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Czech verb

Czech verb

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Encyclopedia
Czech conjugation is a term denoting Czech language
Czech language
Czech is a West Slavic language with about 12 million native speakers; it is the majority language in the Czech Republic and spoken by Czechs worldwide. The language was known as Bohemian in English until the late 19th century...

 verb
Verb
A verb, from the Latin verbum meaning word, is a word that in syntax conveys an action , or a state of being . In the usual description of English, the basic form, with or without the particle to, is the infinitive...

 conjugation
Grammatical conjugation
In linguistics, conjugation is the creation of derived forms of a verb from its principal parts by inflection . Conjugation may be affected by person, number, gender, tense, aspect, mood, voice, or other grammatical categories...

, or system of grammatically-determined modifications, in verb
Verb
A verb, from the Latin verbum meaning word, is a word that in syntax conveys an action , or a state of being . In the usual description of English, the basic form, with or without the particle to, is the infinitive...

s in the Czech language
Czech language
Czech is a West Slavic language with about 12 million native speakers; it is the majority language in the Czech Republic and spoken by Czechs worldwide. The language was known as Bohemian in English until the late 19th century...

.
Czech is a null-subject language, i.e. the subject
Subject (grammar)
The subject is one of the two main constituents of a clause, according to a tradition that can be tracked back to Aristotle and that is associated with phrase structure grammars; the other constituent is the predicate. According to another tradition, i.e...

 (including personal pronoun
Pronoun
In linguistics and grammar, a pronoun is a pro-form that substitutes for a noun , such as, in English, the words it and he...

s) can be omitted if known from context. The person is expressed by the verb:
já dělám = dělám = I do
on dělal = dělal = he was doing

Infinitive


The infinitive
Infinitive
In grammar, infinitive is the name for certain verb forms that exist in many languages. In the usual description of English, the infinitive of a verb is its basic form with or without the particle to: therefore, do and to do, be and to be, and so on are infinitives...

 is formed by the ending -t, formerly also -ti; on some words -ct (-ci):
t - to be, t - to go, ct - to bake


Somewhat archaically:
ti - to be, ti - to go, ci - to bake

Participles


Participle
Participle
In linguistics, a participle is a word that shares some characteristics of both verbs and adjectives. It can be used in compound verb tenses or voices , or as a modifier...

s are used for forming the past tense, conditionals and the passive voice in Czech. They are related to the short forms of adjective
Adjective
In grammar, an adjective is a 'describing' word; the main syntactic role of which is to qualify a noun or noun phrase, giving more information about the object signified....

s. Therefore unlike other verb forms, they also express gender
Grammatical gender
Grammatical gender is defined linguistically as a system of classes of nouns which trigger specific types of inflections in associated words, such as adjectives, verbs and others. For a system of noun classes to be a gender system, every noun must belong to one of the classes and there should be...

 which must correspond with the gender of the subject
Subject (grammar)
The subject is one of the two main constituents of a clause, according to a tradition that can be tracked back to Aristotle and that is associated with phrase structure grammars; the other constituent is the predicate. According to another tradition, i.e...

.

Past participle


(more precisely "active participle") is also called "l-participle" and is used for forming the past tense and the conditionals.
Singular Plural English
Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine
animate
Masculine
inanimate
& Feminine
Neuter
byl
dělal
byla
dělala
bylo
dělalo
byli
dělali
byly
dělaly
byla
dělala
was/were
did

Passive participle


is also called "n/t-participle" and is used for forming the passive voice. There are two types of endings:
Singular Plural English
Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine
animate
Masculine
inanimate
& Feminine
Neuter
bit
dělán
bita
dělána
bito
děláno
biti
děláni
bity
dělány
bita
dělána
beaten, battered
done

Agreement between subject and predicate


The predicate
Predicate (grammar)
There are two competing notions of the predicate in theories of grammar. Traditional grammar tends to view a predicate as one of two main parts of a sentence, the other being the subject, which the predicate modifies. The other understanding of predicates is inspired from work in predicate calculus...

 must always be in accordance with the subject
Subject (grammar)
The subject is one of the two main constituents of a clause, according to a tradition that can be tracked back to Aristotle and that is associated with phrase structure grammars; the other constituent is the predicate. According to another tradition, i.e...

 in the sentence – in number
Grammatical number
In linguistics, grammatical number is a grammatical category of nouns, pronouns, and adjective and verb agreement that expresses count distinctions ....

 and person
Grammatical person
Grammatical person, in linguistics, is deictic reference to a participant in an event; such as the speaker, the addressee, or others. Grammatical person typically defines a language's set of personal pronouns...

