Czech wine

Czech wine

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Wine in the Czech Republic
Czech Republic
The Czech Republic is a landlocked country in Central Europe. The country is bordered by Poland to the northeast, Slovakia to the east, Austria to the south, and Germany to the west and northwest....

 is produced mainly in southern Moravia
South Moravian Region
South Moravian Region is an administrative unit of the Czech Republic, located in the south-western part of its historical region of Moravia, with exception of Jobova Lhota, that belongs to Bohemia. Its capital is Brno the 2nd largest city of the Czech Republic. The region is famous for its wine...

, although a few vineyards are located in Bohemia
Bohemia
Bohemia is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western two-thirds of the traditional Czech Lands. It is located in the contemporary Czech Republic with its capital in Prague...

. However, Moravia
Moravia
Moravia is a historical region in Central Europe in the east of the Czech Republic, and one of the former Czech lands, together with Bohemia and Silesia. It takes its name from the Morava River which rises in the northwest of the region...

 accounts for around 96% of the country's vineyards, which is why Czech wine is more often referred to as Moravian wine . Production centers around local grape
Grape
A grape is a non-climacteric fruit, specifically a berry, that grows on the perennial and deciduous woody vines of the genus Vitis. Grapes can be eaten raw or they can be used for making jam, juice, jelly, vinegar, wine, grape seed extracts, raisins, molasses and grape seed oil. Grapes are also...

 varieties, but there has been an increase in the production of established international strains such as Cabernet Sauvignon
Cabernet Sauvignon
Cabernet Sauvignon is one of the world's most widely recognized red wine grape varieties. It is grown in nearly every major wine producing country among a diverse spectrum of climates from Canada's Okanagan Valley to Lebanon's Beqaa Valley...

.
Czech wines are not well known on the wider international market, although there were 1st big successes that could signal a change. At present, they are popular mainly domestically and in the CEE region
Central and Eastern Europe
Central and Eastern Europe is a term describing former communist states in Europe, after the collapse of the Iron Curtain in 1989/90. In scholarly literature the abbreviations CEE or CEEC are often used for this concept...

.

History


In the 2nd Century CE, the Roman 10th Legion
Legio X Gemina
Legio decima Gemina , was one of the four legions used by Julius Caesar in 58 BC, for his invasion of Gaul. There are still records of the X Gemina in Vienna in the beginning of the 5th century. The legion symbol was a bull...

 based at Vindobona
Vindobona
Vindobona was originally a Celtic settlement, and later a Roman military camp on the site of the modern city of Vienna in Austria. Around 15 BC, the kingdom of Noricum was included in the Roman Empire...

 built an extensive outpost near the Amber Road
Amber Road
The Amber Road was an ancient trade route for the transfer of amber. As one of the waterways and ancient highways, for centuries the road led from Europe to Asia and back, and from northern Africa to the Baltic Sea....

 and the Pálava Hills in Mikulovská, near the present-day village of Pasohlávky
Pasohlávky
Pasohlávky is a village in South Moravian Region, Czech Republic. It is located 13 km northwest of Mikulov at around and has a population of 726. Pasohlávky is a popular summer resort on northern shore of Nové Mlýny I reservoir...

. Around the year 278, the Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius Probus annulled the edict of Emperor Domitian
Domitian
Domitian was Roman Emperor from 81 to 96. Domitian was the third and last emperor of the Flavian dynasty.Domitian's youth and early career were largely spent in the shadow of his brother Titus, who gained military renown during the First Jewish-Roman War...

 that had prohibited the planting of grapes in colonies north of the Alps
Alps
The Alps is one of the great mountain range systems of Europe, stretching from Austria and Slovenia in the east through Italy, Switzerland, Liechtenstein and Germany to France in the west....

