Ask a question about 'Croquette'
Start a new discussion about 'Croquette'
Answer questions from other users
Full Discussion Forum

A croquette is a small fried food roll
Roll (food)
Roll as a kind of food, snack, or candy may refer to:* Arctic roll* Black sesame roll* Bread roll* Breakfast roll* Bulkie roll* Cabbage roll* California roll* Cheese roll* Chiko Roll* Cinnamon roll*Croquette* Egg roll* Fritter roll* Kaiser roll...

 containing, usually as main ingredients, mashed potato
Mashed potato
Mashed potato is made by mashing freshly boiled potatoes with a ricer, fork, potato masher, food mill, or whipping them with a hand beater. Dehydrated and frozen mashed potatoes are available in many places...

es, and/or ground meat
Ground meat
Ground meat is meat finely chopped by a meat grinder or a chopping knife. It is called minced meat or more usually mince outside North America....

 (veal, beef, chicken, or turkey), shellfish
Shellfish is a culinary and fisheries term for exoskeleton-bearing aquatic invertebrates used as food, including various species of molluscs, crustaceans, and echinoderms. Although most kinds of shellfish are harvested from saltwater environments, some kinds are found only in freshwater...

, fish
Fish (food)
Fish is a food consumed by many species, including humans. The word "fish" refers to both the animal and to the food prepared from it. Fish has been an important source of protein for humans throughout recorded history.-Terminology:...

, vegetable
The noun vegetable usually means an edible plant or part of a plant other than a sweet fruit or seed. This typically means the leaf, stem, or root of a plant....

s, and soaked white bread
White bread
White bread is made from wheat flour from which the bran and the germ have been removed through a process known as milling. Milling gives white flour a longer shelf life by removing the bran which contains oil, allowing products made with it, like white bread, the ability to survive storage and...

, egg
Egg (food)
Eggs are laid by females of many different species, including birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fish, and have probably been eaten by mankind for millennia. Bird and reptile eggs consist of a protective eggshell, albumen , and vitellus , contained within various thin membranes...

, onion
The onion , also known as the bulb onion, common onion and garden onion, is the most widely cultivated species of the genus Allium. The genus Allium also contains a number of other species variously referred to as onions and cultivated for food, such as the Japanese bunching onion The onion...

, spices and herbs, wine
Wine is an alcoholic beverage, made of fermented fruit juice, usually from grapes. The natural chemical balance of grapes lets them ferment without the addition of sugars, acids, enzymes, or other nutrients. Grape wine is produced by fermenting crushed grapes using various types of yeast. Yeast...

, milk
Milk is a white liquid produced by the mammary glands of mammals. It is the primary source of nutrition for young mammals before they are able to digest other types of food. Early-lactation milk contains colostrum, which carries the mother's antibodies to the baby and can reduce the risk of many...

, beer
Beer is the world's most widely consumed andprobably oldest alcoholic beverage; it is the third most popular drink overall, after water and tea. It is produced by the brewing and fermentation of sugars, mainly derived from malted cereal grains, most commonly malted barley and malted wheat...

 or any of the combination thereof, sometimes with a filling, often encased in breadcrumb
Breadcrumbs or bread crumbs are small particles of dry bread, which are used for breading or crumbing foods, topping casseroles, stuffing poultry, thickening stews, and adding inexpensive bulk to meatloaves and similar foods. They are documented in cookbooks as early as 1716...

s. The croquette is usually shaped into a cylinder or disk, and then deep-fried. The croquette (from the French croquer, "to crunch") gained worldwide popularity, both as a delicacy and as a fast food
Fast food
Fast food is the term given to food that can be prepared and served very quickly. While any meal with low preparation time can be considered to be fast food, typically the term refers to food sold in a restaurant or store with preheated or precooked ingredients, and served to the customer in a...


In various countries


Alu chop ( alu chôp "potato croquette") is a popular croquette served throughout Bangladesh
Bangladesh , officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh is a sovereign state located in South Asia. It is bordered by India on all sides except for a small border with Burma to the far southeast and by the Bay of Bengal to the south...

, primarily as an appetizer or snack
A snack is a small portion of food eaten between meals. The food might be snack food—items like potato chips or baby carrots—but could also simply be a smaller amount of any food item.-Snacks and health:...