 (personal pronoun
Pronoun
In linguistics and grammar, a pronoun is a pro-form that substitutes for a noun , such as, in English, the words it and he...

s), and with past and passive participle
Participle
In linguistics, a participle is a word that shares some characteristics of both verbs and adjectives. It can be used in compound verb tenses or voices , or as a modifier...

s also in gender
Grammatical gender
Grammatical gender is defined linguistically as a system of classes of nouns which trigger specific types of inflections in associated words, such as adjectives, verbs and others. For a system of noun classes to be a gender system, every noun must belong to one of the classes and there should be...

. This grammatical
Grammar
In linguistics, grammar is the set of structural rules that govern the composition of clauses, phrases, and words in any given natural language. The term refers also to the study of such rules, and this field includes morphology, syntax, and phonology, often complemented by phonetics, semantics,...

 principle affects the orthography (see also Czech orthography) – it is especially important for the correct choice and writing of plural endings of participle
Participle
In linguistics, a participle is a word that shares some characteristics of both verbs and adjectives. It can be used in compound verb tenses or voices , or as a modifier...

s.

Examples:
Gender Sg. Pl. English
masculine animate pes byl koupen psi byli koupeni a dog was bought/dogs were bought
masculine inanimate hrad byl koupen hrady byly koupeny a castle was bought/castles were bought
feminine kočka byla koupena kočky byly koupeny a cat was bought/cats were bought
neuter město bylo koupeno města byla koupena a town was bought/towns were bought


The example mentioned shows both past (byl, byla ...) and passive (koupen, koupena ...) participles. The accordance in gender takes effect in the past tense
Grammatical tense
A tense is a grammatical category that locates a situation in time, to indicate when the situation takes place.Bernard Comrie, Aspect, 1976:6:...

 and the passive voice, not in the present and future tenses in active voice.

If the complex subject is a combination of nouns of different genders, masculine animate gender is prior to others and the masculine inanimate and feminine genders are prior to the neuter gender.

Examples:
muži a ženy byli - men and women were
kočky a koťata byly - cats and kittens were
my jsme byli (my = we all/men) vs. my jsme byly (my = we women) - we were


Priority of genders:
masculine animate > masculine inanimate & feminine > neuter

Transgressives


The transgressive
Transgressive (linguistics)
Transgressive is a term of linguistic morphology denoting a special form of verb. It expresses a coincidentally proceeding or following action. It is considered to be a kind of infinitive, or participle.-Czech language:...

 (přechodník) expresses an action which happens coincidently with or foregoing some other action.

The transgressive (přechodník) is an archaic form of the verb in the Czech
Czech language
Czech is a West Slavic language with about 12 million native speakers; it is the majority language in the Czech Republic and spoken by Czechs worldwide. The language was known as Bohemian in English until the late 19th century...

 and Slovak
Slovak language
Slovak , is an Indo-European language that belongs to the West Slavic languages .Slovak is the official language of Slovakia, where it is spoken by 5 million people...

 languages. Nowadays, it is used only occasionally for art
Art
Art is the product or process of deliberately arranging items in a way that influences and affects one or more of the senses, emotions, and intellect....

istic purposes or in unchanging expressions. Transgressives were still used quite widely in Czech literature in the beginning of the 20th century (not in the spoken language). For example, Jaroslav Hašek
Jaroslav Hašek
Jaroslav Hašek was a Czech humorist, satirist, writer and socialist anarchist best known for his novel The Good Soldier Švejk, an unfinished collection of farcical incidents about a soldier in World War I and a satire on the ineptitude of authority figures, which has been translated into sixty...

's The Good Soldier Švejk
The Good Soldier Švejk
The Good Soldier Švejk , also spelled Schweik or Schwejk, is the abbreviated title of a unfinished satirical/dark comedy novel by Jaroslav Hašek. It was illustrated by Josef Lada and George Grosz after Hašek's death...

 contains a lot of them.

