was settled by Muslim Albanians.

An Austrian statistics published in 1899 estimated:
  • 182,650 Albanians
    Albanians
    Albanians are a nation and ethnic group native to Albania and neighbouring countries. They speak the Albanian language. More than half of all Albanians live in Albania and Kosovo...

     (47.88%)
  • 166,700 Serbs
    Serbs
    The Serbs are a South Slavic ethnic group of the Balkans and southern Central Europe. Serbs are located mainly in Serbia, Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina, and form a sizable minority in Croatia, the Republic of Macedonia and Slovenia. Likewise, Serbs are an officially recognized minority in...

     (43.7%)


At the end of the 19th century, Spiridon Gopchevich, an Austrian traveller - comprised a statistics and published them in Vienna. They established that Prizren had 60,000 citizens of whome 11,000 were Christian Serbs and 36,000 Moslem Serbs. The remaining population were Turks, Albanians, Tzintzars and Roma. For Pec he said that it had 2,530 households of which 1,600 were Mohammedan, 700 Christian Serb, 200 Catholic Albanian and 10 Turkish.

Note: Descendants of Muslim Serbs mentioned by travelers today mostly self-declare as Muslims by nationality
Muslims by nationality
Muslims by nationality was a term used in Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia as an official designation of nationality of Slavic Muslims. They were one of the constitutive groups of Bosnia and Herzegovina...

, Bosniaks
Bosniaks
The Bosniaks or Bosniacs are a South Slavic ethnic group, living mainly in Bosnia and Herzegovina, with a smaller minority also present in other lands of the Balkan Peninsula especially in Serbia, Montenegro and Croatia...

 or Gorani
Gorani
Gorani may refer to:In culture:* Gorani people, a Balkan ethnic groupIn geography:* Gorani, a village in Uda Commune, Argeş County, Romania* Gorani, a village in Odăile Commune, Buzău County, Romania...

. Also note that territory of Ottoman Kosovo Vilayet was quite different than modern-day Kosovo
Kosovo
Kosovo is a region in southeastern Europe. Part of the Ottoman Empire for more than five centuries, later the Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija within Serbia...

.

20th century


British journalist H. Brailsford estimated in 1906 that two-thirds of the population of Kosovo was Albanian and one-third Serbian. The most populous western districts of Đakovica and Peć
Pec
Peć or Pejë is a city and municipality in north-western Kosovo and Metohija - Serbia, and the administrative centre of the homonymous district. Governor of city is Ali Berisha....

 were said to have between 20,000 and 25,000 Albanian households, as against some 5,000 Serbian ones. A map of Alfred Stead, published in 1909 , shows that similar numbers of Serbs and Albanians were living in the territory.

German scholar Gustav Weigand
Gustav Weigand
Gustav Weigand , was a German linguist and specialist in Balkan languages, especially Rumanian and Aromanian. He is known for his seminal contributions to the dialectology of the Romance languages of the Balkans and to the study of the relationships between the languages of the Balkan...

 gave the following statistical data about the population of Kosovo, based on the pre-war situation in Kosovo in 1912:
  • Pristina
    Pristina
    Pristina, also spelled Prishtina and Priština is the capital and largest city of Kosovo. It is the administrative centre of the homonymous municipality and district....

     District: 67% Albanians, 30% Serbs
  • Prizren
    Prizren
    Prizren is a historical city located in southern Kosovo. It is the administrative center of the eponymous municipality and district.The city has a population of around 131,247 , mostly Albanians...

     District: 63% Albanians, 36% Serbs
  • Vučitrn
    Vucitrn
    Vučitrn or Vushtrri is a city and municipality in north-eastern Kosovo. It is the seat of the Kosovska Mitrovica District. The name of the city means "wolf's thorn", the name of the spiny restharrow plant in Serbian....

     District: 90% Albanians, 10% Serbs
  • Uroševac
    Uroševac
    Ferizaj or Uroševac is a city and municipality in southern Kosovo, located some south of the capital Pristina.Uroševac is the third most populous city in Kosovo, after Pristina and Prizren.It is the administrative centre of the homonymous district...

