Dean of the College of Cardinals

Dean of the College of Cardinals

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The Dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals (Latin: Decanus Sacri Collegii) is the president
President
A president is a leader of an organization, company, trade union, university, or country.Etymologically, a president is one who presides, who sits in leadership...

 of the College of Cardinals
College of Cardinals
The College of Cardinals is the body of all cardinals of the Catholic Church.A function of the college is to advise the pope about church matters when he summons them to an ordinary consistory. It also convenes on the death or abdication of a pope as a papal conclave to elect a successor...

 in the Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the world's largest Christian church, with over a billion members. Led by the Pope, it defines its mission as spreading the gospel of Jesus Christ, administering the sacraments and exercising charity...

, and as such always holds the rank of Cardinal Bishop
Cardinal (Catholicism)
A cardinal is a senior ecclesiastical official, usually an ordained bishop, and ecclesiastical prince of the Catholic Church. They are collectively known as the College of Cardinals, which as a body elects a new pope. The duties of the cardinals include attending the meetings of the College and...

. The Dean is not necessarily the longest-serving member of the whole College (such a member might never become a Cardinal Bishop). For example, the longest-serving cardinal at present is Eugênio de Araújo Sales
Eugênio de Araújo Sales
Eugênio de Araújo Sales is, as of 2011, the longest-serving cardinal in the Roman Catholic Church, having been elevated by Pope Paul VI on April 28, 1969. He served as archbishop of São Sebastião do Rio de Janeiro for thirty years until his resignation was accepted in 2001, when he had already...

, who is a Cardinal Priest
Cardinal (Catholicism)
A cardinal is a senior ecclesiastical official, usually an ordained bishop, and ecclesiastical prince of the Catholic Church. They are collectively known as the College of Cardinals, which as a body elects a new pope. The duties of the cardinals include attending the meetings of the College and...

. It was customary for centuries for the longest-serving of the six Cardinal Bishops of suburbicarian sees
Suburbicarian diocese
The seven suburbicarian dioceses are Roman Catholic dioceses located in the vicinity of Rome, whose bishops form the highest-ranking order of Cardinals, the Cardinal Bishops....

 to be Dean, and this was in fact required by canon law
Canon law (Catholic Church)
The canon law of the Catholic Church, is a fully developed legal system, with all the necessary elements: courts, lawyers, judges, a fully articulated legal code and principles of legal interpretation. It lacks the necessary binding force present in most modern day legal systems. The academic...

 from 1917 until 1965, when Pope Paul VI
Pope Paul VI
Paul VI , born Giovanni Battista Enrico Antonio Maria Montini , reigned as Pope of the Catholic Church from 21 June 1963 until his death on 6 August 1978. Succeeding Pope John XXIII, who had convened the Second Vatican Council, he decided to continue it...

 empowered the six to elect the Dean from among their number. This election, a formality until the time of Pope John Paul II
Pope John Paul II
Blessed Pope John Paul II , born Karol Józef Wojtyła , reigned as Pope of the Catholic Church and Sovereign of Vatican City from 16 October 1978 until his death on 2 April 2005, at of age. His was the second-longest documented pontificate, which lasted ; only Pope Pius IX ...

, must be confirmed by the pope
Pope
The Pope is the Bishop of Rome, a position that makes him the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church . In the Catholic Church, the Pope is regarded as the successor of Saint Peter, the Apostle...

. While the Dean (or in his absence or inability, the Subdean) presides over the College of Cardinals, he has no power of governance over the other cardinals. Instead he functions as primus inter pares
Primus inter pares
Primus inter pares is Latin phrase describing the most senior person of a group sharing the same rank or office.When not used in reference to a specific title, it may indicate that the person so described is formally equal, but looked upon as an authority of special importance by their peers...

in the college. There is no mandatory age of retirement for the position.

It is the Dean's responsibility to summon the conclave
Papal conclave
A papal conclave is a meeting of the College of Cardinals convened to elect a Bishop of Rome, who then becomes the Pope during a period of vacancy in the papal office. The Pope is considered by Roman Catholics to be the apostolic successor of Saint Peter and earthly head of the Roman Catholic Church...

 to elect a new pope
Pope
The Pope is the Bishop of Rome, a position that makes him the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church . In the Catholic Church, the Pope is regarded as the successor of Saint Peter, the Apostle...

 when the previous one dies or resigns
Papal abdication
Papal resignation is envisaged as a possibility in canon 332 §2 of the Code of Canon Law and canon 44 §2 of the Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches...

, and to preside over the conclave unless he is too old to vote in it. Additionally, the dean has the responsibility of communicating the "news of the Pope's death to the Diplomatic Corps accredited to the Holy See and to the Heads of the respective Nations" and is the public face of the Holy See in the sede vacante
Sede vacante
Sede vacante is an expression, used in the Canon Law of the Catholic Church, that refers to the vacancy of the episcopal see of a particular church...

 period. It is the Dean who asks the Pope-elect if he accepts the election, and then asks the new Pope what name he wishes to use. According to Canon 355 (from the Latin Code of Canon Law
Canon law (Catholic Church)
The canon law of the Catholic Church, is a fully developed legal system, with all the necessary elements: courts, lawyers, judges, a fully articulated legal code and principles of legal interpretation. It lacks the necessary binding force present in most modern day legal systems. The academic...