The Czech language recognizes present and past transgressives. The present transgressive can express present or future action according to an aspect
Aspect
Aspect may be:*Aspect , a feature that is linked to many parts of a program, but which is not necessarily the primary function of the program...

 of the verb, which it is derived from. The past transgressive is usually derived from perfective verbs.
  masculine feminine
+
neuter
plural
present
transgressive
–e
–a
–íc
–ouc
–íce
–ouce
past
transgressive
–v
–Ø
–vši
–ši
–vše
–še


Examples:
  • Usednuvši u okna, začala plakat. (Having sat down at a window, she began to cry.) – past transgressive (foregoing action)
  • Děti, vidouce babičku, vyběhly ven. (The children, seeing grandma, ran out.) – present transgressive (coincident action/process)

Aspect


Czech verbs are distinguished by aspect
Grammatical aspect
In linguistics, the grammatical aspect of a verb is a grammatical category that defines the temporal flow in a given action, event, or state, from the point of view of the speaker...

, they are either perfective
Perfective aspect
The perfective aspect , sometimes called the aoristic aspect, is a grammatical aspect used to describe a situation viewed as a simple whole, whether that situation occurs in the past, present, or future. The perfective aspect is equivalent to the aspectual component of past perfective forms...

or imperfective
Imperfective aspect
The imperfective is a grammatical aspect used to describe a situation viewed with internal structure, such as ongoing, habitual, repeated, and similar semantic roles, whether that situation occurs in the past, present, or future...

. Perfective verbs indicate the finality of the process. Therefore, they cannot express the present tense.

Perfective verbs are usually formed adding prefixes to imperfective verbs:
psát (imperf.) - to write, to be writing -> napsat (perf.) - to write down


Some perfective verbs are not formally related to imperfective ones:
brát (imperf.) - to take, to be taking -> vzít (perf.) - to take

Tenses


Czech verbs express three absolute tenses
Grammatical tense
A tense is a grammatical category that locates a situation in time, to indicate when the situation takes place.Bernard Comrie, Aspect, 1976:6:...

 - past, present and future. Relativity can be expressed by the aspect, sentence constructions and participles.

The present tense can be expressed in imperfective verbs only.

Present tense


The present tense is formed by special endings:
Person Singular Plural
1. -m/-i/-u -eme/-íme/-áme
2. -eš/-íš/-áš -ete/-íte/-áte
3. -á/-í/-e -ají/-ejí/-ějí/-í/-ou/


Verbs are divided into 5 classes according to the way of forming the present tense. They are described in more detail below.

Past tense


The past tense is formed by the past participle (in a proper gender form) and present forms of the verb být (to be) which are omitted in the 3rd person. The following example is for the male gender (animate in plural):
Person Singular Plural
1. dělal jsem dělali jsme
2. dělal jsi dělali jste
3. dělal dělali


Dělat - to do

Future tense


In
imperfective verbs, it is formed by the future forms of the verb být (to be) and the infinitive:
Person Singular Plural
1. budu dělat budeme dělat
2. budeš dělat budete dělat
3. bude dělat budou dělat


Dělat - to do

Budu, budeš, ... with infinitive has the same meaning as "(I, you, ...) will" in English. If not followed by an infinitive, it means "(I, you, ...) will be" (i.e. I will be = budu, not budu být).

In some verbs of motion, the future tense is formed by adding the prefix
po-/pů- to the present form:
jdu - I will go, ponesu - I will carry, povezu - I will transport (in a vehicle)


In perfective verbs, the present form expresses the future. Compare:
budu dělat - I will be doing
udělám - I will do, I will have done

Imperative


The imperative mood
Imperative mood
The imperative mood expresses commands or requests as a grammatical mood. These commands or requests urge the audience to act a certain way. It also may signal a prohibition, permission, or any other kind of exhortation.- Morphology :...

 is formed for the 2nd person singular and plural and the 1st person plural.

In the 2nd person singular, it takes either null ending or -i/-ej ending, according to the verb class.

The 2nd person plural takes the ending -te/-ete/-ejte and the 1st person plural takes -me/-eme/-ejme.

Examples:
buď! buďte! (be!) buďme! (let's be!)
spi! spěte! (sleep!) spěme! (let's sleep!)
dělej! dělejte! (do!) dělejme! (let's do!)

