Delft

Delft

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Delft is a city and municipality
Municipality
A municipality is essentially an urban administrative division having corporate status and usually powers of self-government. It can also be used to mean the governing body of a municipality. A municipality is a general-purpose administrative subdivision, as opposed to a special-purpose district...

 in the province of South Holland
South Holland
South Holland is a province situated on the North Sea in the western part of the Netherlands. The provincial capital is The Hague and its largest city is Rotterdam.South Holland is one of the most densely populated and industrialised areas in the world...

 (Zuid-Holland), the Netherlands. It is located between Rotterdam
Rotterdam
Rotterdam is the second-largest city in the Netherlands and one of the largest ports in the world. Starting as a dam on the Rotte river, Rotterdam has grown into a major international commercial centre...

 and The Hague
The Hague
The Hague is the capital city of the province of South Holland in the Netherlands. With a population of 500,000 inhabitants , it is the third largest city of the Netherlands, after Amsterdam and Rotterdam...

.
Delft is primarily known for its typically Dutch town centre (with canals); also for the painter Vermeer, Delft Blue pottery
Delftware
Delftware, or Delft pottery, denotes blue and white pottery made in and around Delft in the Netherlands and the tin-glazed pottery made in the Netherlands from the 16th century....

 (Delftware
Delftware
Delftware, or Delft pottery, denotes blue and white pottery made in and around Delft in the Netherlands and the tin-glazed pottery made in the Netherlands from the 16th century....

), the Delft University of Technology
Delft University of Technology
Delft University of Technology , also known as TU Delft, is the largest and oldest Dutch public technical university, located in Delft, Netherlands...

, and its association with the Dutch royal family, the House of Orange-Nassau
House of Orange-Nassau
The House of Orange-Nassau , a branch of the European House of Nassau, has played a central role in the political life of the Netherlands — and at times in Europe — since William I of Orange organized the Dutch revolt against Spanish rule, which after the Eighty Years' War...

.

History



From a rural village in the early Middle Ages Delft developed to a city, that in the 13th century (1246) received its charter
City rights in the Netherlands
City rights are a medieval phenomenon in the history of the Low Countries. A liegelord, usually a count, duke or similar member of high nobility, granted a settlement he owned certain town privileges that settlements without city rights did not have....

.
(For some more information about the early developement, see the article "Gracht
Gracht
The word gracht is a Dutch term that is encountered by English-speaking people when confronted with Dutch art , Dutch history or tourism...

", section "Delft as an example").

The town's association with the House of Orange started when William of Orange
William the Silent
William I, Prince of Orange , also widely known as William the Silent , or simply William of Orange , was the main leader of the Dutch revolt against the Spanish that set off the Eighty Years' War and resulted in the formal independence of the United Provinces in 1648. He was born in the House of...

 (Willem van Oranje), nicknamed William the Silent
William the Silent
William I, Prince of Orange , also widely known as William the Silent , or simply William of Orange , was the main leader of the Dutch revolt against the Spanish that set off the Eighty Years' War and resulted in the formal independence of the United Provinces in 1648. He was born in the House of...

 (Willem de Zwijger), took up residence in 1572
At the time he was the leader of growing national Dutch resistance against Spanish occupation of the country, which struggle is known as the Eighty Years' War.
By then Delft was one of the leading cities of Holland and it was equipped with the necessary city walls to serve as a headquarters.

After the Act of Abjuration was proclaimed in 1581 Delft became the de facto
De facto
De facto is a Latin expression that means "concerning fact." In law, it often means "in practice but not necessarily ordained by law" or "in practice or actuality, but not officially established." It is commonly used in contrast to de jure when referring to matters of law, governance, or...

 capital
Capital City
Capital City was a television show produced by Euston Films which focused on the lives of investment bankers in London living and working on the corporate trading floor for the fictional international bank Shane-Longman....

 of the newly independent Netherlands, as the seat of the Prince of Orange
Prince of Orange
Prince of Orange is a title of nobility, originally associated with the Principality of Orange, in what is now southern France. In French it is la Principauté d'Orange....