. The center is traditionally filled with ground beef
Ground beef
Beef mince, ground beef, hamburger meat , hamburg or minced meat is a minced meat food, made of beef finely chopped by a mincer. It is used in many recipes including hamburgers and cottage pie...

, pea
A pea is most commonly the small spherical seed or the seed-pod of the pod fruit Pisum sativum. Each pod contains several peas. Peapods are botanically a fruit, since they contain seeds developed from the ovary of a flower. However, peas are considered to be a vegetable in cooking...

s, or other savory fillings. The potatoes are mashed and mixed with a mixture of minced green chilis
Chili pepper
Chili pepper is the fruit of plants from the genus Capsicum, members of the nightshade family, Solanaceae. The term in British English and in Australia, New Zealand, India, Malaysia and other Asian countries is just chilli without pepper.Chili peppers originated in the Americas...

, minced fried onion
The onion , also known as the bulb onion, common onion and garden onion, is the most widely cultivated species of the genus Allium. The genus Allium also contains a number of other species variously referred to as onions and cultivated for food, such as the Japanese bunching onion The onion...

s, and bread crumbs. Each alu chop (formed into a ball or egg-shape) is then breaded and deep-fried. It is often served with a chutney
Chutney is a a condiment used in South Asian cuisine that usually contains a spice and vegetable mix.Chutneys are wet or dry, having a coarse to fine texture. The Anglo-Indian loan word refers to fresh and pickled preparations indiscriminately, with preserves often sweetened. At least several...

 or sauce.


Mashed potato filled 'kroketten' are often served as a side dish in winter holiday meals, such as Christmas.
In fast food cuisine, varieties exist without potatoes but with cheese, beef or goulash, often in a filling based on béchamel sauce
Béchamel sauce
Béchamel sauce , also known as white sauce, is one of the mother sauces of French cuisine and is used in many recipes of Italian cuisine, for example lasagne. It is used as the base for other sauces . It is traditionally made by whisking scalded milk gradually into a white roux...

. The Dutch version of little balls, bitterballen, is also found in snackbars.
A typical Belgian variety is filled with grey shrimp - 'garnaalkroketten'. They are typically garnished with a slice of lemon and some deep fried parsley.


McDonald's Canada
McDonald's Canada
McDonald's Restaurants of Canada, Ltd. is the Canadian branch of the popular fast-food restaurant chain McDonald's. One of Canada's largest fast-food restaurant chains, the franchise sells food items including hamburgers, chicken, french fries and soft drinks all across the country...

 (Les Restaurants McDonald du Canada Ltée) sells Chicken McNuggets
Chicken McNuggets
Chicken McNuggets are a product offered by international fast-food restaurant chain McDonald's and are one of the most popular trademarked items on the McDonald's menu....

 as 'Poulet McCroquettes' in Quebec
Quebec or is a province in east-central Canada. It is the only Canadian province with a predominantly French-speaking population and the only one whose sole official language is French at the provincial level....

 and on French and dual language packaging and advertising.


Sweet pumpkin-based croquettes are often served in conjunction with the Dragon Boat Festival
Dragon Boat Festival
Duanwu Festival, also known as Dragon Boat Festival and the Double Fifth, is a traditional and statutory holiday originating in China and associated with a number of East Asian and Southeast Asian societies...



Plain potato croquettes (sometimes with some cottage cheese
Cottage cheese
Cottage cheese is a cheese curd product with a mild flavor. It is drained, but not pressed, so some whey remains and the individual curds remain loose. The curd is usually washed to remove acidity, giving sweet curd cheese. It is not aged or colored. Different styles of cottage cheese are made from...

 added) are commonly served with steaks or stews or as a snack. They are available frozen or refrigerated in most supermarkets.

Cuba, Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico

The Republic of Cuba is an island nation in the Caribbean. The nation of Cuba consists of the main island of Cuba, the Isla de la Juventud, and several archipelagos. Havana is the largest city in Cuba and the country's capital. Santiago de Cuba is the second largest city...