, and encouraged the planting of new vines in the northern Roman colonies. Modern-day archaeological excavations of the ancient Roman outpost near Pasohlávky have yielded many artifacts, including a vine pruning knife. Wine historians theorize that, during the Roman occupation, the Grüner Veltliner
Grüner Veltliner
Grüner Veltliner is a variety of white wine grape variety grown primarily in Austria, Slovakia, and the Czech Republic. It has a reputation of being a particularly food-friendly wine...

 and Welschriesling
Welschriesling
Welschriesling is an ancient variety of white wine grape, unrelated to the Rhine Riesling, that is grown throughout Central Europe. The origin of Welschriesling is uncertain. The German name "Welschriesling" literally means 'Romanic Riesling', and most of the synonyms in Central Europe are...

 grape varieties may have been introduced to the region. Viticulture was practiced during the Great Moravian Empire
Great Moravia
Great Moravia was a Slavic state that existed in Central Europe and lasted for nearly seventy years in the 9th century whose creators were the ancestors of the Czechs and Slovaks. It was a vassal state of the Germanic Frankish kingdom and paid an annual tribute to it. There is some controversy as...

 (833–906), as evidenced by numerous pruning knives and grape seeds unearthed during archaeological excavations of Slavic
Slavic peoples
The Slavic people are an Indo-European panethnicity living in Eastern Europe, Southeast Europe, North Asia and Central Asia. The term Slavic represents a broad ethno-linguistic group of people, who speak languages belonging to the Slavic language family and share, to varying degrees, certain...

 settlements.

Around 875, according to legend, the Great Moravian Prince Svatopluk
Svatopluk I
Svatopluk I or Zwentibald I was the greatest ruler of Moravia that attained its maximum territorial expansion in his reign . His career had already started in the 860s, when he governed a principality, the location of which is still a matter of debate among historians, within Moravia under the...

 sent the Bohemian Prince Bořivoj a barrel of wine to celebrate the birth of his son Spytihněv
Spytihnev I of Bohemia
Spytihněv I was Duke of Bohemia from 894/895 until his death.He was the eldest son of Duke Bořivoj I, the first historically confirmed Bohemian ruler of the Přemyslid dynasty, and his wife Ludmila. As he was still a minor upon his father's death in 899, the Bohemian lands were under the regency of...

. Bořivoj's wife Ludmila sacrificed some of the wine to Krosyně (goddess of the harvest) while making a plea for abundant rain. Her wish came true, the crop was saved and Bořivoj and Ludmila planted the first Bohemian vineyards around Mělník
Melnik
-Places:Bulgaria* Melnik, Bulgaria, a town in Bulgaria* Shiroka Melnishka Losa, a Bulgarian wine grape also known as MelnikCzech Republic* Mělník, a townUnited States* Melnik, Wisconsin, an unincorporated community...

. Their grandson Saint Wenceslas later learned how to cultivate vines in these vineyards and make wine. He is honored by Czech winemakers as "Supremus Magister Vinearum" (Supreme Burgomaster of the Vineyards) and every year at the end of September a wine festival is held in Mělník on Feast of St. Wenceslas.

During the 13th century, monasteries helped to establish large vineyard areas which were planted with grape varieties imported from France
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

 and Germany
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

. The vine training and pruning methods of these countries were also adopted. The vineyard groupings made it easier to maintain the vineyards, protect against thieves, and to collect tithe payments and taxes during the harvest.

In 1249, Ottokar II of Bohemia
Ottokar II of Bohemia
Ottokar II , called The Iron and Golden King, was the King of Bohemia from 1253 until 1278. He was the Duke of Austria , Styria , Carinthia and Carniola also....

 granted the land of Mikulov
Mikulov
Mikulov is a town in the South Moravian Region of the Czech Republic with a population of 7,608 . It is located directly on the border with Lower Austria. Mikulov is located at the edge of a hilly area and the three Nové Mlýny reservoirs...

 (then called Nikolsburg) and the surrounding area to the Austrian noble Henry I of Liechtenstein
Princely Family of Liechtenstein
The Liechtenstein dynasty, from which the principality takes its name, is the family which reigns by constitutional, hereditary right over the nation of Liechtenstein...