.

When William was shot dead in 1584, by Balthazar Gerards in the hall of the Prinsenhof, the family's traditional burial place in Breda was still in the hands of the Spanish. Therefore, he was buried in the Delft Nieuwe Kerk
Nieuwe Kerk (Delft)
Nieuwe Kerk is a landmark Protestant church in Delft, Netherlands. The building is located on Delft Market Square , opposite to the City Hall . In 1584, William the Silent was entombed here in a mausoleum designed by Hendrick and Pieter de Keyser. Since then members of the House of Orange-Nassau...

 (New Church), starting a tradition for the House of Orange that has continued to the present day.

Delft Explosion


The Delft Explosion, also known in history as the Delft Thunderclap, occurred on 12 October 1654 when a gunpowder
Gunpowder
Gunpowder, also known since in the late 19th century as black powder, was the first chemical explosive and the only one known until the mid 1800s. It is a mixture of sulfur, charcoal, and potassium nitrate - with the sulfur and charcoal acting as fuels, while the saltpeter works as an oxidizer...

 store exploded, destroying much of the city. Over a hundred people were killed and thousands wounded.

About 30 tonnes of gunpowder were stored in barrels in a magazine
Magazine (artillery)
Magazine is the name for an item or place within which ammunition is stored. It is taken from the Arabic word "makahazin" meaning "warehouse".-Ammunition storage areas:...

 in a former Clarissen
Order of Poor Ladies
The Poor Clares also known as the Order of Saint Clare, the Order of Poor Ladies, the Poor Clare Sisters, the Clarisse, the Minoresses, the Franciscan Clarist Congregation, and the Second Order of St. Francis, , comprise several orders of nuns in the Catholic Church...

 convent
Convent
A convent is either a community of priests, religious brothers, religious sisters, or nuns, or the building used by the community, particularly in the Roman Catholic Church and in the Anglican Communion...

 in the Doelenkwartier district. Cornelis Soetens, the keeper of the magazine, opened the store to check a sample of the powder and a huge explosion followed. Luckily, many citizens were away, visiting a market
Market
A market is one of many varieties of systems, institutions, procedures, social relations and infrastructures whereby parties engage in exchange. While parties may exchange goods and services by barter, most markets rely on sellers offering their goods or services in exchange for money from buyers...

 in Schiedam
Schiedam
Schiedam is a city and municipality in the province of South Holland in the Netherlands. It is part of the Rotterdam metropolitan area. The city is located west of Rotterdam, east of Vlaardingen and south of Delft...

 or a fair
Fair
A fair or fayre is a gathering of people to display or trade produce or other goods, to parade or display animals and often to enjoy associated carnival or funfair entertainment. It is normally of the essence of a fair that it is temporary; some last only an afternoon while others may ten weeks. ...

 in The Hague
The Hague
The Hague is the capital city of the province of South Holland in the Netherlands. With a population of 500,000 inhabitants , it is the third largest city of the Netherlands, after Amsterdam and Rotterdam...

. Artist Carel Fabritius
Carel Fabritius
Carel Fabritius was a Dutch painter and one of Rembrandt's most gifted pupils.-Biography:Fabritius was born in Beemster, the ten-year old polder, as the son of a schoolteacher. Initially he worked as a carpenter . In the early 1640s he studied at Rembrandt's studio in Amsterdam, along with his...

 was wounded in the explosion and died of his injuries. Later on, Egbert van der Poel
Egbert van der Poel
Egbert van der Poel was a Dutch Golden Age genre and landscape painter, son of a Delft goldsmith.-Life:He may possibly have been a student of Esaias van de Velde and of Aert van der Neer. According to the RKD he was the brother of the painter Adriaen Lievensz van der Poel and a student of Cornelis...

 painted several pictures of Delft showing the devastation. The Delft Explosion is the principal reason why Delft University of Technology
Delft University of Technology
Delft University of Technology , also known as TU Delft, is the largest and oldest Dutch public technical university, located in Delft, Netherlands...

 maintains explosion science as a key topic within its research portfolio and graduate skill-set.