, Dominican Republic
Dominican Republic
The Dominican Republic is a nation on the island of La Hispaniola, part of the Greater Antilles archipelago in the Caribbean region. The western third of the island is occupied by the nation of Haiti, making Hispaniola one of two Caribbean islands that are shared by two countries...

 and Puerto Rican
Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico , officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico , is an unincorporated territory of the United States, located in the northeastern Caribbean, east of the Dominican Republic and west of both the United States Virgin Islands and the British Virgin Islands.Puerto Rico comprises an...

 croquettes (known as croquetas) are usually made of ham, beef, chicken, fish or cheese. They are generally flour-based instead of using potatoes. A potato-based version is the Papa rellena
Papa rellena
Papas rellenas is a traditional dish in Peruvian cuisines. The earliest appearances in cookbooks are from the late 19th century. It has now spread to other parts of Latin America...

("stuffed potato"), which is made from picadillo
Picadillo is a traditional dish in many Latin American countries and the Philippines that is similar to hash...

 rolled in a layer of mashed potatoes and then deep fried.

Czech Republic

Krokety are small round balls usually made from potatoes, eggs, flour, butter, and salt that are deep fried in oil. This variety can be ordered in most restaurants as a side dish as well as bought frozen and prepared at home.

Germany, Austria and Switzerland

Plain potato croquettes are served as side dish in restaurants and are also available frozen in supermarkets. They are usually called Kroketten (singular Krokette, fem.).


"Krokett" is a small cylindrical croquette similar to the Czech variety: potatoes, eggs, flour, butter, seasoned with nutmeg and salt and deep fried in oil. This variety can be ordered in most restaurants as a side dish, and also bought frozen. When made with cottage cheese they are called turókrokett.


A potato-filled croquette called Aloo tikki
Aloo Tikki
Aloo tikki is a North Indian snack made of boiled potatoes and various spices. "Aloo" means potato, and the word "tikki" means a small cutlet or croquette. It is found in almost every chaat shop or stall all over Delhi majorly and even other parts of India...

 is very famous in northern India and is typically served with a stew. They are mostly eaten as snacks at home and are also popularly sold by road-side vendors. In the Indian state of West Bengal it is called alu chop similar to Bangladesh. Sometimes it is called a "cutlet" and eaten plain or as a fast food variation that is served inside a hamburger bun (like a vegetarian burger). Meat croquettes called 'kababs' are made with minced goat meat. Lightly spiced beef croquettes are a popular snack and appetizer among Goan Catholics
Goan Catholics
The Goan Catholics are an ethno-religious community of Roman Catholics and their descendants from the state of Goa, located on the west coast of India. They are Konkani people and speak the Konkani language...

 owing to their Portuguese influence, though consumption of beef is not common in India except for places like goa and kerala.


The kroket (Dutch) made of potato and minced chicken inside a crepe-like wrapper is one of the more popular snack items in Indonesia
Indonesia , officially the Republic of Indonesia , is a country in Southeast Asia and Oceania. Indonesia is an archipelago comprising approximately 13,000 islands. It has 33 provinces with over 238 million people, and is the world's fourth most populous country. Indonesia is a republic, with an...

 introduced during the Dutch colonial rule. The kroket is made by taking a potato and chicken filling and wrapping it inside a crepe-like wrapper, breaded, and fried.


A relative of the croquette, known as korokke
Korokke is the Japanese name for a deep fried dish originally related to a French dish, the croquette. It was introduced in the early 1900s. This dish is also popular in South Korea where it is typically sold in bakeries....

 ( コロッケ ) is a very popular fried food, widely available in supermarkets and butcher shops, as well as from specialty korokke shops. Generally patty-shaped, it is mainly made of potatoes with some other ingredients such as vegetables (e.g. onions and carrots) and maybe less than 5% meat (e.g. pork or beef). It is often served with tonkatsu
Tonkatsu , invented in the late 19th century, is a popular dish in Japan. It consists of a breaded, deep-fried pork cutlet one to two centimeters thick and sliced into bite-sized pieces, generally served with shredded cabbage and/or miso soup...

 (とんかつ) sauce. Cylindrically-shaped korokke are also served, which more closely resemble the French version, where seafood (prawns or crab meat) or chicken in white sauce (ragout
-Etymology:The term comes from the French ragoûter, to revive the taste. The etymologically related Italian ragù is a sauce such as Bolognese used typically to dress pasta.-Preparation:...