 1983), if the newly elected Supreme Pontiff
Pope
The Pope is the Bishop of Rome, a position that makes him the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church . In the Catholic Church, the Pope is regarded as the successor of Saint Peter, the Apostle...

 is not already a bishop
Bishop (Catholic Church)
In the Catholic Church, a bishop is an ordained minister who holds the fullness of the sacrament of Holy Orders and is responsible for teaching the Catholic faith and ruling the Church....

, it is the right of the Dean to ordain
Holy Orders
The term Holy Orders is used by many Christian churches to refer to ordination or to those individuals ordained for a special role or ministry....

 him as such. If the Dean is unable, then the right falls to the Sub-Dean, and then to the senior Cardinal Bishop. (For example, Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger was the Dean when he himself was elected Pope in 2005; thus the questions about acceptance and name came from the Sub-Dean, Cardinal Angelo Sodano.)

According to section 4 of Canon 350, the Cardinal Dean has "the title of the diocese of Ostia
Bishop of Ostia
The Bishop of Ostia is the head of the Suburbicarian Diocese of Ostia, one of the seven suburbicarian sees of Rome. The position is now attached to the post of Dean of the College of Cardinals, as it has been since 1150, with the actual governance of the diocese entrusted to the Vicar General of...

, together with that of any other church to which he already has a title." The Cardinal Dean, then, continues to hold the title of his suburbicarian diocese
Suburbicarian diocese
The seven suburbicarian dioceses are Roman Catholic dioceses located in the vicinity of Rome, whose bishops form the highest-ranking order of Cardinals, the Cardinal Bishops....

 as well as being titular bishop
Titular bishop
A titular bishop in various churches is a bishop who is not in charge of a diocese.By definition a bishop is an "overseer" of a community of the faithful, so when a priest is ordained a bishop the tradition of the Roman Catholic and Orthodox churches is that he be ordained for a specific place...

 of Ostia. This has been the case since 1914, by decree of Pope Pius X
Pope Pius X
Pope Saint Pius X , born Giuseppe Melchiorre Sarto, was the 257th Pope of the Catholic Church, serving from 1903 to 1914. He was the first pope since Pope Pius V to be canonized. Pius X rejected modernist interpretations of Catholic doctrine, promoting traditional devotional practices and orthodox...

—previous deans had given up their prior suburbicarian see for the joint title of Ostia and Velletri. (The same 1914 decree separated the sees of Ostia and Velletri.)

Deans of the Sacred College of Cardinals


Each name is followed by years of birth and death, then comma-separated years of cardinalate and deanship. Two recent deans have chosen to retire before dying, while eight were elected Pope, Anastasius IV
Pope Anastasius IV
Pope Anastasius IV , born Corrado Demetri della Suburra, was Pope from 1153 to 1154.-Early life:He was a Roman, son of Benedictus de Suburra, probably of the family of Demetri, and became a secular clerk. He was created cardinal-priest of S. Pudenziana by Pope Paschal II no later than in 1114...

, Lucius III
Pope Lucius III
Pope Lucius III , born Ubaldo, was pope from 1 September 1181 to his death.A native of the independent republic of Lucca, he was born ca. 1100 as Ubaldo, son of Orlando. He is commonly referred to as a member of the aristocratic family of Allucingoli, but this is not proven...

, Gregory IX
Pope Gregory IX
Pope Gregory IX, born Ugolino di Conti, was pope from March 19, 1227 to August 22, 1241.The successor of Pope Honorius III , he fully inherited the traditions of Pope Gregory VII and of his uncle Pope Innocent III , and zealously continued their policy of Papal supremacy.-Early life:Ugolino was...

, Alexander IV
Pope Alexander IV
Pope Alexander IV was Pope from 1254 until his death.Born as Rinaldo di Jenne, in Jenne , he was, on his mother's side, a member of the de' Conti di Segni family, the counts of Segni, like Pope Innocent III and Pope Gregory IX...

 Alexander VI
Pope Alexander VI
Pope Alexander VI , born Roderic Llançol i Borja was Pope from 1492 until his death on 18 August 1503. He is one of the most controversial of the Renaissance popes, and his Italianized surname—Borgia—became a byword for the debased standards of the Papacy of that era, most notoriously the Banquet...

, Paul III
Pope Paul III
Pope Paul III , born Alessandro Farnese, was Pope of the Roman Catholic Church from 1534 to his death in 1549. He came to the papal throne in an era following the sack of Rome in 1527 and rife with uncertainties in the Catholic Church following the Protestant Reformation...

, Paul IV
Pope Paul IV
Pope Paul IV, C.R. , né Giovanni Pietro Carafa, was Pope from 23 May 1555 until his death.-Early life:Giovanni Pietro Carafa was born in Capriglia Irpina, near Avellino, into a prominent noble family of Naples...

 and most recently Benedict XVI
Pope Benedict XVI
Benedict XVI is the 265th and current Pope, by virtue of his office of Bishop of Rome, the Sovereign of the Vatican City State and the leader of the Catholic Church as well as the other 22 sui iuris Eastern Catholic Churches in full communion with the Holy See...

 (Joseph Ratzinger, elected Pope
Pope
The Pope is the Bishop of Rome, a position that makes him the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church . In the Catholic Church, the Pope is regarded as the successor of Saint Peter, the Apostle...

 in 2005, the first Dean to be so elevated since Pope Paul IV
Pope Paul IV
Pope Paul IV, C.R. , né Giovanni Pietro Carafa, was Pope from 23 May 1555 until his death.-Early life:Giovanni Pietro Carafa was born in Capriglia Irpina, near Avellino, into a prominent noble family of Naples...

 in 1555).

