Dazaifu, Fukuoka

Dazaifu, Fukuoka

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is a city
Cities of Japan
||A is a local administrative unit in Japan. Cities are ranked on the same level as and , with the difference that they are not a component of...

 located in Fukuoka Prefecture
Fukuoka Prefecture
is a prefecture of Japan located on Kyūshū Island. The capital is the city of Fukuoka.- History :Fukuoka Prefecture includes the former provinces of Chikugo, Chikuzen, and Buzen....

, Japan
Japan
Japan is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south...

. Nearby cities include Ōnojō
Onojo, Fukuoka
is an area located in Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan. Its name is made up of the kanji for 'big', 'field', and 'castle'. It is mostly a southern suburb of the city of Fukuoka, and has a border to the northwest with the Hakata-ku area of the city. It also shares borders with Dazaifu and Kasuga, Umi,...

 and Chikushino
Chikushino, Fukuoka
is a city located in Fukuoka, Japan.Bordering on Dazaifu, Chikushino is essentially a southern suburb of Fukuoka City. As of 2010, the city has an estimated population of 100,397. The total area is 87.78 km². The Tenjin Ōmuta Line runs through Chikushino at Murasaki Station and Asakuragaidō...

. Although mostly urban, it does have arable land
Arable land
In geography and agriculture, arable land is land that can be used for growing crops. It includes all land under temporary crops , temporary meadows for mowing or pasture, land under market and kitchen gardens and land temporarily fallow...

 used for paddy field
Paddy field
A paddy field is a flooded parcel of arable land used for growing rice and other semiaquatic crops. Paddy fields are a typical feature of rice farming in east, south and southeast Asia. Paddies can be built into steep hillsides as terraces and adjacent to depressed or steeply sloped features such...

s and market gardening
Market gardening
A market garden is the relatively small-scale production of fruits, vegetables and flowers as cash crops, frequently sold directly to consumers and restaurants. It is distinguishable from other types of farming by the diversity of crops grown on a small area of land, typically, from under one acre ...

.

As of May 31, 2011, the city has an estimated population
Population
A population is all the organisms that both belong to the same group or species and live in the same geographical area. The area that is used to define a sexual population is such that inter-breeding is possible between any pair within the area and more probable than cross-breeding with individuals...

 of 70,587 with 29,355 households
Household
The household is "the basic residential unit in which economic production, consumption, inheritance, child rearing, and shelter are organized and carried out"; [the household] "may or may not be synonymous with family"....

 and a density
Population density
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is frequently applied to living organisms, and particularly to humans...

 of 2,386.31 persons per km². The total area is 29.58 km².

The city was officially founded on April 1, 1982, although it has been important historically for around a thousand years.

History


Dazaifu was the imperial office governing Kyūshū
Kyushu
is the third largest island of Japan and most southwesterly of its four main islands. Its alternate ancient names include , , and . The historical regional name is referred to Kyushu and its surrounding islands....

, corresponding to Tagajō
Site of Tagajō
was a fort in Tōhoku established during the campaigns against the Emishi in the eighth century. It served as the administrative centre of Mutsu Province. Bashō tells of his visit to the site in Oku no Hosomichi...

 in Tōhoku, was moved from present-day Fukuoka
Fukuoka, Fukuoka
is the capital city of Fukuoka Prefecture and is situated on the northern shore of the island of Kyushu in Japan.Voted number 14 in a 2010 poll of the World's Most Livable Cities, Fukuoka is praised for its green spaces in a metropolitan setting. It is the most populous city in Kyushu, followed by...

 after 663. Dazaifu hosted foreign embassies from China
China
Chinese civilization may refer to:* China for more general discussion of the country.* Chinese culture* Greater China, the transnational community of ethnic Chinese.* History of China* Sinosphere, the area historically affected by Chinese culture...

 and Korea
Korea
Korea ) is an East Asian geographic region that is currently divided into two separate sovereign states — North Korea and South Korea. Located on the Korean Peninsula, Korea is bordered by the People's Republic of China to the northwest, Russia to the northeast, and is separated from Japan to the...