) is cooled down to make it harden before the croquette is breaded and deep-fried. When it is served hot, the inside melts. This version is called "cream korokke" to distinguish it from the potato-based variety. It is often served with no sauce or tomato sauce. Unlike its Dutch cousin, croquettes made mainly of meat are not called korokke in Japan
Japan is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south...

. They are called menchi katsu (メンチカツ), short for minced meat cutlets.


Usually called Goroke (고로케) or Keuroket (크로켓), it is a food that is sold in most bread shops in Korea
Korea ) is an East Asian geographic region that is currently divided into two separate sovereign states — North Korea and South Korea. Located on the Korean Peninsula, Korea is bordered by the People's Republic of China to the northwest, Russia to the northeast, and is separated from Japan to the...

. The most common type of Goroke are deep fried rolls stuffed with Japchae
Japchae is a Korean dish made from sweet potato noodles , stir fried in sesame oil with various vegetables , sometimes served with beef, and flavoured with soy sauce, and sweetened with sugar...

 (잡채) ingredients or chicken curry. There are also Goroke filled with Kimchi
Kimchi , also spelled gimchi, kimchee, or kim chee, is a traditional fermented Korean dish made of vegetables with varied seasonings. There are hundreds of varieties of kimchi made with a main vegetable ingredient such as napa cabbage, radish, green onions or cucumber. It is the most common...

, pork, and sometimes Bulgogi
Bulgogi is a Korean dish that usually consists of marinated barbecued beef, although chicken or pork may also be used. It is listed at number 23 on World's 50 most delicious foods readers' poll complied by CNN Go in 2011.-Etymology:...

 ingredients. Many Koreans stores often advertise the Goroke as a French product and is usually sold in most European style bread stores all over Korea.


Like Bangladesh, Aloo Chop is a popular side dish, more so because of influence of food from India.


Whereas previously the dish was regarded as a French cuisine delicacy of varying meat or vegetable content, in the 1800s it became a way to use up leftover stewed meat. After World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

, several suppliers started mass-producing croquettes filled with beef. The croquette subsequently became even more popular as a fast food; meat ragout covered in breadcrumbs which is subsequently deep-fried. Its success as a fast food garnered its reputation as a cheap dish of dubious quality, to such an extent that Dutch
The Netherlands is a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, located mainly in North-West Europe and with several islands in the Caribbean. Mainland Netherlands borders the North Sea to the north and west, Belgium to the south, and Germany to the east, and shares maritime borders...

 tongue in cheek urban myths relate its "allegedly mysterious content" to offal and butchering waste. The "kroket" is even so popular that a disk-shaped version on a bun is sold at McDonalds. The success of the croquette lead to a whole series of food products resembling the croquette, but with other types of fillings such as noodles rice, and kidney, and with names as bamibal, nasibal and nierbroodje instead of croquette, variants of the croquette which specify the kind of meat (veal or calf meat) can also be found, as rundvleeskroket and kalfsvleeskroket. Also popular in Dutch snack bars is the satékroket where the filling consists of a peanut satay
Satay , or sate, is a dish of marinated, skewered and grilled meat, served with a sauce. Satay may consist of diced or sliced chicken, goat, mutton, beef, pork, fish, other meats, or tofu; the more authentic version uses skewers from the midrib of the coconut palm frond, although bamboo skewers are...

 sauce and shredded meat in a ragout. A smaller round version of the standard beef or veal kroket, the bitterbal, is often served with mustard as a snack in bars and at receptions. Potato croquettes, and potato balls (similar to potato croquettes, but small and round) can be bought frozen in most food-stores in-between frozen french fries and frozen pre-cooked potato slices. They are considered to be in name only "croquettes".


The Filipino 'croqueta' is derived from the Spanish colonial era, but unlike the bechamel-filled croquetas in Spain, Filipino croquetas are made with mashed potatoes and chopped meat or fish, usually leftovers. Like most Spanish-influenced foods in the Philippines, croquetas ares served mainly in middle and upper class households.


Croquettes in Poland
Poland , officially the Republic of Poland , is a country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west; the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south; Ukraine, Belarus and Lithuania to the east; and the Baltic Sea and Kaliningrad Oblast, a Russian exclave, to the north...

 are basically made from a thin rolled pancake stuffed with mushrooms, meat, cabbage, sauerkraut or combinations of those ingredients, then covered in breadcrumbs, fried in a pan and usually served with a clear soup like borscht.