Before the Great Western Schism

  • Crescenzio of Sabina (d. 1126) (1100, after 1102)
  • Pietro Senex
    Pietro Senex
    Pietro Senex was Cardinal-Bishop of Porto from 1102 until his death.He was born probably in Rome. He appears for the first time as cardinal in March 1102, when he exercised the legatine duties in Benevento. From 1106 until 1109 he is attested as governor of Benevento...

     (d. 1134) (1102, 1126)
  • Guillaume (d. 1137/39) (1122, 1130)
  • Corrado della Suburra
    Pope Anastasius IV
    Pope Anastasius IV , born Corrado Demetri della Suburra, was Pope from 1153 to 1154.-Early life:He was a Roman, son of Benedictus de Suburra, probably of the family of Demetri, and became a secular clerk. He was created cardinal-priest of S. Pudenziana by Pope Paschal II no later than in 1114...

     (1073-1154) (1114, 1137/39) (Pope Anastasius IV)
  • Icmar of Tusculum
    Icmar of Tusculum
    Icmar was a French cardinal.He entered the Benedictine order of the Congregation of Cluny in the monastery of Saint-Martin des Champes in Paris; for a some time, he was a monk at Cluny. Later, he became abbot of the monastery S. Maria Nuova in the diocese of Poitiers. He was a friend of St...

     (d. 1161) (1142, 1153, deposed 1159)
  • Gregorio de Suburra
    Gregorio de Suburra
    Gregorio della Suburra was an Italian cardinal, created by Pope Innocent II in 1140 as priest of the title of S. Maria in Trastevere. He was nephew of Pope Anastasius IV, who promoted him to suburbicarian see of Sabina in September 1154. After the double papal election in September 1159 he...

     (d. 1163) (1140, 1159)
  • Ubaldo Allucingoli
    Pope Lucius III
    Pope Lucius III , born Ubaldo, was pope from 1 September 1181 to his death.A native of the independent republic of Lucca, he was born ca. 1100 as Ubaldo, son of Orlando. He is commonly referred to as a member of the aristocratic family of Allucingoli, but this is not proven...

     (1097-1185) (1138, 1163, elected Pope Lucius III in 1181)
  • Konrad von Wittelsbach (1120/25-1200) (1165, 1181)
  • Ottaviano di Paoli
    Ottaviano di Paoli
    Ottaviano di Paoli was an Italian Cardinal.He was a papal legate in France in the 1170s, and was created cardinal in 1182, as cardinal-deacon of Ss. Sergio e Bacco...

     (d. 1206) (1182, 1200)
  • Pietro Gallocia
    Pietro Gallocia
    Pietro Gallocia or Galluzzi was an Italian cardinal.He was apostolic subdeacon and governor of Campagna in the pontificate of Pope Alexander III . Pope Clement III created him Cardinal-Deacon in 1188 and named him Cardinal-Bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina in 1190...

     (d. 1211) (1188, 1206)
  • Nicola de Romanis (d. 1219) (1204, 1211)
  • Ugolino Conti di Segni
    Pope Gregory IX
    Pope Gregory IX, born Ugolino di Conti, was pope from March 19, 1227 to August 22, 1241.The successor of Pope Honorius III , he fully inherited the traditions of Pope Gregory VII and of his uncle Pope Innocent III , and zealously continued their policy of Papal supremacy.-Early life:Ugolino was...

     (ca.1160/70-1241) (1198, 1219, elected Pope Gregory IX in 1227)
  • Pelagio Galvani
    Pelagio Galvani
    Pelagio Galvani was a Leonese Cardinal, and canon lawyer. He became a papal legate and leader of the Fifth Crusade....

     (d. 1230) (1206/07, 1227)
  • Jean Halgrin (1180-1237) (1227, 1230)
  • Jacques de Vitry
    Jacques de Vitry
    Jacques de Vitry was a theologian chronicler and cardinal from 1229 – 40.He was born in central France and studied at the University of Paris, becoming a regular canon in 1210 at the church of Saint-Nicolas d'Oignies in the Diocese of Liège, a post he maintained until 1216...

     (1160/70-1240) (1228, 1237)
  • Rinaldo Conti
    Pope Alexander IV
    Pope Alexander IV was Pope from 1254 until his death.Born as Rinaldo di Jenne, in Jenne , he was, on his mother's side, a member of the de' Conti di Segni family, the counts of Segni, like Pope Innocent III and Pope Gregory IX...

     (1185-1261) (1227, 1240, elected Pope Alexander IV in 1254)
  • Odo of Châteauroux
    Odo of Châteauroux
    Odo of Châteauroux was a French theologian and scholastic philosopher, papal legate and Cardinal. He was “an experienced preacher and promoter of crusades”. Over 1000 of his sermons survive....

     (1190-1273) (1244, 1254)
  • John of Toledo
    John of Toledo
    John of Toledo was an English Cistercian abbot and Cardinal.Created cardinal in 1244 by Pope Innocent IV, he became bishop of Porto and Santa Rufina in 1262. He took part in the legendary Papal election of 1268 to 1271 at Viterbo and was Dean of the College of Cardinals in January 1273.He died in...