     District: 70% Albanians, 30% Serbs
  • Gnjilane
    Gnjilane
    Gnjilane or Gjilan is a city and municipality in eastern Kosovo. It is the administrative center of the District of Gjilan. It is famous for having been recorded the lowest temperature in Kosovo with on 25 January 1963.-Name and history:...

     District: 75% Albanians, 23% Serbs
  • Mitrovica District: 60% Serbs, 40% Albanians


Metohija with the town of Đakovica is furthermore defined as almost exclusively Albanian by Weigand.
Citing Serbian sources, Noel Malcolm also states that in 1912 when Kosovo came under Serbian
Kingdom of Serbia
The Kingdom of Serbia was created when Prince Milan Obrenović, ruler of the Principality of Serbia, was crowned King in 1882. The Principality of Serbia was ruled by the Karađorđevic dynasty from 1817 onwards . The Principality, suzerain to the Porte, had expelled all Ottoman troops by 1867, de...

 control, "the Orthodox Serb population at less than 25%,http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/feb/26/kosovo.serbia"

Balkan Wars and World War I-World War II




  • The 1921 Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes population census for the territories comprising modern day Kosovo listed 439,010 inhabitants:
By religion:
  • Muslims: 329,502 (75%)
  • Orthodox Serb: 93,203
  • Roman Catholics: 15,785
  • Jews
    Judaism
    Judaism ) is the "religion, philosophy, and way of life" of the Jewish people...

    : 427
  • Greek Catholics: 26
By native language:
  • Albanian
    Albanian language
    Albanian is an Indo-European language spoken by approximately 7.6 million people, primarily in Albania and Kosovo but also in other areas of the Balkans in which there is an Albanian population, including western Macedonia, southern Montenegro, southern Serbia and northwestern Greece...

    : 288,907 (65.8%)
  • Serbian or Croatian
    Serbo-Croatian
    Serbo-Croatian or Serbo-Croat, less commonly Bosnian/Croatian/Serbian , is a South Slavic language with multiple standards and the primary language of Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Montenegro...

    : 114,095 (26.0%)
  • Turkish
    Turkish language
    Turkish is a language spoken as a native language by over 83 million people worldwide, making it the most commonly spoken of the Turkic languages. Its speakers are located predominantly in Turkey and Northern Cyprus with smaller groups in Iraq, Greece, Bulgaria, the Republic of Macedonia, Kosovo,...

    : 27,915 (6.4%)
  • Romanian-Cincarian
    Aromanians
    Aromanians are a Latin people native throughout the southern Balkans, especially in northern Greece, Albania, the Republic of Macedonia, Bulgaria, and as an emigrant community in Serbia and Romania . An older term is Macedo-Romanians...

    : 402
  • Slovene: 184
  • German
    German language
    German is a West Germanic language, related to and classified alongside English and Dutch. With an estimated 90 – 98 million native speakers, German is one of the world's major languages and is the most widely-spoken first language in the European Union....

    : 30
  • Hungarian
    Hungarian language
    Hungarian is a Uralic language, part of the Ugric group. With some 14 million speakers, it is one of the most widely spoken non-Indo-European languages in Europe....

    : 12

  • According to the 1931 Kingdom of Yugoslavia
    Kingdom of Yugoslavia
    The Kingdom of Yugoslavia was a state stretching from the Western Balkans to Central Europe which existed during the often-tumultuous interwar era of 1918–1941...

     population census, there were 552,064 inhabitants in today's Kosovo.
By religion:
  • Muslims: 379,981 (68.83%)
  • Orthodox Serbs
    Serbian Orthodox Church
    The Serbian Orthodox Church is one of the autocephalous Orthodox Christian churches, ranking sixth in order of seniority after Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, Jerusalem, and Russia...