. Kōrokan, a guesthouse for foreign embassies, was also established. From the Nara period
Nara period
The of the history of Japan covers the years from AD 710 to 794. Empress Gemmei established the capital of Heijō-kyō . Except for 5 years , when the capital was briefly moved again, it remained the capital of Japanese civilization until Emperor Kammu established a new capital, Nagaoka-kyō, in 784...

 through the Heian period
Heian period
The is the last division of classical Japanese history, running from 794 to 1185. The period is named after the capital city of Heian-kyō, or modern Kyōto. It is the period in Japanese history when Buddhism, Taoism and other Chinese influences were at their height...

 and until the Kamakura period
Kamakura period
The is a period of Japanese history that marks the governance by the Kamakura Shogunate, officially established in 1192 in Kamakura by the first shogun Minamoto no Yoritomo....

, Dazaifu was one of the military and administrative centers of Japan. In the Heian period, Dazaifu was a place of exile
Exile
Exile means to be away from one's home , while either being explicitly refused permission to return and/or being threatened with imprisonment or death upon return...

 for high-ranking courtiers. Nobles exiled there include Sugawara no Michizane
Sugawara no Michizane
, also known as Kan Shōjō , a grandson of Sugawara no Kiyotomo , was a scholar, poet, and politician of the Heian Period of Japan...

 His grave is at Dazaifu Tenman-gū
Dazaifu Tenman-gu
is a Shinto shrine in Dazaifu, Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan. It is built over the grave of Sugawara no Michizane and is one of the main shrines dedicated to Tenjin, the deified form of Michizane....

.

Dazaifu was sometimes attacked by rebels. At other times the head of Dazaifu himself raised a rebellion.

With the invasions of the Mongols
Mongol invasions of Japan
The ' of 1274 and 1281 were major military efforts undertaken by Kublai Khan to conquer the Japanese islands after the submission of Goryeo to vassaldom. Despite their ultimate failure, the invasion attempts are of macrohistorical importance, because they set a limit on Mongol expansion, and rank...

 and the decline of imperial authority, Dazaifu became less politically significant. In the Muromachi period
Muromachi period
The is a division of Japanese history running from approximately 1336 to 1573. The period marks the governance of the Muromachi or Ashikaga shogunate, which was officially established in 1338 by the first Muromachi shogun, Ashikaga Takauji, two years after the brief Kemmu restoration of imperial...

 the political center of Kyūshū was moved to Hakata
Hakata-ku, Fukuoka
is one of the seven wards of Fukuoka City, Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan. It is best known as the location of Fukuoka's main train station, Hakata Station.-Geography:...

.

In medieval times, Dazaifu was the base of the Shōni clan
Shoni clan
was a family of Japanese nobles descended from the Fujiwara family, many of whom held high government offices in Kyūshū. Prior to the Kamakura period , "Shōni" was originally a title and post within the Kyūshū government, roughly translating to "Junior Counselor", and working under a Daini...

. The Shōni were later expelled by the Ōuchi clan.

In the Edo period
Edo period
The , or , is a division of Japanese history which was ruled by the shoguns of the Tokugawa family, running from 1603 to 1868. The political entity of this period was the Tokugawa shogunate....

, Dazaifu was a part of the Kuroda han
Han (Japan)
The or domain was the name of the estate belonging to a warrior in Japan after the 17th century. The fiefs of the daimyos of the samurai class of Japan during the Edo period were called han.-Edo period:...

until its abolition
Abolition of the han system
The was an act, in 1871, of the new Meiji government of the Empire of Japan to replace the traditional feudal domain system and to introduce centralized government authority . This process marked the culmination of the Meiji Restoration in that all daimyo were required to return their authority...

 in 1873.