     (d. 1275) (1244, 1273)
  • Vicedominus de Vicedominis (1210/15-1276) (1273, 1275)
  • Bertrand de Saint-Martin
    Bertrand de Saint-Martin
    Bertrand de Saint-Martin was a French cardinal.He entered the Order of Benedictines and by 1238 was dean of the abbey of Saint-André de Villeneuve at Avignon. In 1248 he was elected bishop of Fréjus. In 1264 he was transferred to the see of Avignon, and in 1266 to the metropolitan see of Arles...

     (d. 1277) (1273, 1276)
  • Ordonho Alvares
    Ordonho Alvares
    Ordonho Alvares was a Spanish Cardinal of the Papal Curia.He was secular abbot of Husillos in 1274 and later becamearchbishop of Braga . As Cardinal he was bishop of Frascati and Dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals....

     (1198-1285) (1278, 1278)
  • Bentivenga de Bentivengi (1230-1289) (1278, 1285)
  • Latino Malabranca Orsini
    Latino Malabranca Orsini
    Latino Malabranca Orsini was an Italian Cardinal-nephew of Pope Nicholas III.He was son of Roman senator Angelo Malabranca and Mabilia Orsini, sister of Pope Nicholas III. He entered the Order of Preachers in his youth and studied law at University of Paris. He obtained the titles of doctor in law...

     (d. 1294) (1278, 1289)
  • Hugh Aycelin
    Hugh Aycelin
    Hugh Aycelin was a French Cardinal.-Life:He entered the Order of Dominicans in his youth and became Master of Sacred Palace ca. 1286. Pope Nicholas IV created him Cardinal-Priest of S. Sabina in the consistory of 16 May 1288...

     (1230-1297) (1288, 1294)
  • Gerardo Bianchi
    Gerardo Bianchi
    Gerardo Bianchi – was an Italian churchman.He studied law at the University of Bologna and became canon of the cathedral chapter of Parma. Pope Nicholas III in the consistory of March 12, 1278 named him Cardinal Priest of SS. XII Apostoli...

     (1220/25-1302) (1278, 1297)
  • Giovanni Boccamazza
    Giovanni Boccamazza
    Giovanni Boccamazza was an Italian Cardinal. He was from the Roman nobility, related to the Savelli family and was a nephew of Pope Honorius IV....

     (d. 1309) (1285, 1302)
  • Leonardo Patrasso
    Leonardo Patrasso
    Leonardo Patrasso was an Italian Franciscan and Cardinal.He was a canon at Alatri, and from 1290 its bishop. He was bishop of Aversa from 1297 to 1299. His nephew, Pope Boniface VIII, made him a cardinal in 1300. Dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, August 1309 until his death.-Notes:...

     (1230-1311) (1300, 1309)
  • Giovanni Minio de Murovalle (1250-1312) (1302, 1311)
  • Nicolò Albertini
    Nicolo Albertini
    Nicolò Albertini was an Italian Dominican, statesman, and Cardinal.-Life:He was born at Prato in Italy. His early education was directed by his parents, both of whom belonged to illustrious families of Tuscany...

     (1250-1321) (1303, 1312)
  • Berenger Fredoli
    Berenger Fredoli
    Bérenger Fredoli was a French canon lawyer and Cardinal-Bishop of Frascati.-Celestine V:...

     (1250-1323) (1305, 1321)
  • Berenguer Fredol
    Berenguer Fredol
    Berenguer Fredol – nephew of Berenger Fredoli, was Bishop of Béziers in 1309, Cardinal-Priest of SS. Nereo e Achilleo in 1312 and Cardinal-Bishop of Porto in 1317. He succeeded his uncle in the post of the dean of the Sacred College in June 1323 and died in Avignon in November of that same year....

     (d. 1323) (1312, 1323)
  • Guillaume Godin (1260-1336) (1312, 1323)
  • Pierre Desprès
    Pierre Desprès
    Pierre Desprès was a French Cardinal during the period of Avignon Papacy. He was son of Raymond II Desprès, seigneur of Montpezat....

     (1288-1361) (1320, 1336)
  • Élie de Talleyrand-Périgord (1301-1364) (1331, 1361)
  • Guy de Boulogne (1313-1373) (1342, 1364)
  • Ange de Grimoard
    Ange de Grimoard
    Angelic de Grimoard was a French Cardinal, and the younger brother of Pope Urban V.He joined the Order of Canon Regulars of Saint Augustine at Saint-Ruf. In 1358 he became prior of St.-Pierre-de-Dieu. In 1362 his older brother Guillaume was elected Pope Urban V and named him bishop of Avignon in...

     (1315/20-1388) (1366, 1373, deposed by Urban VI in 1378, retained the post in the obedience of Avignon until 1388)

Great Western Schism


The obedience of Rome (1378-1415)
  • Tommaso da Frignano (1305-1381) (1378, 1378)
  • Francesco Moricotti Prignano (d. 1394)(1378, 1381)
  • Philippe d'Alençon (1338-1397) (1378, 1394)
  • Pietro Pileo di Prata
    Pietro Pileo di Prata
    Pietro Pileo di Prata was an Italian bishop and Cardinal. He was a significant diplomat and go-between in the affairs of his times, and was nicknamed the ‘cardinal with three hats’, because of the vicissitudes of his cardinalate under three popes.He was bishop of Treviso in 1352, then bishop of ...