    : 150,745 (27.31%)
  • Roman Catholics: 20,568 (3.73%)
  • Evangelists
    Evangelism
    Evangelism refers to the practice of relaying information about a particular set of beliefs to others who do not hold those beliefs. The term is often used in reference to Christianity....

    : 114 (0.02%)
  • other: 656 (0.12%)
By native language:
  • Albanians
    Albanians
    Albanians are a nation and ethnic group native to Albania and neighbouring countries. They speak the Albanian language. More than half of all Albanians live in Albania and Kosovo...

    : 331,549 (60.06%)
  • Serbs
    Serbs
    The Serbs are a South Slavic ethnic group of the Balkans and southern Central Europe. Serbs are located mainly in Serbia, Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina, and form a sizable minority in Croatia, the Republic of Macedonia and Slovenia. Likewise, Serbs are an officially recognized minority in...

    , Croats
    Croats
    Croats are a South Slavic ethnic group mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries. There are around 4 million Croats living inside Croatia and up to 4.5 million throughout the rest of the world. Responding to political, social and economic pressure, many Croats have...

    , Slovenes and Macedonians
    Macedonians (ethnic group)
    The Macedonians also referred to as Macedonian Slavs: "... the term Slavomacedonian was introduced and was accepted by the community itself, which at the time had a much more widespread non-Greek Macedonian ethnic consciousness...

    : 180,170 (32.64%)
  • Hungarians: 426 (0.08%)
  • Germans
    Germans
    The Germans are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe. The English term Germans has referred to the German-speaking population of the Holy Roman Empire since the Late Middle Ages....

    : 241 (0.04%)
  • other Slavs: 771 (0.14%)
  • other: 38,907 (7.05%)


The colonisation of Kosovo began during the Balkan Wars
Balkan Wars
The Balkan Wars were two conflicts that took place in the Balkans in south-eastern Europe in 1912 and 1913.By the early 20th century, Montenegro, Bulgaria, Greece and Serbia, the countries of the Balkan League, had achieved their independence from the Ottoman Empire, but large parts of their ethnic...

. After the World War I
World War I
World War I , which was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter, was a major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918...

 began systematic colonization as a state project of Yugoslavian Kingdom. The table shows total number of registered settlers in each Kosovo area:
COLONISATION OF KOSOVO
Regional Center Number of Colonists
Uroševac
Uroševac
Ferizaj or Uroševac is a city and municipality in southern Kosovo, located some south of the capital Pristina.Uroševac is the third most populous city in Kosovo, after Pristina and Prizren.It is the administrative centre of the homonymous district...

15.381
Đakovica 15.824
Prizren
Prizren
Prizren is a historical city located in southern Kosovo. It is the administrative center of the eponymous municipality and district.The city has a population of around 131,247 , mostly Albanians...

3.084
Peć
Pec
Peć or Pejë is a city and municipality in north-western Kosovo and Metohija - Serbia, and the administrative centre of the homonymous district. Governor of city is Ali Berisha....

13.376
Mitrovica
Kosovska Mitrovica
Kosovska Mitrovica , is a city and municipality in northern Kosovo. It is the administrative centre of the homonymous district....

429
Vučitrn
Vucitrn
Vučitrn or Vushtrri is a city and municipality in north-eastern Kosovo. It is the seat of the Kosovska Mitrovica District. The name of the city means "wolf's thorn", the name of the spiny restharrow plant in Serbian....

10.169
Total 58.263


The process was a result of the agrarian reform pursued by the Yugoslavian authorities. "Tax and property incentives for Serbs to move to Kosovo produced a measurable demographic change in Kosovo’s cities by 1929, but the
province’s overall ethnic balance remained roughly 60% Albanian, 35% Serb,http://www.seep.ceu.hu/archives/issue61/herbert.pdf".

The ethnic Albanian and Turkish population, at the time, in Kosovo and Metohia were reluctant to reconcile with living in a European-organized state where, instead of the status of the absolutely privileged class they had enjoyed during the Turkish rule, they acquired only civil equality with what had previously been the infidel masses. Discontent with the new state among the ethnic Albanian masses stepped up emigration to Turkey, in whose Muslim environment they felt at home.