Croquetes are cylindrical, covered in breadcrumbs, and deep-fried. They are usually made with white sauce and beef, sometimes mixed with varying amounts of pork, and frequently with some chouriço, black pepper
Black pepper
Black pepper is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. The fruit, known as a peppercorn when dried, is approximately in diameter, dark red when fully mature, and, like all drupes, contains a single seed...

, bacalhau
Bacalhau is the Portuguese word for codfish and—in a culinary context—dried and salted codfish. Fresh cod is referred to as bacalhau fresco .-Use:...

 or piri-piri to add more flavour. Seafood, fish and vegetarian (potato) croquetes are also eaten in Portugal
Portugal , officially the Portuguese Republic is a country situated in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Portugal is the westernmost country of Europe, and is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the West and South and by Spain to the North and East. The Atlantic archipelagos of the...

, but less often.


The widespread котлета рубленная (from French cotelette) is made of minced meat (beef or pork or mixture of both, chicken, turkey or even fish), bread, eggs, white onions, salt and spices, shaped as a meat patty and pan fried. Bread is added in amount up to 25% of meat, adding softness to the final product and also making it cheaper to produce. Another popular variation similar to French cotelettes de volaille is Chicken Kiev
Chicken Kiev
Chicken Kiev is a popular dish of boneless chicken breast pounded and rolled around cold garlic butter with herbs, then breaded and either fried or baked.-Etymology:...

, made from boned chicken breast pounded and rolled around cold unsalted butter, then breaded and fried.


A wide variety of croquettes exists in Serbian cuisine, but the most well known one is Karađorđeva šnicla or the "Karadjordje's steak" (which can be considered a variation on Cordon Bleu).


Croquettes, especially filled with jamón
Jamón is the Spanish word for ham. In English it refers to certain types of dry-cured ham from Spain. There are two primary types of jamón: Jamón serrano and Jamón ibérico ....

 or chicken, are also a typical tapas
Tapas are a wide variety of appetizers, or snacks, in Spanish cuisine. They may be cold or warm ....

 dish. Unfilled bechamel croquettes are also consumed in parts of Spain
Spain , officially the Kingdom of Spain languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Spain's official name is as follows:;;;;;;), is a country and member state of the European Union located in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula...



Potato croquettes can be bought frozen in most foodstores, but they are not very popular.


Ukrainian croquettes are called картопляники (kartoplyanyky) (the most common name in the south). They are made with mashed potatoes (with flour, egg and spices) in a round pancake or oval shape with a thickness of about 1.5–2 cm without stuffing, or stuffed with mushrooms and meat. Used as a garnish in a simple form and in various sauces, often with prunes.

United Kingdom

Plain potato croquettes are available frozen or refrigerated in most supermarkets.

United States

"Boardwalk" fish cakes and crab cake
Crab cake
A crab cake is an American dish composed of crab meat and various other ingredients, such as bread crumbs, milk, mayonnaise, eggs, yellow onions, and seasonings. Occasionally other ingredients such as red or green peppers or pink radishes are added, at which point the cake is then sautéed, baked,...

s, eaten on the east coast of the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

, are essentially croquettes. They consist, respectively, of chopped fish or crab meat, mixed in a buttery dough which is then breaded and deep-fried.

A deviled crab
Deviled crab
thumb|200px|right| Advertising "devil" crabs along 7th Avenue in [[Ybor City, Tampa, Florida]] A deviled crab is a simple croquette made from seasoned and cooked crab meat which is breaded, rolled into the approximate shape of a rugby football or a small potato, and fried...

 (croqueta de jaiba) is a particular variety of a blue crab croquette from Tampa, Florida
Tampa, Florida
Tampa is a city in the U.S. state of Florida. It serves as the county seat for Hillsborough County. Tampa is located on the west coast of Florida. The population of Tampa in 2010 was 335,709....

. The crab meat is seasoned with a unique Cuban
Cuban cuisine
Cuban cuisine is a fusion of Spanish, African and Caribbean cuisines. Cuban recipes share spices and techniques with Spanish and African cooking, with some Caribbean influence in spice and flavor. This results in a unique, interesting and flavorful blend of the several different cultural influences...