. Afterward, more vineyards were planted in the Pálava Hills. In 1309, a new set of viticultural and winemaking regulations was established for many southern Moravian villages, based on the application of Bergrecht laws and vineyard rules of Falkenstein, Lower Austria
Falkenstein, Lower Austria
Falkenstein is a town in the district of Mistelbach in the Austrian state of Lower Austria.It is home to Castle Falkenstein, a relatively intact castle ruin built in the 11th century. The ruin's German name is Burg Falkenstein ....

 in the district of Mikulov. For those villages under the jurisdiction of the Falkenstein Bergrecht, Falkenstein served as the Supreme Appeals Court in vineyard disputes. By 1368, Mikulov was one of the largest wine centres in Moravia. In 1414, a large number of the vineyards around Mikulov and Valtice
Valtice
The town of Valtice in the Czech Republic contains one of the most impressive Baroque residences of Central Europe. It was designed as the seat of the ruling princes of Liechtenstein by Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach in the early 18th century. Construction was supervised by Domenico...

 were documented in the Liechtenstein Duties Register, later to become the oldest preserved register of the Liechtenstein vineyards.

The Thirty Years' War
Thirty Years' War
The Thirty Years' War was fought primarily in what is now Germany, and at various points involved most countries in Europe. It was one of the most destructive conflicts in European history....

 (1618–1648) destroyed a significant portion of the vineyards in the Czech Republic, and over the next hundred years they were gradually replanted. In 1763, Austrian vintners asked Maria Theresa to limit new vineyard plantings in Moravia to reduce the competition from Moravian wines. In 1783, the local Bergrecht laws and the activities of the wine regulation court in Moravia were abolished by Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor
Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor
Joseph II was Holy Roman Emperor from 1765 to 1790 and ruler of the Habsburg lands from 1780 to 1790. He was the eldest son of Empress Maria Theresa and her husband, Francis I...

 and replaced with a new set of vineyard regulations for Moravia.

Wine academies, dedicated to training capable enologists
Oenology
Oenology,[p] œnology , or enology is the science and study of all aspects of wine and winemaking except vine-growing and grape-harvesting, which is a subfield called viticulture. “Viticulture & oenology” is a common designation for training programmes and research centres that include both the...

 in the art and science of winemaking, were founded in Bzenec
Bzenec
Bzenec is a town in the southeast of Moravia, in the Czech Republic. It lies in the South Moravian Region. The population is 4,305 . Bzenec was first mentioned in 1015 . In 1330 it became a town.- Districts :* Bzenec* Domanín...

 (1855), Znojmo
Znojmo
Znojmo is a city in the South Moravian Region of the Czech Republic, near the border with Lower Austria, connected to Vienna by railway and road . The royal city of Znojmo was founded shortly before 1226 by King Ottokar I on the plains in front of Znojmo Castle...

 (1868), Valtice (1873), Mělník (1882), Lednice
Lednice
Lednice is a village in South Moravia in the Czech Republic. In 1996 it was inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List as "an exceptional example of the designed landscape that evolved in the Enlightenment and afterwards under the care of a single family." It contains a palace and the largest...

 (1895), Mikulov (1903) and Klobouky
Klobouky u Brna
Klobouky u Brna is a town in the Czech Republic cca 30 km from Brno.-External links:*...

 (1921).

The vine pest Phylloxera
Phylloxera
Grape phylloxera ; originally described in France as Phylloxera vastatrix; equated to the previously described Daktulosphaira vitifoliae, Phylloxera vitifoliae; commonly just called phylloxera is a pest of commercial grapevines worldwide, originally native to eastern North America...

 arrived in Šatov
Šatov
Šatov is a small town in Znojmo District in the South Moravian Region of the Czech Republic.The town covers an area of , and has a population of 1,186 ....

 in 1890, Mikulov and Dolní Dunajovice
Dolní Dunajovice
Dolní Dunajovice is a village in Břeclav District of the South Moravian Region in the Czech Republic. It is located about northwest of Mikulov. The municipality has a population of 1,693 ....