By the 1930s, thousands of ethnic Albanian and Turkish families were forcefully deported to Turkey Republic of Turkey
Turkey
Turkey , known officially as the Republic of Turkey , is a Eurasian country located in Western Asia and in East Thrace in Southeastern Europe...

, and in 1938, after lengthly negotiations, the Yugoslav and Turkish governments prepared a convention on the emigration of some 200,000 Muslims (ethnic Albanians and Turks) from Kosovo-Metohia and Macedonia to Turkey. Because the Turkish government abandoned the agreement and a lack of funds to dispatch the emigrants, the convention was never implemented.
The Yugoslav
Kingdom of Yugoslavia
The Kingdom of Yugoslavia was a state stretching from the Western Balkans to Central Europe which existed during the often-tumultuous interwar era of 1918–1941...

 authorities conducted a census on the region of Kosovo
Kosovo
Kosovo is a region in southeastern Europe. Part of the Ottoman Empire for more than five centuries, later the Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija within Serbia...

 in 1939. The census was handed poorly and not finished. It registered some 125,000 Albanians, while the number of the entire non-Slav population (Albanians, Turks, Roma etc.) was 422,828 or 65.6%. The percentage of native Slavic population and the colonists was 25.2% and 9.2%, respectively.

It was followed by a mass exodus of tens of thousands of Serbs during the Second World War. After the war, liberal Yugoslav policies allowed the Albanian population to increase from 75% to well over 90% through increased birth rate and immigration, in contrast, the Serbian population waned to just 8% of the pre war population. During the Kosovo War, roughly a half of Albanians and Serbians left Kosovo.

World War II


Most of the territory of today's province is occupied by Italian-controlled
History of Italy
Italy, united in 1861, has significantly contributed to the political, cultural and social development of the entire Mediterranean region. Many cultures and civilizations have existed there since prehistoric times....

 Greater Albania
Greater Albania
Greater Albania or Ethnic Albania is an irredentist concept of lands outside the borders of the Republic of Albania that are considered part of a greater national homeland by most Albanians, based on the present-day or historical presence of Albanian populations in those areas...

, massacres of some 10,000 Serbs
Serbs
The Serbs are a South Slavic ethnic group of the Balkans and southern Central Europe. Serbs are located mainly in Serbia, Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina, and form a sizable minority in Croatia, the Republic of Macedonia and Slovenia. Likewise, Serbs are an officially recognized minority in...

, ethnic cleansing
Ethnic cleansing
Ethnic cleansing is a purposeful policy designed by one ethnic or religious group to remove by violent and terror-inspiring means the civilian population of another ethnic orreligious group from certain geographic areas....

 of about 100 to 250,000 or more

Nazi Germany estimated that from November 1943 to February 1944, 40 000 Serbs fled Italian-occupied Kosovo for Montenegro and Serbia.


1948 census


727,820 total inhabitants:
  • 498,242 Albanians
    Albanians
    Albanians are a nation and ethnic group native to Albania and neighbouring countries. They speak the Albanian language. More than half of all Albanians live in Albania and Kosovo...

     (68.46%)
  • 171,911 Serbs
    Serbs
    The Serbs are a South Slavic ethnic group of the Balkans and southern Central Europe. Serbs are located mainly in Serbia, Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina, and form a sizable minority in Croatia, the Republic of Macedonia and Slovenia. Likewise, Serbs are an officially recognized minority in...

     (23.62%)
  • 28,050 Montenegrins (3.86%)
  • 11,230 Roma (1.54%)
  • 5,290 Croats
    Croats
    Croats are a South Slavic ethnic group mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries. There are around 4 million Croats living inside Croatia and up to 4.5 million throughout the rest of the world. Responding to political, social and economic pressure, many Croats have...