-style enchilada
An enchilada is a corn tortilla rolled around a filling and covered with a chili pepper sauce. Enchiladas can be filled with a variety of ingredients, including meat, cheese, beans, potatoes, vegetables, seafood or combinations.-Etymology:...

 / sofrito
Sofrito is a combination of aromatic ingredients which have been cut in very small pieces, and slowly sauteed or braised in cooking oil for 15-30 minutes....

 sauce (locally known as "chilau"), breaded with stale Cuban bread
Cuban bread
Cuban bread is a fairly simple white bread, similar to French bread and Italian bread, but has a slightly different baking method and ingredient list ; it is usually made in long, baguette-like loaves...

 crumbs, formed into the approximate shape of a prolate spheroid
Prolate spheroid
A prolate spheroid is a spheroid in which the polar axis is greater than the equatorial diameter. Prolate spheroids stand in contrast to oblate spheroids...

, and fried. It is meant to be eaten with one hand. It originated in the immigrant community of Ybor City during a cigar workers strike in the 1920s and is still very popular in the area.

Other types of crab and fish croquettes are made throughout the southern U.S.
Cuisine of the Southern United States
The cuisine of the Southern United States is defined as the historical regional culinary form of states generally south of the Mason Dixon Line dividing Pennsylvania from Maryland and Delaware as well as along the Ohio River, and extending west to Southern Missouri, Oklahoma and Texas.The most...

, especially in coastal states such as Louisiana
Louisiana Creole cuisine
Louisiana Creole cuisine is a style of cooking originating in Louisiana which blends French, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, Greek, Asian Indian, Native American, and African influences, as well as general Southern cuisine...

 where seafood dishes are common staples. These varieties have different seasonings and shapes, with some served inside the scooped-out shell of the crab.

A traditional New England
New England
New England is a region in the northeastern corner of the United States consisting of the six states of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Connecticut...

/Northeastern United States
Northeastern United States
The Northeastern United States is a region of the United States as defined by the United States Census Bureau.-Composition:The region comprises nine states: the New England states of Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island and Vermont; and the Mid-Atlantic states of New...

 preparation uses ham, usually of the maple-cured variety, along with pre-cooked mashed potato (often mixed with some mild seasonings and a bit of milk or butter for a smoother consistency) for the outer roll. These are dipped in crumbed breading, and sautéed or fried in a small skillet using butter. Typically, these are most common during the Thanksgiving
Thanksgiving (United States)
Thanksgiving, or Thanksgiving Day, is a holiday celebrated in the United States on the fourth Thursday in November. It has officially been an annual tradition since 1863, when, during the Civil War, President Abraham Lincoln proclaimed a national day of thanksgiving to be celebrated on Thursday,...

Christmas or Christmas Day is an annual holiday generally celebrated on December 25 by billions of people around the world. It is a Christian feast that commemorates the birth of Jesus Christ, liturgically closing the Advent season and initiating the season of Christmastide, which lasts twelve days...

 holiday season as one of several ways to use up leftover holiday ham.

Another croquette dish popular across much of the American South is salmon croquettes. Any canned fish - usually salmon or mackerel, although canned tuna is also used in some recipes (although the dish is often colloquially referred to as "salmon croquettes" or "salmon patties" regardless of the actual fish used) - is mashed by hand to break up any fish bones and give the fish meat a smoother consistency, then combined with a binder and various seasonings. Seasonings typically include pepper, salt, chopped (sometimes sautéed) onions, garlic, lemon juice, and/or paprika. The binder can be any starch such as flour, cornmeal, matzo
Matzo or matzah is an unleavened bread traditionally eaten by Jews during the week-long Passover holiday, when eating chametz—bread and other food which is made with leavened grain—is forbidden according to Jewish law. Currently, the most ubiquitous type of Matzo is the traditional Ashkenazic...

 meal, ground crackers of any type, even white rice or oatmeal - although these latter variations are not as common, and are mostly limited to the northern U.S. Chopped eggs, parsley, and Parmesan cheese may also be added. The mixture is then shaped into rounded patties for pan- or deep-frying; corn or peanut oil are the most commonly used frying oils in the southern U.S., but canola, safflower, or olive oil are also used, and some recipes call specifically for pan-frying in butter or margarine.