Conditionals


The conditionals
Conditional mood
In linguistics, the conditional mood is the inflectional form of the verb used in the independent clause of a conditional sentence to refer to a hypothetical state of affairs, or an uncertain event, that is contingent on another set of circumstances...

 are formed by the past participle and special forms of the verb být (to be). Following example of the present conditional is for the male gender (animate in plural):
Person Singular Plural
1. dělal bych dělali bychom
2. dělal bys dělali byste
3. dělal by dělali by


dělal bych - I would do

There is also the past conditional in Czech but it is usually replaced by the present conditional.
Person Singular Plural
1. byl bych dělal byli bychom dělali
2. byl bys dělal byli byste dělali
3. byl by dělal byli by dělali


byl bych dělal - I would have done

By also becomes a part of conjugations aby (so that) and kdyby (if). Therefore, these conjunctions take the same endings:
Kdybych nepracoval, nedostal bych výplatu. If I didn't work, I would get no wages.

Passive voice


There are two ways to form the passive voice
Passive voice
Passive voice is a grammatical voice common in many of the world's languages. Passive is used in a clause whose subject expresses the theme or patient of the main verb. That is, the subject undergoes an action or has its state changed. A sentence whose theme is marked as grammatical subject is...

 in Czech:

1. By the verb být (to be) and the passive participle (as in English):
Město bylo založeno ve 14. století. The town was founded in the 14th century.


2. By adding the reflexive pronoun
Reflexive pronoun
A reflexive pronoun is a pronoun that is preceded by the noun, adjective, adverb or pronoun to which it refers within the same clause. In generative grammar, a reflexive pronoun is an anaphor that must be bound by its antecedent...

 se:
Ono se neudělalo. It has not been done.
To se vyrábí v Číně. It is produced in China.


However, the use of se is not exclusive to the passive voice.

Reflexive verbs


Reflexive pronoun
Reflexive pronoun
A reflexive pronoun is a pronoun that is preceded by the noun, adjective, adverb or pronoun to which it refers within the same clause. In generative grammar, a reflexive pronoun is an anaphor that must be bound by its antecedent...

s se and si are components of reflexive verb
Reflexive verb
In grammar, a reflexive verb is a verb whose semantic agent and patient are the same. For example, the English verb to perjure is reflexive, since one can only perjure oneself...

s (se/si is not usually translated into English):
posadit se - to sit down
myslet si - to think, to suppose

Negation


Negation
Negation
In logic and mathematics, negation, also called logical complement, is an operation on propositions, truth values, or semantic values more generally. Intuitively, the negation of a proposition is true when that proposition is false, and vice versa. In classical logic negation is normally identified...

 is formed by the prefix ne-. In the future tense and the passive voice it is added to the auxiliary verb být (to be).
nedělat - not to do
nedělám - I do not do
nedělej! do not do!
nedělal jsem - I did not do
nebudu dělat - I will not do
nedělal bych - I would not do
byl bych neudělal or nebyl bych udělal - I would not have done
není děláno - it is not done


Unlike English
English language
English is a West Germanic language that arose in the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of England and spread into what was to become south-east Scotland under the influence of the Anglian medieval kingdom of Northumbria...

, more negative words can be in a Czech sentence:
Nic nemám. - I have nothing. (literally I do not have nothing.)
Nikdy to nikomu neříkej. - Never say it to anybody. (literally Do not never say it to nobody.)

Class I

Infinitive nést číst péct třít brát mazat
English carry read bake rub take lubricate
Present
tense
nesu
neseš
nese
neseme
nesete
nesou
čtu
čteš
čte
čteme
čtete
čtou
peču
pečeš
peče
pečeme
pečete
pečou
třu
třeš
tře
třeme
třete
třou
beru
bereš
bere
bereme
berete
berou
mažu
mažeš
maže
mažeme
mažete
mažou
Past
participle
nesl četl pekl třel bral mazal
Passive
participle
nesen čten pečen třen brán mazán
Imperative nes!
neste!
nesme!
čti!
čtěte!
čtěme!
peč!
pečte!
pečme!
tři!
třete!
třeme!
ber!
berte!
berme!
maž!
mažte!
mažme!
Present
transgressive
nesa
nesouc
nesouce
čta
čtouc
čtouce
peka/peče
pekouc/pečíc
pekouce/pečíce
tra
trouc
trouce
bera
berouc
berouce
maže
mažíc
mažíce
Past
transgressive
(do)nes
(do)nesši
(do)nesše
(pře)čet
(pře)četši
(pře)četše
(u)pek
(u)pekši
(u)pekše
(u)třev
(u)třevši
(u)třevše
(se)brav
(se)bravši
(se)bravše
(na)mazav
(na)mazavši
(na)mazavše


In imperative, 0/-te/-me endings are in most verbs, -i/-ete/-eme or -i/-ěte/-ěme if two consonant
Consonant
In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract. Examples are , pronounced with the lips; , pronounced with the front of the tongue; , pronounced with the back of the tongue; , pronounced in the throat; and ,...

s are at the end of the word-stem.