 in 1900, struck Perná
Perná
Perná is a village and municipality in Břeclav District in the South Moravian Region of the Czech Republic.The municipality covers an area of , and has a population of 764 ....

 in 1901, and hit Horní Věstonice
Horní Věstonice
Horní Věstonice is a village and municipality in Břeclav District in the South Moravian Region of the Czech Republic.The municipality covers an area of , and has a population of 453 ....

 and Bavory
Bavory
Bavory is a village in Břeclav District, South Moravian Region, Czech Republic. It has a population of 399 .- External links :...

 in 1902, devastating
Great French Wine Blight
The Great French Wine Blight was a severe blight of the mid-19th century that destroyed many of the vineyards in France and laid to waste the wine industry...

 the vineyards throughout Moravia. Using Phylloxera-resistant rootstock, the vineyards were replanted with quality vines of single varietals.

The establishment of modern wine laws in the Czech Republic began in 1995 with the enactment of Wine Act No. 115/1995 on viticulture and winemaking practices into the Collection of Laws (Sb). The wine section of the European Union
European Union
The European Union is an economic and political union of 27 independent member states which are located primarily in Europe. The EU traces its origins from the European Coal and Steel Community and the European Economic Community , formed by six countries in 1958...

 regulations was translated into the Czech language and subsequently incorporated into the Wine Act. The original draft of the Amendment to the Wine Act also contained provisions for establishing the Czech Wine Fund through Act No. 50/2002 Sb. After the Czech Republic joined the European Union in 2004, the Wine Act No. 321/2004 Sb on viticulture and winemaking practices was adopted, bringing Czech wine legislation in conformity with EU standards.

Regions


Czech wine law (2004) defines two wine-growing regions (Czech: Vinařská oblast). These are Moravia (Vinařská oblast Morava) and Bohemia (Vinařská oblast Čechy).

Moravia



Wine production in the Czech Republic centers around southern Moravia, particularly around the River Dyje. Four wine growing sub-regions (Czech: Vinařská podoblast) are located here, each named after a major town or region. These sub-regions are:
Wine Subregion (Vinařská podoblast) Origin of Name
Mikulovská
Mikulovská wine
Mikulovská is one of four Czech wine regions within southern Moravia, Czech Republic. The Mikulovská wine region, containing 30 wine villages, is famed for producing white wines grown in the limestone soils, particularly in and around the area of the Pálava Landscape Protected Area...

 
Town of Mikulov
Mikulov
Mikulov is a town in the South Moravian Region of the Czech Republic with a population of 7,608 . It is located directly on the border with Lower Austria. Mikulov is located at the edge of a hilly area and the three Nové Mlýny reservoirs...

Znojemská  Town of Znojmo
Znojmo
Znojmo is a city in the South Moravian Region of the Czech Republic, near the border with Lower Austria, connected to Vienna by railway and road . The royal city of Znojmo was founded shortly before 1226 by King Ottokar I on the plains in front of Znojmo Castle...

Velkopavlovická  Town of Velké Pavlovice
Velké Pavlovice
Velké Pavlovice is a town in Břeclav District, South Moravian Region, Czech Republic. It has a population of 3,087 . The region of Velké Pavlovice is famous for its vineyards.- External links :...

Slovácká  Slovácko region


The Czech National Wine Centre and Wine Salon of the Czech Republic in Valtice Castle
Valtice
The town of Valtice in the Czech Republic contains one of the most impressive Baroque residences of Central Europe. It was designed as the seat of the ruling princes of Liechtenstein by Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach in the early 18th century. Construction was supervised by Domenico...

 are located in Moravian wine country.