Sights



The city center retains a large number of monumental buildings, whereas in many streets there are canal
Canal
Canals are man-made channels for water. There are two types of canal:#Waterways: navigable transportation canals used for carrying ships and boats shipping goods and conveying people, further subdivided into two kinds:...

s of which the borders are connected by typical bridges, altogether making this city a notable tourist destination.

Historical buildings include:
  • Oude Kerk
    Oude Kerk (Delft)
    The Oude Kerk , nicknamed Oude Jan , is a Gothic Protestant church in the old city center of Delft, the Netherlands. Its most recognizable feature is a 75-meter-high brick tower that leans about two meters from the vertical....

     (Old Church). Buried here: Piet Hein
    Piet Pieterszoon Hein
    Pieter Pietersen Heyn was a Dutch naval officer and folk hero during the Eighty Years' War between the United Provinces and Spain.-Early life:...

    , Johannes Vermeer
    Johannes Vermeer
    Johannes, Jan or Johan Vermeer was a Dutch painter who specialized in exquisite, domestic interior scenes of middle class life. Vermeer was a moderately successful provincial genre painter in his lifetime...

    , Anthony van Leeuwenhoek.
  • Nieuwe Kerk
    Nieuwe Kerk (Delft)
    Nieuwe Kerk is a landmark Protestant church in Delft, Netherlands. The building is located on Delft Market Square , opposite to the City Hall . In 1584, William the Silent was entombed here in a mausoleum designed by Hendrick and Pieter de Keyser. Since then members of the House of Orange-Nassau...

     (New Church), constructed between 1381 and 1496. It contains the Dutch royal family's burial vault
    Burial vault (tomb)
    A burial vault is a structural underground tomb.It is a stone or brick-lined underground space or 'burial' chamber for the interment of a dead body or bodies. They were originally and are still often vaulted and usually have stone slab entrances...

    , which between funerals is sealed with a 5000 kg cover stone.
  • The Prinsenhof
    Prinsenhof
    The Prinsenhof in Delft in the Netherlands is an urban palace built in the Middle Ages as a monastery. Later it served as a residence for William the Silent. The building still exists and now houses the municipal museum...

     (Princes' Court), now a museum.
  • City Hall
    City Hall (Delft)
    The City Hall in Delft is a Renaissance style building on the Markt across from the Nieuwe Kerk. It is the former seat of the city's government, and still today the place where residents hold their civic wedding ceremonies...

     on the Markt.
  • The Oostpoort
    Eastern Gate (Delft)
    The Eastern Gate in Delft, an example of Brick Gothic northern European architecture, was built around 1400.Around 1510 the towers were enhanced with an additional octagonal floor and high spires....

     (Eastern gate), built around 1400. This is the only remaining gate of the old city walls.
  • The Gemeenlandshuis
    Gemeenlandshuis
    A Gemeenlandshuis, or Waterschapshuis is a building that is or was formerly used as the headquarters of one of the Waterboards of the Netherlands. The Netherlands has 27 Waterboards or Waterschappen.-History:...

