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Deerfield, New Hampshire

Deerfield, New Hampshire

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Encyclopedia
Deerfield is a town in Rockingham County
Rockingham County, New Hampshire
-Demographics:As of the census of 2000, there were 277,359 people, 104,529 households, and 74,320 families residing in the county. The population density was 399 people per square mile . There were 113,023 housing units at an average density of 163 per square mile...

, New Hampshire
New Hampshire
New Hampshire is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America. The state was named after the southern English county of Hampshire. It is bordered by Massachusetts to the south, Vermont to the west, Maine and the Atlantic Ocean to the east, and the Canadian...

, United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

. The population was 4,280 at the 2010 census. Deerfield is home to the annual Deerfield Fair.

History


Deerfield was originally part of Nottingham
Nottingham, New Hampshire
Nottingham is a town in Rockingham County, New Hampshire, United States. The population was 4,785 at the 2010 census. It is the location of Pawtuckaway State Park.-History:...

. In 1756, residents petitioned for organization of a separate parish, but were denied. In 1765, while a second petition was pending, two local hunters presented Colonial
Colony
In politics and history, a colony is a territory under the immediate political control of a state. For colonies in antiquity, city-states would often found their own colonies. Some colonies were historically countries, while others were territories without definite statehood from their inception....

 Governor Benning Wentworth
Benning Wentworth
Benning Wentworth was the colonial governor of New Hampshire from 1741 to 1766.-Biography:The eldest child of the John Wentworth who had been Lieutenant Governor, he was born and died in Portsmouth, New Hampshire. Wentworth graduated from Harvard College in 1715...

 with a deer
Deer
Deer are the ruminant mammals forming the family Cervidae. Species in the Cervidae family include white-tailed deer, elk, moose, red deer, reindeer, fallow deer, roe deer and chital. Male deer of all species and female reindeer grow and shed new antlers each year...

. Permission was granted, and "Deerfield" was incorporated in 1766. The incorporation act for Deerfield was signed by three members of the Leavitt family, including Capt. Samuel who later served as one of the town's first selectmen. Leavitts Hill in Deerfield was named for the family, who first settled in nearby Exeter
Exeter, New Hampshire
Exeter is a town in Rockingham County, New Hampshire, United States. The town's population was 14,306 at the 2010 census. Exeter was the county seat until 1997, when county offices were moved to neighboring Brentwood...

.

"Deerfield Parade", a hilltop district first settled about 1740, was located on the early postal route between Concord
Concord, New Hampshire
The city of Concord is the capital of the state of New Hampshire in the United States. It is also the county seat of Merrimack County. As of the 2010 census, its population was 42,695....

 and Portsmouth
Portsmouth, New Hampshire
Portsmouth is a city in Rockingham County, New Hampshire in the United States. It is the largest city but only the fourth-largest community in the county, with a population of 21,233 at the 2010 census...

. Here, the militia
Militia
The term militia is commonly used today to refer to a military force composed of ordinary citizens to provide defense, emergency law enforcement, or paramilitary service, in times of emergency without being paid a regular salary or committed to a fixed term of service. It is a polyseme with...

 of the Revolutionary
American Revolutionary War
The American Revolutionary War , the American War of Independence, or simply the Revolutionary War, began as a war between the Kingdom of Great Britain and thirteen British colonies in North America, and ended in a global war between several European great powers.The war was the result of the...

 and Civil
American Civil War
The American Civil War was a civil war fought in the United States of America. In response to the election of Abraham Lincoln as President of the United States, 11 southern slave states declared their secession from the United States and formed the Confederate States of America ; the other 25...

 wars trained and "paraded" on the village common
Common land
Common land is land owned collectively or by one person, but over which other people have certain traditional rights, such as to allow their livestock to graze upon it, to collect firewood, or to cut turf for fuel...

. The "Parade" was then a professional, cultural and trade center. About 1798, citizens founded Deerfield Academy, a high school. Unfortunately, it burned in 1842.

Once a thriving farm community which was disappointed when bypassed by railroads, the town in 1876 established the Deerfield Fair. Now billed as "New England's Oldest Family Fair", the four-day event draws huge crowds each autumn to admire animals, produce and crafts, or enjoy amusement park
Amusement park
thumb|Cinderella Castle in [[Magic Kingdom]], [[Disney World]]Amusement and theme parks are terms for a group of entertainment attractions and rides and other events in a location for the enjoyment of large numbers of people...

 rides.