Class II

Infinitive tisknout minout začít hnout
English print, press miss begin move
Present
tense
tisknu
tiskneš
tiskne
tiskneme
tisknete
tisknou
minu
mineš
mine
mineme
minete
minou
začnu
začneš
začne
začneme
začnete
začnou
hnu
hneš
hne
hneme
hnete
hnou
Past
participle
tiskl minul začal hnul
Passive
participle
tisknut/tištěn minut začnut hnut
Imperative tiskni!
tiskněte!
tiskněme!
miň!
miňte!
miňme!
začni!
začněte!
začněme!
hni!
hněte!
hněme!
Present
transgressive
tiskna
tisknouc
tisknouce
mina
minouc
minouce
Past
transgressive
(při)tisknuv
(při)tisknuvši
(při)tisknuvše
minuv
minuvši
minuvše
začav
začavši
začavše
hnuv
hnuvši
hnuvše

Class III

Infinitive krýt kupovat
English cover buy
Present
tense
kryji, kryju
kryješ
kryje
kryjeme
kryjete
kryjí, kryjou
kupuji, kupuju
kupuješ
kupuje
kupujeme
kupujete
kupují, kupujou
Past
participle
kryl kupoval
Passive
participle
kryt kupován
Imperative kryj!
kryjte!
kryjme!
kupuj!
kupujte!
kupujme!
Present
transgressive
kryje
kryjíc
kryjíce
kupujíce
kupujíc
kupujíce
Past
transgressive
(za)kryv
(za)kryvši
(za)kryvše
kupovav
kupovavši
kupovavše

Class IV

Infinitive prosit čistit trpět sázet bdít
English beg clean suffer plant in wake
Present
tense
prosím
prosíš
prosí
prosíme
prosíte
prosí
čistím
čistíš
čistí
čistíme
čistíte
čistí
trpím
trpíš
trpí
trpíme
trpíte
trpí
sázím
sázíš
sází
sázíme
sázíte
sázejí, sází
bdím
bdíš
bdí
bdíme
bdíte
bdí
Past
participle
prosil čistil trpěl sázel bděl
Passive
participle
prošen čištěn trpěn sázen bděn
Imperative pros!
proste!
prosme!
čisti!
čistěte!
čistěme!
trp!
trpte!
trpme!
sázej!
sázejte!
sázejme!
bdi!
bděte!
bděme!
Present
transgressive
prose
prosíc
prosíce
čistě
čistíc
čistíce
trpě
trpíc
trpíce
sázeje
sázejíc
sázejíce
bdě
bdíc
bdíce
Past
transgressive
prosiv
prosivši
prosivše
(vy)čistiv
(vy)čistivši
(vy)čistivše
(s)trpěv
(s)trpěvši
(s)trpěvše
(vy)sázev
(vy)sázevši
(vy)sázevše


In imperative, 0/-te/-me endings are in most verbs, -i/-ete/-eme or -i/-ěte/-ěme if two consonant
Consonant
In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract. Examples are , pronounced with the lips; , pronounced with the front of the tongue; , pronounced with the back of the tongue; , pronounced in the throat; and ,...

s are at the end of the word-stem.