     (1330-1400) (1378, 1397)
  • Angelo Acciaioli
    Angelo Acciaioli
    Angelo Acciaioli II or Angelo Acciaioli junior was an Italian Catholic cardinal.- Biography :Born in Florence, Angelo was elected bishop of Rapallo in 1375, but in 1383 he was transferred to the see of Florence where he had been preceded by a previous family member many years before, Angelo...

     (1349-1408) (1384, 1405)
  • Enrico Minutoli
    Enrico Minutoli
    Enrico Minutoli was an Italian Cardinal.He was bishop of Bitonto from 1382 to 1389 and then archbishop of Naples. He was also archpriest of the Liberian Basilica and Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church ). He is buried in the Cappella Minutolo, Naples, with other members of the Minutolo family...

     (d. 1412) (1389, 1408 until 1409)
  • Antonio Correr
    Antonio Correr
    Antonio Correr was Italian Cardinal-nephew of Gregory XII, Pope of the Roman Obedience in the period of the Great Western Schism. He was also cousin of Pope Eugene IV. His last name is listed also as Corrario and Corraro....

     (1369-1445) (1408, 1409 until 1415)


The obedience of Avignon (1378-1429)
  • Ange de Grimoard (until 1388)
  • Pietro Corsini (1335-1405) (1370, 1388)
  • Gui de Malsec (d. 1412) (1375, 1405, deposed 1409, retained the post in the obedience of Pisa)
  • Jean Flandrin (after 1301-1415) (1390, 1405)
  • Julián Lobera y Valtierra (d. 1435) (1423, 1423 until 1429)


The obedience of Pisa (1409-1415)
  • Gui de Malsec (until 1412)
  • Jean Allarmet de Brogny (1342-1426) (1385, 1412 until 1415)


After the Council of Constance

  • Angelo Correr
    Pope Gregory XII
    Pope Gregory XII , born Angelo Correr or Corraro, Pope from 1406 to 1415, succeeded Pope Innocent VII on 30 November 1406....

     (ca.1330-1417) (1415, 1415)
  • Jean Allarmet de Brogny (1342-1426) (1385, 1417)
  • Baldassare Cossa
    Antipope John XXIII
    Baldassarre Cossa was Pope John XXIII during the Western Schism. The Catholic Church regards him as an antipope.-Biography:...

     (ca.1360/70-1419) (1419, 1419)
  • Jean Allarmet de Brogny (again) (1342-1426) (1385, 1419)
  • Angelo d'Anna de Sommariva (d. 1428) (1384, 1426)
  • Giordano Orsini (1360/70-1438) (1405, 1428)
  • Antonio Correr (1369-1445) (1408, 1438)
  • Giovanni Berardi
    Giovanni Berardi
    Giovanni Berardi , Italian Cardinal, of the counts of Tagliacozzo, was elected Archbishop of Taranto in 1421, and occupied the see until December 1439, when Pope Eugenius IV raised him to the cardinalate...

     (1380-1449) (1439, 1445)
  • Amadeo de Savoy
    Antipope Felix V
    -External links:*...

     (1383-1451) (1449, 1449)
  • Francesco Condulmer
    Francesco Condulmer
    Francesco Condulmer was a cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church.He was made cardinal on 19 September 1431 by his uncle, Pope Eugenius IV, and accumulated many offices and dignities. He was Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church , administrator of Narbonne and Amiens...

     (1390-1453) (1431, 1451)
  • Giorgio Fieschi
    Giorgio Fieschi
    Giorgio Fieschi was an Italian cardinal, of the counts of Lavagna.He was elected bishop of Mariana, in Corsica, on May 27, 1433...

     (ca.1395-1461) (1439, 1453)
  • Isidore of Kiev (1380/90-1463) (1439, 1461)
  • Bessarion (1403-1472) (1439, 1463)
  • Guillaume d'Estouteville (1403-1483) (1439, 1472)
  • Rodrigo Borgia
    Pope Alexander VI
    Pope Alexander VI , born Roderic Llançol i Borja was Pope from 1492 until his death on 18 August 1503. He is one of the most controversial of the Renaissance popes, and his Italianized surname—Borgia—became a byword for the debased standards of the Papacy of that era, most notoriously the Banquet...

     (1431-1503) (1456, 1483, elected Pope Alexander VI in 1492)
  • Oliviero Carafa
    Oliviero Carafa
    Oliviero Carafa was an Italian cardinal and diplomat of the Renaissance. Like the majority of his era's prelates, he displayed the lavish and conspicuous standard of living that was expected of a prince of the Church...

     (1430-1511) (1467, 1492)
  • Raffaele Riario
    Raffaele Riario
    Raffaele Sansoni Galeoti Riario was an Italian Cardinal of the Renaissance, mainly known as the constructor of the Palazzo della Cancelleria and the one who invited Michelangelo to Rome. He was a patron of the arts...

     (1461-1521) (1477, 1511)
  • Bernardino Lopez de Carvajal
    Bernardino López de Carvajal
    Bernardino López de Carvajal was a Spanish Cardinal.He was a nephew of Cardinal Juan Carvajal, and advanced rapidly in the ecclesiastical career at Rome, whither he came during the pontificate of Pope Sixtus IV...

     (1456-1523) (1493, 1521)
  • Francesco Soderini
    Francesco Soderini
    Francesco di Tommaso Soderini was a major diplomatic and Church figure of Renaissance Italy, and brother of Piero Soderini. He was an adversary of the Medici family....