Notable inhabitants

  • Benjamin Franklin Butler
    Benjamin Franklin Butler (politician)
    Benjamin Franklin Butler was an American lawyer and politician who represented Massachusetts in the United States House of Representatives and later served as the 33rd Governor of Massachusetts....

    , Civil War
    American Civil War
    The American Civil War was a civil war fought in the United States of America. In response to the election of Abraham Lincoln as President of the United States, 11 southern slave states declared their secession from the United States and formed the Confederate States of America ; the other 25...

     general and governor of Massachusetts
  • Josiah Butler
    Josiah Butler
    Josiah Butler was a United States Representative from New Hampshire. He was born in Pelham, New Hampshire. He attended the Londonderry and Atkinson academies and was instructed by private tutors. Later, he graduated from Harvard University in 1803. Upon graduation, he taught school in Virginia...

    , United States Representative from New Hampshire
  • Erica Campbell
    Erica Campbell
    Erica Rose Campbell is an American former glamour model.-Career:Campbell was the Playboy Special Editions Model of the Year for 2005...

    , former glamour model
  • Lorenzo D. Harvey
    Lorenzo D. Harvey
    -Biography:Harvey was born Lorenzo Dow Harvey in Deerfield, New Hampshire in 1848. He moved with his parents to Wisconsin in 1850, settling in Fulton, Wisconsin. Harvey would graduate from Milton College and become principal of high schools in Mazomanie, Wisconsin and Sheboygan, Wisconsin. In 1880,...

    , Wisconsin Superintendent of Public Instruction
  • Benning Wentworth Jenness, senator
    United States Senate
    The United States Senate is the upper house of the bicameral legislature of the United States, and together with the United States House of Representatives comprises the United States Congress. The composition and powers of the Senate are established in Article One of the U.S. Constitution. Each...

     from New Hampshire
    New Hampshire
    New Hampshire is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America. The state was named after the southern English county of Hampshire. It is bordered by Massachusetts to the south, Vermont to the west, Maine and the Atlantic Ocean to the east, and the Canadian...

  • Jon Schillaci
    Jon Schillaci
    Jon Savarino Schillaci is an American sex offender and a former fugitive who was added to the FBI's Top Ten Most Wanted Fugitives list on September 7, 2007. Schillaci is the 488th fugitive to be placed on the list. He was captured on June 5, 2008 in San José de Gracia, Michoacán, Mexico after...

    , a former FBI Ten Most Wanted Fugitive
    FBI Ten Most Wanted Fugitives
    The FBI Ten Most Wanted Fugitives list arose from a conversation held in late 1949 between J. Edgar Hoover, Director of the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation, and William Kinsey Hutchinson, International News Service Editor-in-Chief, who were discussing ways to promote capture of the...

  • Major John Simpson
    John Simpson (soldier)
    Major John Simpson was an American Revolutionary War soldier from Deerfield, New Hampshire. He is one of several men traditionally described as having fired the first shot on the American side at the Battle of Bunker Hill....

    , Revolutionary War
    American Revolution
    The American Revolution was the political upheaval during the last half of the 18th century in which thirteen colonies in North America joined together to break free from the British Empire, combining to become the United States of America...

     soldier, first to open fire at the Battle of Bunker Hill
    Battle of Bunker Hill
    The Battle of Bunker Hill took place on June 17, 1775, mostly on and around Breed's Hill, during the Siege of Boston early in the American Revolutionary War...

  • Nathaniel Upham
    Nathaniel Upham
    Nathaniel Upham was a United States Representative from New Hampshire. He was born in Deerfield, New Hampshire. He pursued classical studies and attended the Phillips Exeter Academy in Exeter in 1793...

     (1774–1829), United States Representative from New Hampshire

Geography


According to the United States Census Bureau
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is the government agency that is responsible for the United States Census. It also gathers other national demographic and economic data...

, the town has a total area of 52.3 square miles (135.5 km²), of which 50.9 sq mi (131.8 km²) is land and 1.4 sq mi (3.6 km²) is water, comprising 2.58% of the town. The highest point is the summit of Nottingham Mountain, at 1345 feet (410 m) above sea level
Sea level
Mean sea level is a measure of the average height of the ocean's surface ; used as a standard in reckoning land elevation...