Class V

Infinitive dělat
English do
Present
tense
dělám
děláš
dělá
děláme
děláte
dělají
Past
participle
dělal
Passive
participle
dělán
Imperative dělej!
dělejte!
dělejme!
Present
transgressive
dělaje
dělajíc
dělajíce
Past
transgressive
dělav
dělavši
dělavše

Irregular verbs

Infinitive být mít jít jíst
sníst
vidět vědět chtít moct hnát zábst bát se
English be have go, walk eat
eat up
see know want can worry sheep freeze be afraid
Present
tense
jsem
jsi
je/jest
jsme
jste
jsou
mám
máš

máme
máte
mají
jdu
jdeš
jde
jdeme
jdete
jdou
jím/sním
jíš/sníš
jí/sní
jíme/sníme
jíte/sníte
jedí/snedí
vidím
vidíš
vidí
vidíme
vidíte
vidí
vím
víš

víme
víte
vedí
chci
chceš
chce
chceme
chcete
chtějí
mohu/můžu
můžeš
může
můžeme
můžete
mohou/můžou
ženu
ženeš
žene
ženeme
ženete
ženou
zebu
zebeš
zebe
zebeme
zebete
zebou
bojím se
bojíš se
bojí se
bojíme se
bojíte se
bojí se
Past
participle
byl mel šel, šla, šlo
šli, šly, šla
jedl, snedl viděl věděl chtěl mohl hnal zábl bál se
Passive
participle
(-byt) (-jit) jeden/sneden viděn věděn chtěn hnán
Imperative bud!
budte!
budme!
mej!
mejte!
mejme!
jdi/pojd!
jdete/pojdte!
jdeme/pojdte!
jez/snez!
jezte/snezte!
jezme/snezme!
viz!
vizte!
vizme!
věz!
vězte!
vězme!
chtej!
chtejte!
chtejme!
žeň!
žeňte!
žeňme!
zeb!
zebte!
zebme!
boj se!
bojte se!
bojme se!
Present
transgressive
jsa
jsouc
jsouce
maje
majíc
majíce
jda
jdouc
jdouce
jeda
jedouc
jedouce
vida
vidouc
vidouce
věda
vědouc
vědouce
chtě/chtěje
chtíc/chtějíc
chtíce/chtějíce
moha
mohouc
mohouce
žena
ženouc
ženouce
zeba
zebouc
zebouce
boje
bojíc
bojíce
Past
transgressive
byv
byvši
byvše
(pri)šed
(pri)šedši
(pri)šedše
(vy)jed, sned
(vy)jedši, snedši
(vy)jedše, snedše
(u)viděv
(u)viděvši
(u)viděvše
(z)věděv
(z)věděvši
(z)věděvše
chtěv
chtěvši
chtěvše
vyhnav
vyhnavši
vyhnavše
 
Infinitive vát spát stát mlít trást říct dozvedet pomoct lhát vést plést
English blow sleep stand grind shake say learn help lie accompany twist
Present
tense
věji/věju
věješ
věje
vějeme
vějete
vějí/vějou
spím
spíš
spí
spíme
spíte
spí
stojím
stojíš
stojí
stojíme
stojíte
stojí
melu
meleš
mele
meleme
melete
melou
třesu
třeseš
třese
třeseme
třesete
třesou
řeknu
řekneš
řekne
řekneme
řeknete
řeknou
dozvím se
dozvíš se
dozví se
dozvíme se
dozvíte se
dozvědí se
pomohu/pomůžu
pomůžeš
pomůže
pomůžeme
pomůžete
pomohou/pomůžou
lžu
lžeš
lže
lžeme
lžete
lžou
vedu
vedeš
vede
vedeme
vedete
vedou
pletu
pleteš
plete
pleteme
pletete
pletou
Past
participle
vál spal stál mlel trásl řekl dozvedel se pomohl lhal vedl pletl
Passive
participle
mlet tresen řecen pomožen veden pleten
Imperative vej!
vejte!
vejme!
spi!
spěte!
spěme!
stůj!
stůjte!
stůjme!
mel!
melte!
melme!
třes!
třeste!
třesme!
řekni!
řeknete!
řekneme!
dozved se!
dozvedte se!
dozvedme se!
pomoz!
pomozte!
pomozme!
lži!
lžete!
lžeme!
ved!
vedte!
vedme!
plet!
plette!
pletme!
Present
transgressive
veje
vejíc
vejíce
spa
spíc
spíce
stoje
stojíc
stojíce
mela
melouc
melouce
tresa
tresouc
tresouce
řka
řkouc
řkouce
lha
lhouc
lhouce
veda
vedouc
vedouce
pleta
pletouc
pletouce
Past
transgressive
dozvedev se
dozvedevši
dozvedevše
pomoh
pomohši
pomohše
 