     Delfland, or Huyterhuis, built in 1505, which has housed the Delfland regional water authority since 1645.
  • Waag (Delft)

Culture


Delft is well known for the Delft pottery
Delftware
Delftware, or Delft pottery, denotes blue and white pottery made in and around Delft in the Netherlands and the tin-glazed pottery made in the Netherlands from the 16th century....

 ceramic
Ceramic
A ceramic is an inorganic, nonmetallic solid prepared by the action of heat and subsequent cooling. Ceramic materials may have a crystalline or partly crystalline structure, or may be amorphous...

 products which were styled on the imported Chinese
China
Chinese civilization may refer to:* China for more general discussion of the country.* Chinese culture* Greater China, the transnational community of ethnic Chinese.* History of China* Sinosphere, the area historically affected by Chinese culture...

 porcelain
Porcelain
Porcelain is a ceramic material made by heating raw materials, generally including clay in the form of kaolin, in a kiln to temperatures between and...

 of the 17th century. The city had an early start in this area since it was a home port of the Dutch East India Company
Dutch East India Company
The Dutch East India Company was a chartered company established in 1602, when the States-General of the Netherlands granted it a 21-year monopoly to carry out colonial activities in Asia...

.

The painter Johannes Vermeer
Johannes Vermeer
Johannes, Jan or Johan Vermeer was a Dutch painter who specialized in exquisite, domestic interior scenes of middle class life. Vermeer was a moderately successful provincial genre painter in his lifetime...

 (1632–1675) was born in Delft. Vermeer used Delft streets and home interiors as the subject or background of his paintings.

Several other famous painters lived and worked in Delft at that time, such as Pieter de Hoogh
Pieter de Hooch
Pieter de Hooch was a genre painter during the Dutch Golden Age. He was a contemporary of Dutch Master Jan Vermeer, with whom his work shared themes and style.-Biography:...

, Carel Fabritius
Carel Fabritius
Carel Fabritius was a Dutch painter and one of Rembrandt's most gifted pupils.-Biography:Fabritius was born in Beemster, the ten-year old polder, as the son of a schoolteacher. Initially he worked as a carpenter . In the early 1640s he studied at Rembrandt's studio in Amsterdam, along with his...

, Nicolaes Maes
Nicolaes Maes
Nicolaes Maes, also known as Nicolaes Maas was a Dutch Golden Age painter of genre and portraits.-Biography:...

, Gerard Houckgeest and Hendrick Cornelisz. van Vliet. They all were members of the Delft School
Delft School (painting)
The Delft School is a category of mid-17th century Dutch Golden Age painting named after its main base, Delft. It is best known for genre painting: images of domestic life, views of households, church interiors, courtyards, squares and the streets of that city...

. The Delft School is known for its images of domestic life, views of households, church interiors, courtyards, squares and the streets of Delft. The painters also produced pictures showing historic events, flower paintings, portraits for patrons and the court, and decorative pieces of art.

Education


Delft University of Technology
Delft University of Technology
Delft University of Technology , also known as TU Delft, is the largest and oldest Dutch public technical university, located in Delft, Netherlands...

 (TU Delft) is one of three universities of technology in the Netherlands. It was founded as an academy for civil engineering in 1842 by King William II
William II of the Netherlands
William II was King of the Netherlands, Grand Duke of Luxembourg, and Duke of Limburg from 7 October 1840 until his death in 1849.- Early life and education :...

. Today well over 16,000 students are enrolled.

The UNESCO-IHE
UNESCO-IHE
The UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education is an international institute for water education that was created in 2003 from the previous IHE. This in turn grew out of the International Course in Hydraulic Engineering , whose name was changed in 1976 to International Institute for Hydraulic and...

 Institute for Water Education, providing postgraduate education for people from developing countries, draws on the strong tradition in water management
Water management
Water management is the activity of planning, developing, distributing and managing the optimum use of water resources. In an ideal world. water management planning has regard to all the competing demands for water and seeks to allocate water on an equitable basis to satisfy all uses and demands...

 and hydraulic engineering
Hydraulic engineering
This article is about civil engineering. For the mechanical engineering discipline see Hydraulic machineryHydraulic engineering as a sub-discipline of civil engineering is concerned with the flow and conveyance of fluids, principally water and sewage. One feature of these systems is the extensive...

 of the Delft university.