     (1453-1524) (1503, 1523)
  • Niccolò Fieschi
    Niccolò Fieschi
    Niccolò Fieschi was an Italian Cardinal, of a prominent family of Genoa which features in Verdi's Simon Boccanegra.He was bishop of Fréjus from 1485, and bishop of Agde from 1488...

     (1456-1524) (1503, 1524)
  • Alessandro Farnese
    Pope Paul III
    Pope Paul III , born Alessandro Farnese, was Pope of the Roman Catholic Church from 1534 to his death in 1549. He came to the papal throne in an era following the sack of Rome in 1527 and rife with uncertainties in the Catholic Church following the Protestant Reformation...

     (1468-1549) (1493, 1524, elected Pope Paul III in 1534)
  • Giovanni Piccolomini
    Giovanni Piccolomini
    Giovanni Piccolomini was an Italian papal legate and Cardinal. He was a nephew of Pope Pius III.He was archbishop of Siena in 1503, bishop of Sitten 1522, bishop of Aquila 1523, bishop of Albano in 1524, bishop of Palestrina in 1531, bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina in 1533, bishop of Ostia in 1535....

     (1475-1537) (1517, 1534)
  • François Guillaume de Castelanu de Clermont-Ludéve (?) (1480-1541) (1503, 1537?)
  • Giovanni Domenico de Cupis
    Giovanni Domenico de Cupis
    Giovanni Domenico de Cupis was an Italian Cardinal, created by Pope Leo X in the consistory of July 1, 1517.He was Crown-cardinal of Scotland. He was a friend of Ignatius Loyola....

     (1493-1553) (1517, 1537 or 1541)
  • Gian Pietro Carafa
    Pope Paul IV
    Pope Paul IV, C.R. , né Giovanni Pietro Carafa, was Pope from 23 May 1555 until his death.-Early life:Giovanni Pietro Carafa was born in Capriglia Irpina, near Avellino, into a prominent noble family of Naples...

     (1476-1559) (1536, 1553, elected Pope Paul IV in 1555)
  • Jean du Bellay
    Jean du Bellay
    Jean du Bellay was a French cardinal and diplomat, younger brother of Guillaume du Bellay, and bishop of Bayonne in 1526, member of the privy council in 1530, and bishop of Paris in 1532.-Biography:...

     (1492-1560) (1535, 1555)
  • François de Tournon
    François de Tournon
    François de Tournon was a French Augustinian diplomat and Cardinal. From 1536 he was also a military leader of French forces operating in Provence, Savoy and Piedmont. In the same year he founded the Collège de Tournon. For a period he was effectively France's foreign minister.-External links:*...

    (1489-1562) (1530, 1560)
  • Rodolfo Pio de Carpi (1500–1564) (1536, 1562)
  • Francesco Pisani
    Francesco Pisani
    Francesco Pisani was an Italian Cardinal, from 1517.He was bishop of Padua in 1524, bishop of Narbonne in 1551, bishop of Albano in 1555, bishop of Frascati in 1557, bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina in 1562,and bishop of Ostia in 1564....

     (1494–1570) (1517, 1564)
  • Giovanni Girolamo Morone (1509–1580) (1542, 1570)
  • Alessandro Farnese, juniore (1520–1589) (1534, 1580)
  • Giovanni Antonio Serbelloni
    Giovanni Antonio Serbelloni
    Giovanni Antonio Serbelloni was an Italian Cardinal, created in 1560, and papal legate. He was a cousin of Pope Pius IV, or nephew or uncle.He was bishop of Foligno in 1557 and bishop of Novara in 1560...

     (1519–1591) (1560, 1589)
  • Alfonso Gesualdo
    Alfonso Gesualdo
    Alfonso Gesualdo was an Italian Cardinal, from 1561. He was from Naples.He was archbishop of Conza in 1564, bishop of Albano in 1583, bishop of Frascati in 1587, bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina in 1589, bishop of Ostia in 1591, archbishop of Naples in 1596.He was a patron of Sant'Andrea della...

     (1540-1603) (1561, 1591)
  • Tolomeo Gallio
    Tolomeo Gallio
    Tolomeo Gallio was an Italian Cardinal.In the time of Pope Gregory XIII, he acted as papal secretary of state , having a key role in the curia....

     (1526–1607) (1565, 1603)
  • Domenico Pinelli (1541–1611) (1585, 1607)
  • Francois de Joyeuse
    François de Joyeuse
    François de Joyeuse was a French churchman and politician.Born at Carcassonne, François de Joyeuse was the second son of Guillaume de Joyeuse and Marie Eléanor de Batarnay. As the younger son of a seigneur in an intensely religious family of bishops and soldiers, he was destined for a career in...

     (1562–1615) (1583, 1611)
  • Antonio Maria Galli (1553–1620) (1586, 1615)
  • Antonio Maria Sauli (1541–1623) (1587, 1620)
  • Francesco Maria Bourbon del Monte (1549–1626) (1588, 1623)
  • Ottavio Bandini (1558–1629) (1596, 1626)
  • Giovanni Battista Deti (1576–1630) (1599, 1629)
  • Domenico Ginnasi (1550–1639) (1604, 1630)
  • Carlo Emmanuele Pio de Savoia, seniore (1585–1641) (1604, 1639)
  • Marcello Lante della Rovere
    Marcello Lante della Rovere
    Marcello Lante della Rovere was an Italian people Catholic Cardinal appointed Dean and Camerlengo of the College of Cardinals.-Family and early life:...