Bohemia


Bohemia is home to a relatively tiny collection of vineyards that are among the most northerly in Europe. They are situated around 50° north latitude, the same as Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden is a city in southwest Germany and the capital of the federal state of Hesse. It has about 275,400 inhabitants, plus approximately 10,000 United States citizens...

 in the Rheingau. Two defined wine-growing subregions are located in Bohemia:
Wine Subregion (Vinařská podoblast) Origin of Name
Mělnická
Mělnická wine
The sub-province Mělník is one two wine regions in Bohemia and consists of 37 official wine municipalities. The sub-province is situated on the Elbe river...

 
Town of Mělník
Melnik
-Places:Bulgaria* Melnik, Bulgaria, a town in Bulgaria* Shiroka Melnishka Losa, a Bulgarian wine grape also known as MelnikCzech Republic* Mělník, a townUnited States* Melnik, Wisconsin, an unincorporated community...

Litoměřická
Litoměřická wine
The sub-province Litoměřice is one of two wine regions in Bohemia. It is situated on the Elbe river, with its center in the town of Litoměřice. This area contains 29 official wine municipalities. The history of winery in this north-Bohemian region is longer than 1 000 years.- External links :*...

 
Town of Litoměřice
Litomerice
Litoměřice is a town at the junction of the rivers Elbe and Ohře in the north part of the Czech Republic, approximately 64 km northwest of Prague....



Small vineyards can be found in Prague
Prague
Prague is the capital and largest city of the Czech Republic. Situated in the north-west of the country on the Vltava river, the city is home to about 1.3 million people, while its metropolitan area is estimated to have a population of over 2.3 million...

, but they do not produce a significant amount of wine. The top five grape varieties grown in Bohemia are Müller-Thurgau
Müller-Thurgau
Müller-Thurgau is a variety of white grape which was created by Hermann Müller from the Swiss Canton of Thurgau in 1882. It is a crossing of Riesling with Madeleine Royale. It is used to make white wine in Germany, Austria, Northern Italy, Hungary, England, in Australia, Czech Republic, Slovakia,...

 (26% of vineyards), Riesling
Riesling
Riesling is a white grape variety which originated in the Rhine region of Germany. Riesling is an aromatic grape variety displaying flowery, almost perfumed, aromas as well as high acidity. It is used to make dry, semi-sweet, sweet and sparkling white wines. Riesling wines are usually varietally...

 (16% of vineyards), St. Laurent (14% of vineyards), Blauer Portugieser
Blauer Portugieser
Blauer Portugieser is a red Austrian and German wine grape found primarily in the Rheinhessen, Pfalz and wine regions of Lower Austria. It is also one of the permitted grapes in the Hungarian wine Egri Bikavér . In Germany, the cultivated area covered or 4.5% of the total vineyard area in 2007...

 (10% of vineyards), and Pinot Noir
Pinot Noir
Pinot noir is a black wine grape variety of the species Vitis vinifera. The name may also refer to wines created predominantly from Pinot noir grapes...

 (8% of vineyards).

Grape varieties


The most commonly grown grape varieties in the Czech Republic, including the approximate percentage of vineyard planting for each variety, are listed below:

White Grape Varieties
Czech Name International Name Percentage of Vineyard Planting
Müller-Thurgau Müller-Thurgau
Müller-Thurgau
Müller-Thurgau is a variety of white grape which was created by Hermann Müller from the Swiss Canton of Thurgau in 1882. It is a crossing of Riesling with Madeleine Royale. It is used to make white wine in Germany, Austria, Northern Italy, Hungary, England, in Australia, Czech Republic, Slovakia,...

 
11.2%
Veltlínské zelené Grüner Veltliner
Grüner Veltliner
Grüner Veltliner is a variety of white wine grape variety grown primarily in Austria, Slovakia, and the Czech Republic. It has a reputation of being a particularly food-friendly wine...

 
11.0%
Ryzlink vlašský Welschriesling
Welschriesling
Welschriesling is an ancient variety of white wine grape, unrelated to the Rhine Riesling, that is grown throughout Central Europe. The origin of Welschriesling is uncertain. The German name "Welschriesling" literally means 'Romanic Riesling', and most of the synonyms in Central Europe are...