Nature and recreation


East of Delft is the Delftse Hout ("Delft Wood"), a recreation area, with apart from a forest, through which bike-, horseride- and footpaths are leading, also a lake (suitable for swimming and windsurfing), narrow beaches, restaurant, community gardens, campground and other recreational and sports facilities. A small lakeside part is a nudist area, separated from other recreational grounds by a series of demarcation pegs on each side only.
There is a possibility to rent bikes at the station.

Economy


In the local economic field essential elements are:
  • education; (a.o. TU Delft Delft University of Technology
    Delft University of Technology
    Delft University of Technology , also known as TU Delft, is the largest and oldest Dutch public technical university, located in Delft, Netherlands...

    ) (As of 2007 14.299 students, 2.712 scientists and 1.859 researchers),
  • scientific research; (a.o. "TNO" ( Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research
    Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research
    Nederlandse Organisatie voor Toegepast Natuurwetenschappelijk Onderzoek or TNO is a not-for-profit organization in the Netherlands that focuses on applied science. The main office of TNO is located in Delft...

    ), Stichting GeoDelft, Nederlands Normalisatie-Instituut
  • tourism; (about one million registered visitors a year),
  • industry; (DSM Gist Services BV, (Delftware
    Delftware
    Delftware, or Delft pottery, denotes blue and white pottery made in and around Delft in the Netherlands and the tin-glazed pottery made in the Netherlands from the 16th century....

    ) earthenware production by De Koninklijke Porceleyne Fles
    De Koninklijke Porceleyne Fles
    The Koninklijke Porceleyne Fles is the only remaining factory of the 32 earthenware factories that were established in Delft during the 17th century...

    , Exact Software Nederland BV,
  • retail; (Ikea
    IKEA
    IKEA is a privately held, international home products company that designs and sells ready-to-assemble furniture such as beds and desks, appliances and home accessories. The company is the world's largest furniture retailer...

     ( Inter IKEA Systems B.V., owner and worldwide franchisor of the IKEA Concept, is based in Delft), Makro, Eneco Engergy NV).

Notable people


Natives

Delft was the birthplace of these people:
  • Michiel Jansz. van Mierevelt
    Michiel Jansz van Mierevelt
    Michiel Jansz. van Mierevelt, Mierveld or Mireveldt was a Dutch Golden Age painter.-Biography:He was the son of a goldsmith, who apprenticed him to the copperplate engraver Hieronymus Wierix...

     (1567–1641), painter
  • Willem van der Vliet
    Willem van der Vliet
    Willem van der Vliet was a Dutch Golden Age painter.-Biography:Van der Vliet was born and died in Delft. According to Houbraken his paintings are historical allegories and portraits. Records of his paintings are noted by the Delft history writer . He had his nephew Hendrick Cornelisz...

     (ca.1584–1642), painter
  • Hugo Grotius
    Hugo Grotius
    Hugo Grotius , also known as Huig de Groot, Hugo Grocio or Hugo de Groot, was a jurist in the Dutch Republic. With Francisco de Vitoria and Alberico Gentili he laid the foundations for international law, based on natural law...

     (1583–1645), lawyer who laid the foundations for international law
    International law
    Public international law concerns the structure and conduct of sovereign states; analogous entities, such as the Holy See; and intergovernmental organizations. To a lesser degree, international law also may affect multinational corporations and individuals, an impact increasingly evolving beyond...

  • Adriaen van de Venne
    Adriaen van de Venne
    Adriaen Pietersz van de Venne , was a versatile Dutch Golden Age painter of allegories, genre subjects and portraits, as well as a miniaturist, book-illustrator and designer of political satires and a versifier.-Biography:...

     (1589–1662), painter
  • Daniël Mijtens
    Daniël Mijtens
    Daniël Mijtens , known in England as Daniel Mytens the Elder, was a Dutch portrait painter who spent the central years of his career working in England.-Biography:...