     (0.73%)
  • 1,315 Turks
    Turkish people
    Turkish people, also known as the "Turks" , are an ethnic group primarily living in Turkey and in the former lands of the Ottoman Empire where Turkish minorities had been established in Bulgaria, Cyprus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Georgia, Greece, Kosovo, Macedonia, and Romania...

     (0.18%)
  • 526 Macedonians (0.07%)
  • 362 Russians
    Russians
    The Russian people are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Russia, speaking the Russian language and primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries....

     (0.05%)
  • 283 Slovenes (0.04%)
  • 197 Germans
    Germans
    The Germans are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe. The English term Germans has referred to the German-speaking population of the Holy Roman Empire since the Late Middle Ages....

     (0.03%)
  • 83 Hungarians (0.01%)
  • 77 Bulgarians
    Bulgarians
    The Bulgarians are a South Slavic nation and ethnic group native to Bulgaria and neighbouring regions. Emigration has resulted in immigrant communities in a number of other countries.-History and ethnogenesis:...

     (0.01%)
  • 39 Italians
  • 31 Rusyns
    Rusyns
    Carpatho-Rusyns are a primarily diasporic ethnic group who speak an Eastern Slavic language, or Ukrainian dialect, known as Rusyn. Carpatho-Rusyns descend from a minority of Ruthenians who did not adopt the use of the ethnonym "Ukrainian" in the early twentieth century...

  • 29 Czechs
  • 18 Romanians
    Romanians
    The Romanians are an ethnic group native to Romania, who speak Romanian; they are the majority inhabitants of Romania....

  • 2 Slovaks
    Slovaks
    The Slovaks, Slovak people, or Slovakians are a West Slavic people that primarily inhabit Slovakia and speak the Slovak language, which is closely related to the Czech language.Most Slovaks today live within the borders of the independent Slovakia...

  • 9,679 undecided Muslims (1.33%)
  • 456 other and unknown (0.06%)

1953 census


808,141 total inhabitants
  • 524,559 Albanians
    Albanians
    Albanians are a nation and ethnic group native to Albania and neighbouring countries. They speak the Albanian language. More than half of all Albanians live in Albania and Kosovo...

     (64.91%)
  • 189,969 Serbs
    Serbs
    The Serbs are a South Slavic ethnic group of the Balkans and southern Central Europe. Serbs are located mainly in Serbia, Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina, and form a sizable minority in Croatia, the Republic of Macedonia and Slovenia. Likewise, Serbs are an officially recognized minority in...

     (23.51%)
  • 34,583 Turks
    Turkish people
    Turkish people, also known as the "Turks" , are an ethnic group primarily living in Turkey and in the former lands of the Ottoman Empire where Turkish minorities had been established in Bulgaria, Cyprus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Georgia, Greece, Kosovo, Macedonia, and Romania...

     (4.28%)
  • 31,343 Montenegrins (3.88%)
  • 6,201 Croat (0.77%)
  • 972 Macedonians (0.12%)
  • 411 Slovenes (0.05%)
  • 6,241 undecided Yugoslav
    Yugoslavs
    Yugoslavs is a national designation used by a minority of South Slavs across the countries of the former Yugoslavia and in the diaspora...

     (0.77%)
  • 401 other Slav (0.05%)
  • 13,561 others (1.68%)

1961 census


963,959 total inhabitants
  • 646,604 Albanians (67.08%)
  • 227,016 Serbs (23.55%)
  • 37,588 Montenegrins (3.9%)
  • 8,026 Ethnic Muslims (0.83%)
  • 7,251 Croat (0.75%)
  • 5,203 Yugoslavs (0.54%)
  • 3,202 Romani (0.33%)
  • 1,142 Macedonians (0.12%)
  • 510 Slovenes (0.05%)
  • 210 Hungarians (0.02%)

After 1961, 103,000 Serbs and Montenegrins left Kosovo, mainly due to alleged mistreatment by Albanian authorities and population.