     (1561–1652) (1606, 1641)
  • Giulio Roma
    Giulio Roma
    Giulio Roma was an Italian Catholic Cardinal and Bishop of Recanati and Loreto.Roma was born 16 September 1584, in Milan, one of 16 children born to noble parents and was educated at the University of Pavia and the University of PerugiaAt a young age he became a chamberlain to Cardinal Federico...

     (1584–1652) (1621, 1652) served less than 5 months
  • Carlo de' Medici (1595–1666) (1615, 1652)
  • Francesco Barberini
    Francesco Barberini (seniore)
    Francesco Barberini was an Italian Catholic Cardinal. The nephew of Pope Urban VIII , he benefited immensely from the nepotism practiced by his uncle...

    , seniore (1597–1679) (1623, 1666)
  • Cesare Facchinetti
    Cesare Facchinetti
    Cesare Facchinetti was an Italian Catholic Cardinal.Facchinetti was born 17 September 1608 in Bologna. He was the son of Ludovico Facchinetti and Violante da Correggio...

     (1608–1683) (1643, 1679)
  • Niccolò Albergati-Ludovisi
    Niccolò Albergati-Ludovisi
    thumb|Cardinal Niccolò Albergati-Ludovisi.Niccolò Albergati-Ludovisi was an Italian Catholic Cardinal and Archbishop of Bologna. He was a cousin of Cardinal Ludovico Ludovisi....

     (1608–1687) (1645, 1683)
  • Alderano Cybo
    Alderano Cybo
    thumb|250 px|Cardinal Alderano CyboAlderano Cybo was an Italian Catholic Cardinal.-Biography:Cybo was born 16 July 1613 in Genoa and went to Rome at an early age as prelate to Pope Urban VIII....

     (1613–1700) (1645, 1687)
  • Emmanuel–Theodose de la Tour d'Auvergne de Bouillon (1643–1715) (1669, 1700)
  • Nicola Acciaiouli (1630–1719) (1669, 1715)
  • Fulvio Astalli (1655–1721) (1686, 1719)
  • Sebastiano Antonio Tanara
    Sebastiano Antonio Tanara
    Sebastiano Antonio Tanara was an Italian cardinal.He studied law at the university of Bologna. He was internuncio in Flanders and as, such, he was sent with secret mission to king James II of England, who had converted to Catholicism...

     (1650–1724) (1695, 1721)
  • Francesco del Giudice
    Francesco del Giudice
    Francesco del Giudice was a Roman Catholic cardinal from 1690 to 1725 who also held a variety of other ecclesiastical and governmental offices.-Biography:...

     (1647–1725) (1690, 1724)
  • Fabrizio Paolucci
    Fabrizio Paolucci
    Fabrizio Paolucci was a Italian cardinal in the Roman Catholic Church, appointed by Pope Innocent XII.-Biography:He went to Rome at the age of eight, 1659, to be educated by his grand-uncle, Francesco Paolucci...

     (1651–1726) (1697, 1725)
  • Francesco Pignatelli
    Francesco Pignatelli
    Francesco Pignatelli was an Italian cardinal.He entered the order of Theatines in 1665. On September 27, 1684 he was elected archbishop of Taranto. On February 19, 1703 he was transferred to the metropolitan see of Naples and occupied it until his death. Apostolic nuncio in Poland 1700-03...

     (?) (1652-1734) (1703, 1726?)
  • Francesco Barberini (1662–1738) (1690, 1726 or 1734)
  • Pietro Ottoboni (1667–1740) (1689, 1738)
  • Tommaso Ruffo
    Tommaso Ruffo
    Tommaso Ruffo was an Italian archbishop of Ferrara and Cardinal.-Life:He was born in Naples, son of Carlo Ruffo, 3rd Duke of Bagnara. He was educated at La Sapienza University, becoming a doctor of canon and civil law...

     (1663–1753) (1706, 1740)
  • Pierluigi Carafa
    Pierluigi Carafa
    Pierluigi Carafa, Junior was an Italian cardinal from the famous Neapolitan family of Italian nobles, clergy, and men of arts. He served the papacy as Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals and as Dean of same College...

     (1677–1755) (1728, 1753)
  • Rainiero d'Elci
    Rainiero d'Elci
    Rainiero d'Elci , was an Italian Cardinal.He was born in Florence and was ordained in 1699. He entered papal service in the following year and held several offices both in Roman Curia and in the papal territorial administration. He was Inquisitor of Malta from 1711 until 1716.He was consecrated...

     (1670–1761) (1737, 1755)
  • Giuseppe Spinelli
    Giuseppe Spinelli
    Giuseppe Spinelli was an Italian Cardinal. He was a prefect of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples....

     (1694–1763) (1735, 1761)
  • Carlo Alberto Guidoboni Cavalchini
    Carlo Alberto Guidoboni Cavalchini
    Carlo Alberto Guidoboni Cavalchini was an Italian Cardinal. Considered papabile in the Papal conclave, 1758, he was vetoed by Louis XV of France under the jus exclusivae....

     (1683–1774) (1743, 1763)
  • Gian Francesco Albani
    Gian Francesco Albani
    Gian Francesco Albani was a Roman Catholic Cardinal. He was a member of the Albani family.Albani was born in Rome, the son of Carlo Albani, Duke of Soriano; his grand-uncle was Pope Clement XI...