     (c.1590–1647/48), painter
  • Leonaert Bramer
    Leonaert Bramer
    Leonaert/Leonard Bramer alias Nestelghat was a Dutch painter, best known for probably being one of the teachers of Johannes Vermeer, although there is no similarity between their work. Bramer's dark and exotic style is unlike Vermeer's style...

     (1596–1674), painter
  • Martin van den Hove
    Martin van den Hove
    Martin van den Hove was a Dutch astronomer and mathematician. His adopted Latin name is a translation of the Dutch hof , in Latin horta.-Early life:...

     (1605–1639), astronomer and mathematician
  • Hendrick Cornelisz. van Vliet
    Hendrick Cornelisz. van Vliet
    Hendrick Cornelisz van Vliet was a Dutch Golden Age painter remembered mostly for his church interiors.-Biography:...

     (1611 or 1612–1675), painter
  • Willem van Aelst
    Willem van Aelst
    Willem van Aelst was a Dutch artist who specialized in still-life painting with flowers or game.-Biography:...

     (1627–1683), painter
  • Antonie van Leeuwenhoek (1632–1723), father of microbiology
    Microbiology
    Microbiology is the study of microorganisms, which are defined as any microscopic organism that comprises either a single cell , cell clusters or no cell at all . This includes eukaryotes, such as fungi and protists, and prokaryotes...

     and developer of the microscope
    Microscope
    A microscope is an instrument used to see objects that are too small for the naked eye. The science of investigating small objects using such an instrument is called microscopy...

  • Johannes Vermeer
    Johannes Vermeer
    Johannes, Jan or Johan Vermeer was a Dutch painter who specialized in exquisite, domestic interior scenes of middle class life. Vermeer was a moderately successful provincial genre painter in his lifetime...

     (1632–1675), painter
  • Stien Kaiser
    Stien Kaiser
    Christina Wilhelmina Baas-Kaiser is a former speed skater from the Netherlands....

    , former speed skater
  • Michaëlla Krajicek
    Michaëlla Krajicek
    Michaëlla Krajicek is a Dutch professional tennis player. Her highest WTA ranking was number 30 on 11 February 2008. She currently is the second best ranked player from the Netherlands behind Arantxa Rus.-Personal life:...

    , professional tennis player
  • Arantxa Rus
    Arantxa Rus
    Arantxa Rus is a Dutch female tennis player. In 2008 she won the Australian Open for juniors, defeating Jessica Moore from Australia. Because of this win she went from 35th to 2nd place on the junior tennis list, but soon she became new junior No.1 player...

    , professional tennis player
  • Atzo Nicolaï
    Atzo Nicolaï
    Atzo Nicolaï is a former Dutch politician of the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy . Since 1 June 2011 he is a member of the board of directors of the Dutch chemical multinational DSM....

     (b. 1960), Minister for European Affairs and corporate director of DSM
    DSM (company)
    DSM is a multinational life sciences and materials sciences-based company. DSM's global end markets include food and dietary supplements, personal care, feed, pharmaceuticals, medical devices, automotive, paints, electrical and electronics, life protection, alternative energy and bio-based materials...

  • Maarten Roes (b.1948), Website content design and publishing expert.


Otherwise related
  • Kader Abdolah
    Kader Abdolah
    Kader Abdolah is a Persian–Dutch writer, poet and columnist. He has written books and many articles in Dutch and is known for using Persian literary items in his Dutch works...

    , writer
  • Ferrie Bodde
    Ferrie Bodde
    Ferrie Bodde is a Dutch footballer who plays for Swansea City.-ADO Den Haag:Bodde started his senior career with Dutch side ADO Den Haag, signing professional forms with them in July 2000 at the age of 18. Bodde spent seven years with the club, playing over 150 games and scoring ten goals...

    , football player
  • Ken Monkou
    Ken Monkou
    Kenneth John "Ken" Monkou is a retired Dutch footballer who played in a defensive role.Born in Suriname but raised in the Netherlands, Monkou's first major side was Feyenoord Rotterdam. He moved to England in May 1989 to sign for newly-promoted to the First Division Chelsea for £100,000...