After the province gained autonomy, the local provincial Statistical office given authority over the Census, whereas the rest of the country's Census was under the leadership of the Federal Statistical Commission. There were allegations of 'Census rigging' (for the 1971 and 1981 censuses) by Turkish, Muslim
Muslims by nationality
Muslims by nationality was a term used in Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia as an official designation of nationality of Slavic Muslims. They were one of the constitutive groups of Bosnia and Herzegovina...

 and Romani minorities who claim forceful Albanization. The Serbians claimed that the Albanians had drastically overinflated their prevalence within Kosovo. It was felt that this could not be substantiated though because the Kosovo Statistical offices were under the control of the majority Albanian population - this was against the national norm at the time, which dictated that census takers had to be of different nationalities

1971 census


1,243,693 total inhabitants
  • 916,168 Albanians or 73.7%
  • 228,264 Serbs (18.4%)
  • 31,555 Montenegrins (2.5%)
  • 26,000 Slavic Muslims (2.1%)
  • 14,593 Roma (1.2%)
  • 12,244 Turks (1.0%)
  • 8,000 Croats (0.7%)
  • 920 Yugoslavs (0.1%)

1981 census


1,584,558 total inhabitants
  • 1,226,736 Albanians (77.42%)
  • 209,498 Serbs (13.2%)
  • 27,028 Montenegrins (1.7%)
  • 2,676 Yugoslavs (0.2%)

1991 census


Official Yugoslav statistical results, almost all Albanians and some Roma, Muslims
Muslims by nationality
Muslims by nationality was a term used in Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia as an official designation of nationality of Slavic Muslims. They were one of the constitutive groups of Bosnia and Herzegovina...

 boycott the census following a call by Ibrahim Rugova
Ibrahim Rugova
Ibrahim Rugova was an Albanian politician who was the first President of Kosovo and of its leading political party, the Democratic League of Kosovo ....

 to boycott Serbian institutions.

359,346 total population
  • 194,190 Serbs (10%)
  • 20,365 Montenegrins (1%)
  • 9,091 Albanians (most boycotted)
  • 57,758 Muslims
  • 44,307 Romas
  • 10,445 Turks
  • 8,062 Croats (Janjevci
    Janjevci
    Janjevci are Croatian inhabitants of the Kosovo town of Janjevo and surrounding villages, located near Pristina as well as villages centered on Letnica near Vitina ....

    , Letnicani)
  • 3,457 Yugoslavs

Official Yugoslav statistical corrections and projections, with the help of previous census results (1948–1981):

1,956,196 Total population
  • 1,596,072 Albanians (81.6%)
  • 194,190 Serbs (9.9%)
  • 66,189 Muslims (3.4%)
  • 45,760 Romas (2.34%)
  • 20,365 Montenegrins (1.04%)
  • 10,445 Turks (0.53%)
  • 8,062 Croats (Janjevci
    Janjevci
    Janjevci are Croatian inhabitants of the Kosovo town of Janjevo and surrounding villages, located near Pristina as well as villages centered on Letnica near Vitina ....

    ) (0.41)
  • 3,457 Yugoslavs (0.18%)
  • 11,656 others (0.6%)

The corrections should not taken to be fully accurate. The number of Albanians is sometimes regarded as being an underestimate. On the other hand, it is sometimes regarded as an overestimate, being derived from earlier censa which are believed to be overestimates. The Statistical Office of Kosovo states that the quality of the 1991 census is "questionable." http://www.ks-gov.net/esk/esk/pdf/english/population/Kosovo_population.pdf.

In September 1993 , the Bosniak parliament returned their historical name Bosniaks
Bosniaks
The Bosniaks or Bosniacs are a South Slavic ethnic group, living mainly in Bosnia and Herzegovina, with a smaller minority also present in other lands of the Balkan Peninsula especially in Serbia, Montenegro and Croatia...

. Some Kosovar Muslims have started using this term to refer to themselves since.

