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is a term that refers to urinary bladder
The urinary bladder is the organ that collects urine excreted by the kidneys before disposal by urination. A hollow muscular, and distensible organ, the bladder sits on the pelvic floor...
Inflammation is part of the complex biological response of vascular tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants. Inflammation is a protective attempt by the organism to remove the injurious stimuli and to initiate the healing process...
that results from any one of a number of distinct syndromes. It is most commonly caused by a bacterial infection in which case it is referred to as a urinary tract infection
A urinary tract infection is a bacterial infection that affects any part of the urinary tract. Symptoms include frequent feeling and/or need to urinate, pain during urination, and cloudy urine. The main causal agent is Escherichia coli...
Signs and symptoms
- Pressure in the lower pelvis
- Painful urination (dysuria
In medicine, specifically urology, dysuria refers to painful urination.Difficult urination is also sometimes described as dysuria.It is one of a constellation of irritative bladder symptoms, which includes urinary frequency and haematuria....
- Frequent urination (polyuria
Polyuria is a condition usually defined as excessive or abnormally large production or passage of urine . Frequent urination is sometimes included by definition, but is nonetheless usually an accompanying symptom...
) or urgent need to urinate (urinary urgency
Urinary urgency is a sudden, compelling urge to urinate. It is often, though not necessarily, associated with urinary incontinence, polyuria, nocturia, and interstitial cystitis. It tends to increase with age...
- Need to urinate at night (nocturia
Nocturia , also called nycturia , is the need to get up in the night to urinate, thus interrupting sleep. Its occurrence is more frequent in pregnant women and in the elderly...
- Urine that contains traces of blood (haematuria)
- Dark, cloudy or strong smelling urine
- Pain above the pubic bone, or in the lower back or abdomen
- Feeling unwell, weak or feverish
There are several medically distinct types of cystitis, each having a unique etiology
Etiology is the study of causation, or origination. The word is derived from the Greek , aitiologia, "giving a reason for" ....
and therapeutic approach:
- Traumatic cystitis is probably the most common form of cystitis in the female, and is due to bruising of the bladder, usually by abnormally forceful sexual intercourse. This is often followed by bacterial cystitis, frequently by coliform
Escherichia coli is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms . Most E. coli strains are harmless, but some serotypes can cause serious food poisoning in humans, and are occasionally responsible for product recalls...
Bacteria are a large domain of prokaryotic microorganisms. Typically a few micrometres in length, bacteria have a wide range of shapes, ranging from spheres to rods and spirals...
being transferred from the bowel
In human anatomy, the intestine is the segment of the alimentary canal extending from the pyloric sphincter of the stomach to the anus and, in humans and other mammals, consists of two segments, the small intestine and the large intestine...
through the urethra
In anatomy, the urethra is a tube that connects the urinary bladder to the genitals for the removal of fluids out of the body. In males, the urethra travels through the penis, and carries semen as well as urine...
into the bladder.
- Interstitial cystitis
Interstitial cystitis or bladder pain syndrome is a chronic, oftentimes severely debilitating disease of the urinary bladder...
(IC) is considered more of an injury to the bladder resulting in constant irritation and rarely involves the presence of infection. IC patients are often misdiagnosed with UTI/cystitis for years before they are told that their urine cultures are negative. Antibiotics are not used in the treatment of IC. The cause of IC is unknown, though some suspect it may be autoimmune where the immune system attacks the bladder. Several therapies are now available.
- Eosinophilic cystitis is a rare form of cystitis that is diagnosed via biopsy. In these cases, the bladder wall is infiltrated with a high number of eosinophils. The cause of EC maybe attributed to infection by Schistosoma haematobium
Schistosoma haematobium is an important digenetic trematode, and is found in the Middle East, India, Portugal and Africa. It is a major agent of schistosomiasis; more specifically, it is associated with urinary schistosomiasis....
or by certain medications in afflicted children. Some consider it a form of interstitial cystitis.
- Hemorrhagic cystitis
Hemorrhagic cystitis or Haemorrhagic cystitis is diffuse inflammation of the bladder leading to dysuria, hematuria, and hemorrhage. The disease can occur as a complication of cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide and radiation therapy...
, can occur as a side effect of cyclophosphamide
Cyclophosphamide , also known as cytophosphane, is a nitrogen mustard alkylating agent, from the oxazophorines group....
Ifosfamide is a nitrogen mustard alkylating agent used in the treatment of cancer.It is sometimes abbreviated "IFO".-Uses:It is given as a treatment for a variety of cancers, including:...
, and radiation therapy. Radiation cystitis, one form of hemorrhagic cystitis is a rare consequence of patients undergoing radiation therapy for the treatment of cancer. Several adenovirus serotypes have been associated with an acute, self-limited hemorrhagic cystitis, which occurs primarily in boys. It is characterized by hematuria
In medicine, hematuria, or haematuria, is the presence of red blood cells in the urine. It may be idiopathic and/or benign, or it can be a sign that there is a kidney stone or a tumor in the urinary tract , ranging from trivial to lethal...
, and virus can usually be recovered from the urine.
- In sexually active women the most common cause of urinary tract infection is from E. coli and Staphylococcus saprophyticus
Staphylococcus saprophyticus is a coagulase-negative species of Staphylococcus bacteria. S. saprophyticus is often implicated in urinary tract infections. S. saprophyticus is resistant to the antibiotic novobiocin, a characteristic that is used in laboratory identification to distinguish it from S...
.Cystitis cystica is a chronic cystitis glandularis accompanied by the formation of cysts. This disease can cause chronic urinary tract infections. It appears as small cysts filled with fluid and lined by one or more layers of epithelial cells.This are due to hydropic degeneration in center of Brunn's nests
- A urinalysis
A urinalysis , also known as Routine and Microscopy , is an array of tests performed on urine, and one of the most common methods of medical diagnosis...
may reveal white blood cells (WBCs) or red blood cells (RBCs).
- A urine culture (clean catch) or catheterized urine specimen may be performed to determine the type of bacteria in the urine and the appropriate antibiotic for treatment.