    , football player
  • Jan Timman
    Jan Timman
    Jan Timman is a Dutch chess Grandmaster who was one of the world's leading players from the late 1970s to the early 1990s. At the peak of his career he was considered to be the best non-Soviet player and was known as "The Best of the West"...

    , chess grandmaster, was raised in Delft
  • Martinus Beijerinck
    Martinus Beijerinck
    Martinus Willem Beijerinck was a Dutch microbiologist and botanist. Born in Amsterdam, Beijerinck studied at the Technical School of Delft, where he was awarded the degree of Chemical Engineer in 1872. He obtained his Doctor of Science degree from the University of Leiden in 1877...

     (1851–1931), microbiologist and discoverer of virus
    Virus
    A virus is a small infectious agent that can replicate only inside the living cells of organisms. Viruses infect all types of organisms, from animals and plants to bacteria and archaea...

    es, lived and worked in Delft

Twin towns — Sister cities


Delft is twinned
Town twinning
Twin towns and sister cities are two of many terms used to describe the cooperative agreements between towns, cities, and even counties in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.- Terminology :...

 with:
Castrop-Rauxel
Castrop-Rauxel
-Geography:Castrop-Rauxel is between Dortmund to the east, Bochum , Herne , and to the north, Recklinghausen, Datteln and Waltrop.- Urban Area :The urban area of Castrop-Rauxel has an total expanse of...

, Germany Estelí
Estelí
Estelí, officially Villa de San Antonio de Pavia de Estelí is a city and municipality within the Estelí department. It is the third largest city in Nicaragua, an active commercial center in the north and is known as "the Diamond of the Segovias."...

, Nicaragua Pretoria
Pretoria
Pretoria is a city located in the northern part of Gauteng Province, South Africa. It is one of the country's three capital cities, serving as the executive and de facto national capital; the others are Cape Town, the legislative capital, and Bloemfontein, the judicial capital.Pretoria is...

, South Africa
Aarau
Aarau
Aarau is the capital of the northern Swiss canton of Aargau. The city is also the capital of the district of Aarau. It is German-speaking and predominantly Protestant. Aarau is situated on the Swiss plateau, in the valley of the Aar, on the river's right bank, and at the southern foot of the Jura...

, Switzerland Adapazarı
Adapazari
Adapazarı is a city in northwestern Turkey and the capital of Sakarya Province. The province itself was originally named Adapazarı as well. Adapazarı is a part of the densely populated region of the country, known as the Marmara Region. As of 2010, the city has a population of 560,876 ...

, Turkey Freiberg
Freiberg, Saxony
Freiberg is a city in the Free State of Saxony, Germany, administrative center of the Mittelsachsen district.-History:The city was founded in 1186, and has been a center of the mining industry in the Ore Mountains for centuries...

, Germany
Kfar Saba
Kfar Saba
Kfar Saba , officially Kfar Sava, is a city in the Sharon region, of the Center District of Israel. At the end of 2009, Kfar Saba had a total population of 83,600.-History:...

, Israel (since 1968) Tuzla
Tuzla
Tuzla is a city and municipality in Bosnia and Herzegovina. At the time of the 1991 census, it had 83,770 inhabitants, while the municipality 131,318. Taking the influx of refugees into account, the city is currently estimated to have 174,558 inhabitants...

, Bosnia and Herzegovina Kingston upon Thames
Kingston upon Thames
Kingston upon Thames is the principal settlement of the Royal Borough of Kingston upon Thames in southwest London. It was the ancient market town where Saxon kings were crowned and is now a suburb situated south west of Charing Cross. It is one of the major metropolitan centres identified in the...

, United Kingdom

External links



Further reading

  • Vermeer: A View of Delft, Anthony Bailey, Henry Holt & Company, 2001, ISBN 0-8050-6718-3