     (1720–1803) (1747, 1774) longest deanship
  • Henry Benedict Maria Clement Stuart
    Henry Benedict Stuart
    Henry Benedict Stuart was a Roman Catholic Cardinal, as well as the fourth and final Jacobite heir to publicly claim the thrones of England, Scotland, and Ireland. Unlike his father, James Francis Edward Stuart, and brother, Charles Edward Stuart, Henry made no effort to seize the throne...

     (1725–1807) (1747, 1803) longest total cardinalate
  • Leonardo Antonelli
    Leonardo Antonelli
    Leonardo Antonelli was an Italian Cardinal in the Roman Catholic Church.A native of Senigallia, Antonelli was the nephew of Cardinal Nicolò Maria Antonelli...

     (1730–1811) (1775, 1807)
  • Alessandro Mattei
    Alessandro Mattei
    Alessandro Mattei was an Italian Cardinal, and a significant figure in papal diplomacy of the Napoleonic period. He was from the Roman aristocratic House of Mattei.He became Archbishop of Ferrara in 1777, and was created cardinal in 1779....

     (1744–1820) (1779, 1814) vacancy caused by his exile by Napoleon
  • Giulio Maria della Somaglia
    Giulio Maria della Somaglia
    -External links:*...

     (1744–1830) (1795, 1820)
  • Bartolomeo Pacca (1756–1844) (1801, 1830)
  • Lodovico Micara (1775–1847) (1824, 1844)
  • Vincenzo Macchi
    Vincenzo Macchi
    -Career:Born on 31 August 1770 in Capodimonte in the Papal States, he studied in Montefiascone and in Rome and was ordained a priest in 1794. In 1801 he gained his doctorate in utroque iure and was posted to the papal Nunciature in Lisbon, where he was active in the years 1801-1816...

     (1770–1860) (1826, 1847)
  • Mario Mattei
    Mario Mattei
    Mario Mattei was an Italian Cardinal, of the Roman noble House of Mattei. He became Dean of the College of Cardinals.-Personal life:Mattei was born on 6 September 1792 in Pergola....

     (1792–1870) (1832, 1860)
  • Costantino Patrizi Naro
    Costantino Patrizi Naro
    Costantino Patrizi Naro JUD was a long-serving Italian Cardinal who became Dean of the College of Cardinals. Cardinal Benedetto Naro was his great-uncle.-Biography:...

     (1798–1876) (1834, 1870)
  • Luigi Amat di San Filippo e Sorso
    Luigi Amat di San Filippo e Sorso
    Luigi Amat di San Filippo e Sorso was the dean of the College of Cardinals during the last part of the record long reign of Pope Pius IX....

     (1796–1878) (1837, 1876)
  • Camillo di Pietro
    Camillo di Pietro
    Camillo di Pietro J.U.D. was an Italian Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church and both Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals and later Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church.-Biography:Camillo di Pietro was born in Rome...

     (1806–1884) (1853, 1878)
  • Carlo Sacconi
    Carlo Sacconi
    Carlo Sacconi J.U.D. was a Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church and Dean of the College of Cardinals.Carlo Sacconi was born in Montalto...

     (1808–1889) (1861, 1884)
  • Raffaele Monaco La Valletta (1827–1896) (1868, 1889)
  • Luigi Oreglia di Santo Stefano
    Luigi Oreglia di Santo Stefano
    Luigi Oreglia di Santo Stefano was a cardinal of the Catholic Church in the late nineteenth century. He was Bishop of Ostia and Dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals from 1896 until his death.He was educated in Turin and became a priest in 1851...

     (1828–1913) (1873, 1896)
  • Serafino Vannutelli (1834–1915) (1887, 1913)
  • Vincenzo Vannutelli (1836–1930) (1889, 1915)
  • Gennaro Granito Pignatelli di Belmonte (1851–1948) (1911, 1930)
  • Francesco Marchetti-Selvaggiani (1871–1951) (1930, 1948)
  • Eugène-Gabriel-Gervais-Laurent Tisserant
    Eugène-Gabriel-Gervais-Laurent Tisserant
    Eugène Tisserant was a French Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. Elevated to the cardinalate in 1936, Tisserant was a prominent and long-time member of the Roman Curia. He was also, for a time, Grand Master of the Order of the Holy Sepulchre...

     (1884–1972) (1936, 1951)
  • Amleto Giovanni Cicognani (1883–1973) (1958, 1972)
  • Luigi Traglia (1895–1977) (1960, 1974)
  • Carlo Confalonieri (1893–1986) (1958, 1977)
  • Agnelo Rossi (1913–1995) (1965, 1986, retired 1993)
  • Bernardin Gantin (1922-2008) (1977, 1993, retired 2002)
  • Joseph Ratzinger
    Pope Benedict XVI
    Benedict XVI is the 265th and current Pope, by virtue of his office of Bishop of Rome, the Sovereign of the Vatican City State and the leader of the Catholic Church as well as the other 22 sui iuris Eastern Catholic Churches in full communion with the Holy See...

     (born 1927) (1977, 2002) Elected Pope Benedict XVI in 2005
  • Angelo Sodano
    Angelo Sodano
    Angelo Sodano is an Italian Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. He is the current Dean of the College of Cardinals and former Vatican Secretary of State, having held that post from 1990 to 2006, under both popes John Paul II and Benedict XVI...

    (born 1927) (1991, 2005)