 
8.5%
Ryzlink rýnský Riesling
Riesling
Riesling is a white grape variety which originated in the Rhine region of Germany. Riesling is an aromatic grape variety displaying flowery, almost perfumed, aromas as well as high acidity. It is used to make dry, semi-sweet, sweet and sparkling white wines. Riesling wines are usually varietally...

 
7.0%
Sauvignon blanc Sauvignon blanc
Sauvignon blanc
Sauvignon Blanc is a green-skinned grape variety which originates from the Bordeaux region of France. The grape most likely gets its name from the French word sauvage and blanc due to its early origins as an indigenous grape in South West France., a possible descendant of savagnin...

 
5.0%
Rulandské bílé Pinot Blanc
Pinot Blanc
Pinot blanc is a white wine grape. It is a point genetic mutation of Pinot noir. Pinot noir is genetically unstable and will occasionally experience a point mutation in which a vine bears all black fruit except for one cane which produced white fruit....

 
5.0%
Chardonnay Chardonnay
Chardonnay
Chardonnay is a green-skinned grape variety used to make white wine. It is originated from the Burgundy wine region of eastern France but is now grown wherever wine is produced, from England to New Zealand...

 
4.0%
Rulandské šedé Pinot gris
Pinot gris
Pinot gris is a white wine grape variety of the species Vitis vinifera. Thought to be a mutant clone of the Pinot noir grape, it normally has a grayish-blue fruit, accounting for its name but the grape can have a brownish pink to black and even white appearance...

 
3.7%
Tramín červený Gewürztraminer
Gewürztraminer
Gewürztraminer is an aromatic wine grape variety that performs best in cooler climates. It is sometimes referred to colloquially as Gewürz, and in French it is written '...

 
3.0%
Neuburské Neuburger
Neuburger
Neuburger is a white Austrian wine grape. The grape is a crossing of Roter Veltliner and Sylvaner. As varietal, it generally produces full bodied wines.- Synonyms :...

 
2.3%
Muškát moravský Moravian Muscat  1.8%
Veltlínské červené rané Frühroter Veltliner
Frühroter Veltliner
Frühroter Veltliner is a variety of early-ripening, red-skinned white wine grape grown primarily in the Weinviertel district of Lower Austria. It accounts for 1.3% of total Austrian vineyards and is diminishing....

 
1.7%
Irsai Oliver Irsai Oliver
Irsai Oliver
Irsai Olivér is a Hungarian white table/wine variety, crossed between Pozsonyi and Pearl of Csaba in 1930. It is early ripening, with a distinctive Muscat character.-Synonyms:...

 
0.4%

Black Grape Varieties
Czech Name International Name Percentage of Vineyard Planting
Svatovavřinecké Saint Laurent
St. Laurent (grape)
St. Laurent is a highly aromatic dark-skinned wine grape variety of the same family as Pinot Noir, originating in France....

 
9.0%
Frankovka Blaufränkisch
Blaufränkisch
Blaufränkisch is a dark-skinned variety of grape used for red wine. Blaufränkisch, which is a late-ripening variety gives red wines which are typically rich in tannin and may exhibit a pronounced spicy character...

 
5.6%
Zweigeltrebe Zweigelt
Zweigelt
Zweigelt is a red wine grape variety developed in 1922, at the Federal Institute for Viticulture and Pomology at Klosterneuburg, Austria, by Fritz Zweigelt. It was a crossing of St. Laurent and Blaufränkisch. It is now the most widely-grown red grape variety in Austria, as well as having some...

 
4.7%
Rulandské modré Pinot Noir
Pinot Noir
Pinot noir is a black wine grape variety of the species Vitis vinifera. The name may also refer to wines created predominantly from Pinot noir grapes...

