is a french
French is a Romance language spoken as a first language in France, the Romandy region in Switzerland, Wallonia and Brussels in Belgium, Monaco, the regions of Quebec and Acadia in Canada, and by various communities elsewhere. Second-language speakers of French are distributed throughout many parts...
word for both a policy
A policy is typically described as a principle or rule to guide decisions and achieve rational outcome. The term is not normally used to denote what is actually done, this is normally referred to as either procedure or protocol...
concept in French politics from 1968-1990, and a term employed to describe the results of observations of the evolution of spatial economic and institutional organization of France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...
The policy of decentralisation in France was initiated by acts of the french parliament known as Gaston Deferre Laws in 1982. Prior to the new laws french municipalities and departments enjoyed a limited autonomy under laws passed in 1871 and 1884.
Decentralisation in France can be divided into 3 categories:
- Institutional decentralisation
- Territorial decentralisation
- Functional decentralisation
This the process of transferring power to newly created institutions and is different from the act of deconcentration of power, which is the transfer of power within the same institution. The decentralisation and be general in nature and impact all policies or powers related to the territory or targeted to specific areas of public policy and government. A further manifestation of this category is the decentralisation of the Banque de France and other public bodies (Groupement d'intérêt public).
This aspect of decentralisation is geared to giving the territorial collectivities in France separate defined responsibilities and resources and to provide for the election of representatives by the inhabitants of those territories. Again this is defferent from deconcentration, which is when the central government aims to improve efficiency by delegating certain policy and powers to a centrally nominated representative (Prefect).
The decentralisation laws passed on 10th August 1871 and 5 April 1884 saw the attribution of powers to departmental councils and municipal councils. Until the 1982 laws the departmental councils had very limited powers and were effectively under the stewardship of the departments prefect.
The 1982 law passed by the government of Pierre Mauroy introduced three new elements :
- The administrative stewardship of the Prefect was replaced by a legal check and balance excercised by the administrative courts and the regional courts of audit.
- Departmental Executive power transferred from the Prefect to the President of the departmental Council
- Creation of Regions with full powers and recognition as territorial Collectivities
The 1983 Laws (Gaston Deferre Laws) dating from 7 january and 22 july defined the responsibilities of the new bodies and how they would be financed.
These laws followed the first failed attempt at decentralisation (referendum to refornm the senat and regionalisation) in 1969 by General De Gaulle.
In 2002 and 2004 the second stage of Territorial Decentralisation was set in train by Jean-Pierre Raffarin
Jean-Pierre Raffarin is a French conservative politician and senator for Vienne.Jean-Pierre Raffarin served as the Prime Minister of France from 6 May 2002 to 31 May 2005, resigning after France's rejection of the referendum on the European Union draft constitution. However, after Raffarin...
. The 2003 (28 march) change to the Constitution introduced the principle of financial autonomy of territorial Collectivities and saw the introduction of the words Region and Decentralisation in the french Constitution. The changes also introduced the possibility of holding local referenda and the right to petition.
The changes to the Constitution put in place the financial autonomy of the three levels of local government (commune, department and Region) and the transfer to the regions of new responsibilities in 2004 and 2005.
- responsibility of non-teaching staff in schools
- professional training
- regional commuter rail transport
This aspect of decentralisation takes place when central of local government decides not to directly carry out one of its powers but to transfer the power to a public body or quango.
In such a case the body has a clearly defined function and budget to carry out the function. Examples could be Universities or the RATP transport authority in Paris.
Local taxes and duties
In 2006 47% (89 billion euros)
of local spending was covered by taxes and duties set and raised locally. The main direct taxes are :
- Property tax
- Land tax
- Business tax
The main indirect taxes are;
- local amenities tax
- public transport contribution
- tourist tax
- advertising tax
- gambling tax
- ski-lift tax
Government transfers and grants
In 2006 this represented 33% (62 billion Euro) of local spending. The grants cover the increased spending of local authorities due to the transfer of responsibilities from the central to local government due to decentralisation.
The grants and transfers fall into 3 categories:
- grants and subsidies for current spending
- grants and subsidies for infrastructure
- compensation for transfer of responsibilities
The local authorities are free to spend these resources as they decide, however due to ever increasing costs of these grants a Stability Pact was put in place in 1996 and later replaced by a Growth and Solidarity pact in 1999.
Borrowing is the third biggest source of resources for local government in France. In 2006 it represented 9% (17 billion euros) of spending and has been in constant decline since 1997.
Local authorities do not need to seek central government authorisation in order to borrow money but all resources from borrowing can only be spent on investment (not current spending).
The remainder of local Government resources (11%) comme from rents, duties and european structural funds.
Local Government spending
Between 1982 and 2007 total spending by Local Government grew from 56 billion euros to 168 billion euros.
In 2007 66% of total spending by Local Government was to cover current expenses, including;
- Salaries (41 billion euros)
- Debt servicing (4.2 billion euros)
Totaling 68 billion euros in 2007, it includes
- Debt repayment (11.2 billion euros)
- New Infrastructure and property purchases
Décentralisation is a french word for both a policy concept in French politics from 1968-1990, and a term employed to describe the results of observations of the evolution of spatial economic and institutional organization of France....
Devolution is the statutory granting of powers from the central government of a sovereign state to government at a subnational level, such as a regional, local, or state level. Devolution can be mainly financial, e.g. giving areas a budget which was formerly administered by central government...
- Devolution in the United Kingdom
In the United Kingdom, devolution refers to the statutory granting of powers from the Parliament of the United Kingdom to the Scottish Parliament, the National Assembly for Wales and the Northern Ireland Assembly and to their associated executive bodies the Scottish Government, the Welsh Government...