, near the town's western border. Portions of the Pawtuckaway Mountains occupy the eastern border of the town. Deerfield is primarily drained by the Lamprey
Lamprey River
The Lamprey River is a 50.2 mile long river in southeastern New Hampshire, the United States. It rises in Meadow Lake in Northwood, and flows south, then generally east past Raymond, Epping, Lee and finally Newmarket...

 and North Branch
North Branch River
The North Branch River is an 8.2 mile long river in southeastern New Hampshire in the United States. It is a tributary of the Lamprey River, part of the Great Bay and Piscataqua River watershed leading to the Atlantic Ocean....

 rivers, within the Piscataqua River
Piscataqua River
The Piscataqua River, in the northeastern United States, is a long tidal estuary formed by the confluence of the Salmon Falls and Cocheco rivers...

 (Coastal) watershed
Drainage basin
A drainage basin is an extent or an area of land where surface water from rain and melting snow or ice converges to a single point, usually the exit of the basin, where the waters join another waterbody, such as a river, lake, reservoir, estuary, wetland, sea, or ocean...

, while the western edge and northernmost section of town is in the Merrimack River
Merrimack River
The Merrimack River is a river in the northeastern United States. It rises at the confluence of the Pemigewasset and Winnipesaukee rivers in Franklin, New Hampshire, flows southward into Massachusetts, and then flows northeast until it empties into the Atlantic Ocean at Newburyport...

 watershed.

Demographics


At the 2000 census
Census
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. It is a regularly occurring and official count of a particular population. The term is used mostly in connection with national population and housing censuses; other common...

, there were 3,678 people, 1,225 households and 986 families residing in the town. The population density
Population density
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is frequently applied to living organisms, and particularly to humans...

 was 72.2 per square mile (27.9/km²). There were 1,406 housing units at an average density of 27.6 per square mile (10.7/km²). The racial makeup of the town was 98.53% White, 0.16% African American, 0.14% Native American, 0.14% Asian, 0.22% from other races
Race (United States Census)
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, as defined by the Federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most closely identify, and indicate whether or not they are...

, and 0.82% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.30% of the population.

There were 1,225 households of which 43.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 71.0% were married couples
Marriage
Marriage is a social union or legal contract between people that creates kinship. It is an institution in which interpersonal relationships, usually intimate and sexual, are acknowledged in a variety of ways, depending on the culture or subculture in which it is found...

 living together, 5.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 19.5% were non-families. 12.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 3.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.98 and the average family size was 3.27.

Age distribution was 30.0% under the age of 18, 5.2% from 18 to 24, 33.0% from 25 to 44, 24.9% from 45 to 64, and 6.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 95.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.1 males.

The median household income
Median household income
The median household income is commonly used to generate data about geographic areas and divides households into two equal segments with the first half of households earning less than the median household income and the other half earning more...

 was $61,367, and the median family income was $64,737. Males had a median income of $40,568 versus $30,682 for females. The per capita income
Per capita income
Per capita income or income per person is a measure of mean income within an economic aggregate, such as a country or city. It is calculated by taking a measure of all sources of income in the aggregate and dividing it by the total population...

 for the town was $24,160. About 1.3% of families and 3.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 1.0% of those under age 18 and 10.4% of those age 65 or over.

Education


There is one public school in Deerfield, the Deerfield Community School, which serves students in grades P-8. Deerfield Community School was opened in 1990 and replaced the George B. White School. The George B. White Building now serves as commercial space and houses, among other things, the town offices and the police department. Deerfield students have attended various local high schools over the years as there is no high school in the town. Starting with the 2006-07 school year, the town has sent students graduating from Deerfield Community School to Concord High School
Concord High School (New Hampshire)
Concord High School is a high school in Concord, New Hampshire in the United States.- History :Concord's first public high school was established in 1846. The original building was the building on the corner of State and School Streets. A new school house was built in 1862, which stood until April...

. Prior to that time, a popular option was to attend Coe-Brown Northwood Academy. Attendance at this school required some tuition fees, and there was no public transportation to its campus.

External links