Infinitive ukrást rust stát se prát hrát vyjmout zajmout jet príst lít psát
English steal grow happen wish play except capture ride pur spill write
Present
tense
ukradnu
ukradneš
ukradne
ukradneme
ukradnete
ukradnou
rostu
rosteš
roste
rosteme
rostete
rostou
stanu se
staneš se
stane se
staneme se
stanete se
stanou se
přeji/přeju
přeješ
přeje
přejeme
přejete
přejí/přejou
hraji/hraju
hraješ
hraje
hrajeme
hrajete
hrají/hrajou
vyjmu
vyjmeš
vyjme
vyjmeme
vyjmete
vyjmou
zajmu
zajmeš
zajme
zajmeme
zajmete
zajmou
jedu
jedeš
jede
jedeme
jedete
jedou
predu
predeš
prede
predeme
predete
predou
liji/liju/leju/leji
leješ/liješ
leje/lije
lejeme/lijeme
lejete/lijete
lejí/lejou/lijí/lijou
píši/píšu
píšeš
píše
píšeme
píšete
píšou/píší
Past
participle
ukradl rostl stal se prál hrál vyjmul/vynal zajmul/zajal jel predl lil psal
Passive
participle
ukraden hrán vyjmut/vynat zajmut/zajat jet preden lit psán
Imperative ukradni!
ukradte!
ukradme!
rost!
rostte!
rostme!
stan se!
stante se!
stanme se!
prej!
prejte!
prejme!
hraj/hrej!
hrajte/hrejte!
hrajme/hrejme!
vyjmi!
vyjmete!
vyjmeme!
zajmi!
zajmete!
zajmeme!
jed!
jedte!
jedme!
pred!
predte!
predme!
lij/lej!
lijte/lejte!
lijme/lijte!
piš!
pište!
pišme!
Present
transgressive
rosta!
rostouc!
rostouce
preje
prejíc
prejíce
hraje
hrajíc
hrajíce
jeda
jedouc
jedouce
preda
predouc
predouce
leje/lije
lejíc/lijíc
lejíce/lijíce
píše
píšíc
píšíce
Past
transgressive
ukrad
ukradši
ukradše
stav
stavši
stavše
vyjmuv/vynav
vyjmuvši/vynavši
vyjmuvše/vynavše
zajmuv/zajav
zajmuvši/zajavši
zajmuvše/zajavše
 
Infinitive vzít zapomenout stonat plakat stlát vypnout sít plout
English take forget be ill of cry strew switch off sow swim
Present
tense
vezmu
vezmeš
vezme
vezmeme
vezmete
vezmou
zapomenu
zapomeneš
zapomene
zapomeneme
zapomenete
zapomenou
stunu
stuneš
stune
stuneme
stunete
stunou
plácu
pláceš
pláce
pláceme
plácete
plácou
stelu
steleš
stele
steleme
stelete
stelou
vypnu
vypneš
vypne
vypneme
vypnete
vypnou
seju/seji
seješ
seje
sejeme
sejete
sejou/sejí
pluji/pluju
pluješ
pluje
plujeme
plujete
plujou/plují
Past
participle
vzal zapomenul/zapomnel stonal plakal stlal vypnul/vypjal sel/sil plul
Passive
participle
vzat zapomenut/zapomnen stlán vypnut/vypjat set
Imperative vezmi!
vezmete!
vezmeme!
zapomen!
zapomente!
zapomenme!
stonej!
stonejte!
stonejme!
plac/plakej!
placte/plakejte!
placme/plakejme!
stel!
stelte!
stelme!
vypni!
vypnete!
vypneme!
sej!
sejte!
sejme!
pluj!
plujte!
plujme!
Present
transgressive
stonaje
stonajíc
stonajíce
pláce/plakaje
plácíc/plakajíc
plácíce/plakajíce
stela
stelouc
stelouce
seje
sejíc
sejíce
pluje
plujíc
plujíce
Past
transgressive
vzav
vzavši
vzavše
zapomenuv/zapomnev
zapomenuvši/zapomnevši
zapomenuvše/zapomnevše
vypjav/vypnuv
vypjavši/vypnuvši
vypjavše/vypnuvše


Irregular future tense:
  • jít - půjdu, půjdeš, půjde; půjdeme, půjdete, půjdou
  • být - budu, budeš, bude; budeme, budete, budou


Irregular negation:
  • být - 3rd person sg: není (not neje)