 
4.0%
Modrý Portugal Blauer Portugieser
Blauer Portugieser
Blauer Portugieser is a red Austrian and German wine grape found primarily in the Rheinhessen, Pfalz and wine regions of Lower Austria. It is also one of the permitted grapes in the Hungarian wine Egri Bikavér . In Germany, the cultivated area covered or 4.5% of the total vineyard area in 2007...

 
3.9%
Cabernet Sauvignon Cabernet Sauvignon
Cabernet Sauvignon
Cabernet Sauvignon is one of the world's most widely recognized red wine grape varieties. It is grown in nearly every major wine producing country among a diverse spectrum of climates from Canada's Okanagan Valley to Lebanon's Beqaa Valley...

 
1.3%

Wine Festivals




The wine-producing areas of the Czech Republic are well known for their wine festivals
Wine Festivals
Annual wine festivals celebrate viticulture and usually occur after the harvest of the grapes which mainly is at the end of September until well into October. They are common in most wine regions around the world and are to be considered in the tradition of other harvest festivals. The oldest known...

 (Czech: vinobraní) which take place around harvest
Harvest (wine)
The harvesting of wine grapes is one of the most crucial steps in the process of winemaking. The time of harvest is determined primarily by the ripeness of the grape as measured by sugar, acid and tannin levels with winemakers basing their decision to pick based on the style of wine they wish to...

 time in September. The biggest of these festivals in Znojmo, Mikulov, Brno
Brno
Brno by population and area is the second largest city in the Czech Republic, the largest Moravian city, and the historical capital city of the Margraviate of Moravia. Brno is the administrative centre of the South Moravian Region where it forms a separate district Brno-City District...

 and Mělník will feature samples of hundreds of local wines as well as local music, dancing and cuisine
Czech cuisine
Czech cuisine has both influenced and been influenced by the cuisines of surrounding countries. Many of the fine cakes and pastries that are popular in Central Europe originated in the Czech lands. Czech cuisine is marked by a strong emphasis on meat dishes. Pork is quite common, and beef and...

.

Classification



Czech wine law classifies wine according to the origin of the grapes and the ripeness of the grapes determined by measuring the must weight
Must weight
Must weight is a measure of the amount of sugar in grape juice , and hence indicates the amount of alcohol that could be produced if it is all fermented to alcohol, rather than left as residual sugar...

 in the grape juice at the time of harvest. Sugar content is expressed in units of °NM on the Czecho-Slovak Normalised Must-Weight Scale (Czech: Normalizovaný moštoměr
Normalizovaný muštomer
Normalizovaný moštoměr is a scale used in the Czech Republic and Slovakia for measuring the sweetness of wine must. 1 °NM indicates 1 kg of sugar in 100 litres of must....

), which indicates how many kilograms of sugar are contained in one hundred litres of grape juice. One degree on the NM scale is equivalent to one kilogram of natural sugar in 100 litres of grape must. Czech wine is typically labeled with its variety, detailed description of its origin, and wine quality attributes. In general, wine produced from grapes with a higher must-weight level and from a single vineyard is considered higher quality.

Origin specification


A Czech wine label will typically specify the wine's origin with one or more of the following terms:
  • Vinařská oblast - (Region) e.g. Morava (Moravia)
  • Vinařská podoblast - (Subregion) e.g. Velkopavlovická (Velké Pavlovice)
  • Vinařská obec - (Village)
  • Trať - (Vineyard)

Composition and Quality Attributes


A Czech wine label must contain one of the following terms that designates its classification:

1. Jakostní víno s přívlastkem (Quality Wine with Special Attributes)
Wine must originate from a single wine sub-region and the grape varieties, their origin, must-weight levels, and weight must be verified by the Czech State Agricultural & Food Inspectorate (SZPI). Chaptalisation is not permitted.
Jakostní víno s přívlastkem (Quality Wine with Special Attributes)
Classification Translation Description
Kabinetní víno Kabinet
Kabinett
Kabinett , or sometimes Kabinettwein , is a German language wine term for a wine which is made from fully ripened grapes of the main harvest, typically picked in September, and are usually made in a light style...