Attractions


The Kyushu National Museum
Kyushu National Museum
The opened on October 16, 2005 in Dazaifu near Fukuoka -- the first new national museum in Japan in over 100 years, and the first to elevate the focus on history over art. The distinct modern impression created by the architectural facade is mirrored in the Museum's use of technological...

 opened on October 16, 2005. A wood and glass building in a hilly landscape, it hosts collections of Japanese artifacts related to the history of Kyūshū.

Kōmyōzen-ji
Kōmyōzen-ji
is a Zen temple in Dazaifu, Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan. It was founded by Tetsugyū Enshin of the Tōfuku-ji Rinzai school in 1273. Kōmyōzen-ji is celebrated for its karesansui garden, the only example in Kyushu.-See also:*Dazaifu Tenman-gū*Kanzeon-ji...

 is a Zen
Zen
Zen is a school of Mahāyāna Buddhism founded by the Buddhist monk Bodhidharma. The word Zen is from the Japanese pronunciation of the Chinese word Chán , which in turn is derived from the Sanskrit word dhyāna, which can be approximately translated as "meditation" or "meditative state."Zen...

 temple
Temple
A temple is a structure reserved for religious or spiritual activities, such as prayer and sacrifice, or analogous rites. A templum constituted a sacred precinct as defined by a priest, or augur. It has the same root as the word "template," a plan in preparation of the building that was marked out...

 famous for its stone garden. It was built during the Kamakura period just next to Dazaifu Tenman-gū. All three are within walking distance of Nishitetsu
Nishi-Nippon Railroad
The , also called or NNR, is one of Japan's "Big 16" private railroad companies. With headquarters in Fukuoka, it operates local and highway buses, supermarkets, real-estate and travel agencies, as well as railways in Fukuoka Prefecture. In addition, from 1950 to 1972, the company owned the Lions...

 Dazaifu Station
Dazaifu Station
is a train station located in Dazaifu, Fukuoka.- Platforms :- Adjacent stations :...

. Another temple, Kanzeon-ji
Kanzeon-ji
is a seventh-century Buddhist temple in Dazaifu, Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan. Once the most important temple in Kyushu, its bell is one of the oldest in the country and has been designated a National Treasure. In 1996 the Ministry of the Environment designated its sound as one of the 100 Soundscapes...

, was built in the 8th century. It was once the chief Buddhist temple on Kyūshū and houses a number of historical, artistic, and religious treasures.

The ruins of the medieval Dazaifu Administrative Buildings, also located within walking distance of Dazaifu Station, are today a public park.


There is small museum about Sugawara no Michizane
Sugawara no Michizane
, also known as Kan Shōjō , a grandson of Sugawara no Kiyotomo , was a scholar, poet, and politician of the Heian Period of Japan...

 who died here in exile in Kyushu in 903.

Education


There are several universities in the city:
  • Chikushi Jogakuen University
    Chikushi Jogakuen University
    is a private women's college in Dazaifu, Fukuoka, Japan, established in 1988.-External links:*...

  • Fukuoka International University
    Fukuoka International University
    is a private university in Dazaifu, Fukuoka, Japan, established in 1998.-External links:*...

  • Fukuoka University of Economics
    Fukuoka University of Economics
    is a private university in Dazaifu, Fukuoka, Japan. The school was established in 1968 and adopted the present name in 2007.-External links:*...

  • Fukuoka Social Medical Welfare University
    Fukuoka Social Medical Welfare University
    is a private university in Dazaifu, Fukuoka, Japan. The school was founded in 2002 and adopted the present name in 2008.-External links:*...



Area primary and secondary schools are administered by the Dazaifu Board of Education.
  • Dazaifu Minami Elementary School
  • Dazaifu Higashi Elementary School
  • Dazaifu Nishi Elementary School
  • Dazaifu Elementary School
  • Mizuki Nishi Elementary School
  • Mizuki Elementary School
  • Kokubu Elementary School
  • Gakugyouin Junior High School
  • Dazaifu Higashi Junior High School
  • Dazaifu Nishi Junior High School
  • Dazaifu Junior High School
  • Dazaifu Senior High School


External links