1995 census


In the year of 1995, Official Yugoslav statistical results,.
There was a total of around 1,600,000 inhabitants in Kosovo (and a further 600,000 living abroad):
  • Albanians - around 1,360,000 (89.9%); 1,960,000 with the diaspora
  • Serbs - around 140,000 (6.3%)
  • Muslims - around 40,000 (1.9%)
  • Roma - around 40,000 (1.9%)
  • Turks - around 8,000 (0.3%)
  • Montenegrins - around 7,000 (0.3%)
  • others - around 5,000 (0.2%)

Refugees in the second half of 1998


Just before the 13 October 1998, UNHCR estimated that there were around 200,000 misplaced people in Kosovo in the civil war that already engulfed half of the province. Of that, some 120,000 were displaced abroad (forming 80% of FRJ's displaced diaspora):
  • 62,000 to the rest of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
  • 20,000 to Serbia
  • 42,000 to Montenegro
  • 20,000 to Albania
  • a total of 38,000 to Western Europe
  • 10,000 to Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • some to Croatia and Hungary

1998 Federal Secretariat of Information


In 1998 the Federal Secretariat of Information in Belgrade estimated a pre-term population census for the Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija listing around 1,378,980 citizens:
  • 917,000 Albanians
  • 221,000 Serbs
  • 97,000 Romas
  • 72,500 Muslims
  • 23,000 Montenegrins
  • 21,000 Turks
  • 3,500 Yugoslavs
  • 980 Macedonians
  • 23,000 others

Kosovo War refugees


The total list of countries to which the refugees refuged and in what numbers:
  • Montenegro - 61,900
  • Serbia - 180,000


abroad:
  • Albania - 405,000
  • Republic of Macedonia - 197,000
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina - 17,000


other countries to which Kosovars refuged:
  • Germany - 9,974
  • Turkey - 6,259
  • Norway - 2,476
  • France - 2,354
  • Austria - 1,455
  • Belgium - 1,205
  • United Kingdom - 330

Age structure

  • 0–14 years: 27.7% (male 260,678/female 239,779)
  • 15–64 years: 65.7% (male 617,890/female 567,939)
  • 65 years and over: 6.6% (male 50,463/female 68,089) (2010 est.)

Sex ratio

  • at birth: 1.086 male(s)/female
  • under 15 years: 1.09 male(s)/female
  • 15–64 years: 1.09 male(s)/female
  • 65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female
  • total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2010 est.)

See also

  • Demographics of Serbia
    Demographics of Serbia
    The demographics of Serbia have been shaped by its unique geographic location. Situated in the middle of the Balkans, many different ethnic groups are citizens of Serbia. Serbs are overwhelmingly the largest ethnic group in the country. Furthermore, Albanians have represented the largest minority...

  • Albanians in Kosovo
    Albanians in Kosovo
    Albanians are the largest ethnic group in Kosovo . According to the 1991 Serbian census, boycotted by Albanians, there were 1,596,072 ethnic Albanians in Kosovo or 81.6% of population...

  • Montenegrins of Kosovo
    Montenegrins of Kosovo
    Montenegrins are a South Slavic people who are primarily associated with the Montenegro. They form an ethnic minority in Kosovo, a disputed province of the Republic of Serbia....

  • Serbs in Kosovo
  • Turks in Kosovo
    Turks in Kosovo
    Turks in Kosovo are the ethnic Turks who constitute a minority group in Kosovo.-History:The Ottomans brought Islamisation with them, particularly in towns, and later also created the Vilayet of Kosovo as one of the Ottoman territorial entities...

  • Roma in Kosovo
    Roma in Kosovo
    Roma in Kosovo are Serbian Roma , polylingual Roma and Albanian Roma who self-identify as Ashkali or Balkan Egyptians...

  • Gorani (ethnic group)
  • Janjevci
    Janjevci
    Janjevci are Croatian inhabitants of the Kosovo town of Janjevo and surrounding villages, located near Pristina as well as villages centered on Letnica near Vitina ....

  • Ashkali
    Ashkali
    In the Balkans, the Ashkali and Egyptians are Albanian-speaking ethnic minorities of Kosovo and Albania. Observers consider them Albanized Romanies, but they do not self-identify as such...


External links