 
Wine made from grapes whose must-weight levels have reached no less than 19 °NM.
Pozdní sběr Late Harvest
Spätlese
Spätlese is a German wine term for a wine from fully ripe grapes, the lightest of the late harvest wines. Spätlese is a riper category than Kabinett in the Prädikatswein category of the German wine classification and is the lowest level of Prädikatswein in Austria, where Kabinett is classified in...

 
Wine made from grapes whose must-weight levels have reached no less than 21 °NM.
Výběr z hroznů Special Selection of Grapes
Auslese
Auslese is a German language wine term for a late harvest wine and is a riper category than Spätlese in the Prädikatswein category of the Austrian and German wine classification. The grapes are picked from selected very ripe bunches in the autumn , and have to be hand picked...

 
Wine made from grape bunches ripened very long on the vine whose must-weight levels have reached no less than 24 °NM.
Výběr z bobulí Special Selection of Berries
Beerenauslese
Beerenauslese is a German language wine term for a dessert wine-style late harvest wine. Beerenauslese is a category in the Prädikatswein category of the Austrian and German wine classifications, and is a category above Auslese. Beerenauslese wines, often called "BA" for short, are usually made...

 
Wine made from selected berries that have ripened very long on the vine whose must-weight levels have reached at least 27 °NM.
Výběr z cibéb Special Selection of Botrytis-affected Berries
Beerenauslese
Beerenauslese is a German language wine term for a dessert wine-style late harvest wine. Beerenauslese is a category in the Prädikatswein category of the Austrian and German wine classifications, and is a category above Auslese. Beerenauslese wines, often called "BA" for short, are usually made...

 
Wine made from selected berries affected by noble rot
Noble rot
Noble rot is the benevolent form of a grey fungus, Botrytis cinerea, affecting wine grapes. Infestation by Botrytis requires moist conditions, and if the weather stays wet, the malevolent form, "grey rot", can destroy crops of grapes...

 whose must-weight levels have reached at least 32 °NM.
Ledové víno Ice wine
Ice wine
Ice wine is a type of dessert wine produced from grapes that have been frozen while still on the vine. The sugars and other dissolved solids do not freeze, but the water does, allowing a more concentrated grape must to be pressed from the frozen grapes, resulting in a smaller amount of more...

 
Wine made from grapes frozen on the vine. The grapes are pressed frozen at a temperature not greater than -7 °C and with a must-weight level of at least 27 °NM.
Slámové víno Straw wine
Straw wine
Straw wine, or raisin wine, is a wine made from grapes that have been dried to concentrate their juice. The result is similar to that of the ice wine process, but suitable for warmer climates. The classic method dries clusters of grapes on mats of straw in the sun, but some regions dry them under...

 
Wine made from grapes dried for no less than three months after harvest on straw or reed beds, or suspended in a well-ventilated area. The must-weight of the grape juice at the time of pressing can be no less than 27 °NM.


2. Jakostní víno (Quality wine)
Wine produced from grapes grown in the Czech Republic within a single wine region. Yields must not exceed 12 tons/hectare and must-weight levels must be no less than 15 °NM.
Jakostní víno odrůdové (Quality Varietal Wine)
Wine made from at most three grape varieties
Jakostní víno známkové (Quality Brand Wine)
Wine that is a blend (cuveé
Cuvee
Cuvée is a French wine term derived from cuve, meaning vat or tank. The term cuvée is used with several different meanings, more or less based on the concept of a tank of wine put to some purpose:...

) of at least two grape varieties


3. Moravské zemské víno or České zemské víno (Country wine)
Wine produced from grapes originating from the Czech Republic, must-weight levels must be no less than 14 °NM.


4. Stolní víno (Table wine
Table wine
Table wine is a wine term with two different meanings: a wine style; and a quality level within wine classification.In the United States, table wine primarily designates a wine style - ordinary wine which is neither fortified nor sparkling....

)
Wine produced from grapes originating from any country in the EU. This is the lowest wine category.

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